R.A.N. (Turkey)

Her Trembling Ceased (2015)
Şeb-i Yelda (2018) (S)

Dramatic, cinematic electronics with a dark mood. R.A.N. stands for Roads At Night.

See also: Utku, Hüma


R Beny (USA)

Full Blossom of the Evening (2016)
Cascade Symmetry (2017)
Saudade (2018)
Eistla (2018)
Echo's Verse (2019)
July (2019)
Natural Fiction (2020)
The Dashboard Cast A Spectral Glow (2020) (S)

R Beny is an alias of Austin Cairns from California who uses modular and other hardware synths to create ambient compositions.


R Duncan (Australia)

Village of H (2011)

Deliberately rough and lo-fi, abstract synth compositions from Dale Rees.


R.E.E.L. (UK)

The Pocket Book of Reelisations Vol. 1 (2018) (S)
Music For Psychedelic Duelling (2020)
Music For Psychedelic Duelling 2: Two Duels And No Submissions (2022)

Varied trio with rhythms, multiple samples, cosmic atmospheres, wailing sirens and more.


R.J.B. 2000 (UK)

Network Sequence One (2004)
Resolution (2004)
Transmigration (2005)
Network Sequence Two (2005)
Halfway Point (2005)
Mindscape Journeys (2006)

Sequencer / Berlin School music by Richard J. Bailey.


R_R_ (Latvia)

Train of Thought (2020)

Aquatic ambient electronics from Reinis Ramans.


R.R.O.O. (Chile)

Proyecto Inmobiliario (2020) (S)

Varied ambient project.


R.U.R. (Croatia)

Muzika iz Predstave (1992)

This seems to be some kind of a student collective and the music here was created for a theater performance in Zagreb. It alternates between rhythmic pieces with drum machine and ambient interludes. PPG Wave 2.2, Jupiter 4, D-20, Korg P3, Roland 88, guitar, bass, drums. Four of the pieces off this cassette were re-released in 2006 in digital (download-only) format.

See also: NuLix


R Wong (Canada??)

Life Principles (2016) (S)

R Wong is actually techno producer Richard Wenger. On Life Principles he mixes techno and EM tracks. The latter include "Two Lions" and partly "Seven Years".



森林浴 (2019)
憂き世 (2019)
IIɅ7 (2020)
IIV9 (2020)
大蛇 (2021)
PATH (2021)

Vaporwave-related project. 森林浴 features 2 long tracks that will be enjoyed by fans of nature-inspired Ambient. 憂き世 is more diverse, but has some rhythmic sections that will be enjoyed by fans of propulsive EM and synthwave.


R0[nought] (UK)

Pestis (2020)

Dark Ambient.


Ra (Japan)

Visions (1985)

Sort of a mixture of YMO style and industrial / Ambient. Sort of...


Ra, Armen (USA)

Armen Ra Plays the Theremin (2010)
Theremin Classique (2015)
Theremin Amerique (2015)
Theremin Discmorphia (2018)
Theremin Christmas (2018)

American theremin player of Iranian-Armenian descent. His repertoire includes both renditions of classical pieces and original material. The latter category includes Armen Ra Plays the Theremin, which mixes original material and works by Komitas. For me, it is his most interesting disc to date, in large part thanks to using a (partly) electronic backing for Armen's haunting theremin tones in contrast to other discs, which use mostly classical / orchestral backing.


Råå (Sweden)

Skånes Järnvägar (2018)
Skånes Järnvägar Demos (2018)
Himmelsblå (2019) (S)
Folkhemmet (2019)
Ljungens Lag (2020)
Spelar Pierce & von Euler (2022)

Solo project of bassist of alternative rock band The Cardigans. Quirky, ambient sound with shades of Cluster and Neu! / La Dusseldorf. A mixture of electronics, guitars and drums.


Raaja Bones (Norway??)

Sleepwalks (2019)
Boardwalks (2020)



The Nacrasti (2001)

Classic Dark Ambient from California-based artist Stig Berg, akin to some Lustmord or Raison d'Etre.

See also: Moth Electret


Raats, Jaan (Estonia)

Marginaalid (1980)

Academic composer (born in 1932 in Tartu, died December 25, 2020). The first side of Marginaalid is occupied by his piano cycle "Marginaalid" while flip contains electronic interpretations of some of these works (performed by several musicians, including Sven Grunberg).


Rabanye, Rex (South Africa)

O Nketsang (1986)
Moya-Moya (1986) (S)
Somlandela (1987)
Campus Mood (1988)
Mene Mene Tekel (1989)

O Nketsang features four long electronic tracks with Rabayne improvising on a DX7, Prophet 600 and DMX drum machine. The other albums are supposedly similar in style. Rex Rabayne's music has a unique hymnal quality and a sound that is partly based on musical traditions of his native land. Sadly, this unique musician passed away in 2010 at the age of 66.


Rábl, Miloš (Czech Republic)

Nebeské snění (2017)

Bassist in Czech rock band Bacily. Nebeské snění is all EM, though, mostly in melodic / Space Music style.


Rabor (Russia)

Èñòî÷íèê (2016)
Ãîëîñà... (2016)
Çà òðèäåâÿòü çåìåëü (2017)
Êîðíè (2018)

Ambient artist with elements of dungeon synth. Nice, nature-inspired sound.


Race, Hugo (Australia)

Dishee (2021)

Weird, dark, solo ambient compositions by this Australian musician and ex-member of The Bad Seeds (he has some other albums that supposedly have nothing to do with EM or Ambient). Plucked or jangly guitars, disembodies voices, drones, some of them having a decidedly didgeridoo-like quality, obscure noises... This music brings up images of immense and dry stretches of Australian outback, Really in a league of its own.


Racoone (Switzerland)

Hochwald (2015)

Supposedly, Ambient. One track is a remix by Seetyca and the album was released on the latter's CDR imprint mbira records.


Rad (Poland)

Quadrivium Odyssey (2008)

Melodic music between Jarre and Tangerine Dream.


Råd Kjetil Senza Testa (Sweden)

Vinlinden (2010)
Silverarken (2011)
Abbysen (2012) (S)
Für Max (2013)
Of the Augmented Living Dead (2013)
The Turing Test (2014)
Levande Död i Norra Norrland (2015) (with Mattias Alkberg)
Null/Void & End (2016)
Àðõà́íãåëüñê (2021)

Sometimes noisy, sometimes guitar-heavy soundscapes (ala Sunn O))) ), but sometimes flowing, ambient and teutonic. A diverse band. Richard Pinhas plays guitar on Vinlinden.

See also: Senza Testa


Rad Magic (USA)

Ambient Tape Vol. 1 (2022)

Hypnotic ambient synth compositions. Pretty dense and sometimes cosmic or pastoral.


Raða Allt (Iceland)

Að keyra til heima (2021)

Aka Ratha Allt. Varied Icelandic EM project. A bit experimental, but rather accessible synth music, with piano melodies, steady rhythms and solo lines. Tends to focus on shorter tracks.


Rada, Angel (Venezuela)

Concierto Solar Para Bhagavan (1980)
Armaggedon y la Tercera Ola (1981)
Viveka (1982)
Upadesa (1983)
Impresiones Etnosonicas (1984)
Biosonics (1985)
Continuvm (1986)
Senderos Imperiales al Sol Naciente (1989)
Solaris (1990)
Novilinium (1990)
Maderas Biosonicas (1991)
Susurros Abisales (1992)
Trascendelia Anthology (1993)
El Caballero de La Luz (1995)
The Bamboos Are Whispering (1998)
The Golden Flame (2002)
Radanet Radio (2002)
Psychotronics (2002)
Ethnosonics (2002)
Crime of the Century (2002)
Weird Voices (2002)
The 9th Revelation of Love (2002)
Neuronal Connections (2005)
Amazonia Rain: The Virtual Unplugged (2005)
2012 (2009)
Aqua After 2012 (2009)
Aussie Suite (2010)
Aqua After 2012 / Drums of Love (2010)
Neurosinergy (2010)
Fractal Varations (2010)
Orbits (2013)

Angel Rada was born in 1948 on the board of a plane between Tampa and La Habana, Cuba. At the age of 1 he moved (or, rather, he was brought) to Venezuela. Over the years, he has become one of the premier electronic musicians from that country. He mostly creates Electronic Music with cosmic and melodic stylings, but also World Music and some stuff that comes close to new age.


Radagast (Germany)

Sent From the Undying Lands (2022)
Yavanna (2023)

Using an Elektron Digitone, the author of the Radagast project (Joshua Karlson) creates sequenced structures that may be aiming at a "dungeon synth" sound, but end up sounding very EM-like.


Radar (Poland)

Radar (2016)

A duo of Robert Skrzyński (electronics) and Krzysztof Topolski (drums). The style is supposedly experimental and influenced by jazz.


Radere (USA)

The Season of Lost Buttons (2014) (with Off the Sky)
I Can't Sleep, I Can't Wake Up (2016)
I Do Not Want What I Have (2020)

Although generally a guitar-based drone artist, Carl Ritger aka Radere stepped into analog modular synthesis with his I Can't Sleep... release. The results are dark, moody and at times noisy.


Radiac (USA)

Radiac (2015) (EP)
Technicolor Nightmare (2017)
Traipse (2019)

Electronic project of Greg Bennetts. I guess if you like the Schnitzler / Moebius style experimentation, you will enjoy at least some of it. Mostly synths and processed percussion / cymbals here.


Radiant Futur (Ukraine)

Hypersensitive (2022)

Varied electronics from Kyiv-based Ian Yeriomenko. Floating, cosmic, psychedelic, ambient... Nice soft sequencing on the title track.


Radiant Mind (USA)

Sense (2012)
Strands (2014)
Heliosphere (2019) (with Steve Roach)

Ambient soundscapes from Robert Englis. Produced by Steve Roach.


Radiante Pourpre (France)

Radiante Pourpre (2015)
II (2019)

Interesting experimental project that at times reminds me on Moebius' solo work, with neat vintage (50s / 60s / 70s) touches.


Radio Chongqing (USA)

Radio Chongqing Special Edition LP1 (2014) (recorded in 1999)

Obscure trio of George Soler (chapman stick), Greg Gilmore (percussion) and Lesli Dalaba (trumpet) that existed in the 1990's and apparently released a CD... of which no trace has been found. In 2014, Taiwanese label Super Invincible released their music on a 180g vinyl LP. The music is an atmospheric affair and has been compared to latter-day Talk Talk. As much as I love (and know) Talk Talk's output, this doesn't sound much like them. Instead, I am reminded of frippertronics-like stuff mixed with World Music (percussion) and jazz influences by means of trumpet playing. Incredible, but sometimes they even sound like Berlin School, with chapman stick providing sequencer-like pulses and the atmospheric sounds, acoustic percussion replacing drum machines and trumpet solos instead of synth ones. The end result is a semi-acoustic, semi-electric EM-like hybrid. Not for EM purists but interesting for those who favor essence instead of instrumentation. Great music for those rainy days.


Radio Free Clear Light (USA)

Treading Softly Against the Tide (2003)
Black Valley (2004)
The Heart of the Music Box (2009)
Isula (2009)
The Labyrinth of Ohgel (2012)

Californian experimental duo of Juan Carlos Mendizabal and Ricardo Isaac Flores (who are also known as Kyron and Koyote, respectively). The first album will be enjoyed by fans of Ambient, both bright and dark. Samael helps on vocals.

See also: Prospero


Radio Kuolema (Italy)

Broadcasting the Dead (2003)
10050 Cielo Drive (2006)
Symphony No. 2 Op. 27 For Cembalo And Dying Children (2006)

Varied dark soundscapes from Marco Ferioli.


Radio Massacre International (UK)

Startide (1993)
The God of Electricity (1994)
Frozen North (1995)
Republic (1996)
Burned & Frozen (1997)
Diabolica (1997)
Organ Harvest (1997)
Knutsford In May (1997)
At the October Gallery (1997)
A Bridge Too Far (1998)
Borrowed Atoms (1998)
Gulf (1998)
Upstairs Downstairs (1998)
Bothered Atmos (1999)
Zabriskie Point (2000) (recorded in 1980 - 1996)
Been There Done That (2000) (recorded in 1994 - 1997)
Planets In the Wires (2002)
Maelstrom (2002)
Greenhousing (2003)
Solid States (2003)
E-Live 2003 (2004)
People Would Really Like Space Rock (2004)
Walking On the Sea (2004)
Hog Wild (2005)
Emissaries (2005)
Septentrional (2006)
Lost In Space (2006) (recorded in 1987 - 2003)
Rain Falls In Grey (2007)
Blacker (2007)
Antisocial (2008) (recorded in 2005)
Fast Forward (2008)
Philadelphia Air Shot (2008)
Rain Falls In A Different Way (2008)
E-Live 2008 (2009)
Time & Motion (2010)
Lost In Transit 1: The Gatherings 2004 (2010)
Lost In Transit 2: National Space Center 2005 (2010)
Lost In Transit 3: National Space Center 2006 (2010)
Lost In Transit 4: Damo (2010)
Lost In Transit 5: Rain Falls In Leicester & Baltimore (2010)
Lost In Transit 6: The Gatherings 2007 Part 1 (2010)
Lost In Transit 7: The Gatherings 2007 Part 2 (2010)

City 21 (2011)
Still (2013)
Lost In Transit 8: Cherubini (2013)
Lost In Transit 9: The Gatherings 2010 (2013)
Lost In Transit 10: Orion (2013)
Threads (2013)

Eavesdropping (2013)
The Clouds of Titan (2013)
Do Electric Sheep Dream of Space-Rock? (2015)
The Rhodes Less Travelled (2019)
M21 (2019)
October Gallery 1998 (2023)
The Gatherings 2013 (2023)
Outside (2023) (recorded in 2021)
Organ Harvest: Songs For A Rainy Day (2023) (recorded in 1994 - 1997)

Electronic trio of Steve Dinsdale, Duncan Goddard and Gary Houghton who are one of the most legendary Berlin School groups around. They started the Berlin School revival of the 90's, together with Airsculpture and Node. Analog music with sequencers, mellotron and (sometimes) lots of guitar. Some works are floating and psychedelic, with hardly any rhythm at all.

See also: DAS, Dinsdale, Steve, Goddard, Duncan.


Radio People (USA)

Radio People (2009) (S)
The Rumor (2010)
II (2010) (S)
Radio People (2010)
Three Radiant Urns (2010) (S)
Leapt (2010) (S)
Hazel (2011)
Avalon (2011) (S)
Night Club (2013)
Fall On Mars (2014) (S)

Droning, cosmic synthesizer works from Sam Goldberg. Comparable to Oneohtrix Point Never, Emeralds and other likeminded musicians who are into that hazy, 1970s-infused sound.

See also: Goldberg, Sam, Mist, Docile Dawn.


Radio Silence (Canada)

On the Edge of Perception (1983)
Infinity (1989)

Early-to-mid 1980's cassette releases by an improvising electronic ensemble that included Scott McGregor (dreamSTATE) and Eric Hopper (Sylken).

See also: dreamSTATE, Sylken.


Radio Silence (Russia)

Frosts (2010)
Summer Has Gone (2011)
Solaristica (2011)
Don't Break Into Our Dreams (2013)

Radio Silence is an electronic project of Alexey Markov. Music in classic EM style.

See also: Quantum Mechanics, Vortex Mechanic.


Radio Static (Brazil)

Radio Static (2008)

A project of Jeff Pilar, who is also known for his excellent spacesynth music as Mind Vision and Syst3m Failure, and Paulo Rodrigo. The style is not known at the moment.


Radiobodkha (Russia)

Ðàäèîáîäõà (2016)

Ekaterinburg-based project. Sort of a post-industrial / noisy ambient sound here, based on electric guitar, electronics, effects, a few acoustic instruments and homemade sound devices. Sometimes with sort of a "Manuel Goettsching playing in an abandoned factory at 3 a.m." feel.


Radiolarians (UK)

Radiolarians (2023)

Playful, spontaneous EM compositions by Dave Cudlip. Sequences, arpeggios, bleeps, stiff rhythms, repetition, melodies...


RadioMentale (France)

I-Land (2012)

Ambient music from this duo usually making dub and techno-related stuff. Lots of field recordings and samples are used here alongside synths.


Radionics Radio (UK)

An Album of Musical Radionic Thought-Frequencies (2016)

Music by Daniel R. Wilson exploring alternate tunings and influenced by 1960's electronic music like Raymond Scott and Delia Derbyshire. Playful, experimental...


Radiophonic Workshop, The (UK)

Burials In Several Earths (2017)
Everything You Can Imagine Is Real (2017)
Possum (2018)
La Planète Sauvage (2021) (with Stealing Sheep)

Legendary electronic collective (BBC Radiophonic Workshop) gets together for a series of electronic improvisations, dropping the "BBC" part of their name. Huge sound here, with piano, analog synths galore and even some guitars.

See also: Howell, Peter, Ayres, Mark.


RadioSilence (UK)

RadioSilence (2020)
RadioSilence II (2020)
RadioSilence III-A (2020)
RadioSilence III-B (2020)
RadioSilence IV-A (2020)
RadioSilence IV-B (2020)
RadioSilence V-A (2020)
RadioSilence V-B (2020)
RadioSilence VI-A (2020)
RadioSilence VI-B (2020)
RadioSilence VII-A (2020)
RadioSilence VII-B (2020)
RadioSilence VIII-A (2020)
RadioSilence VIII-B (2020)
RadioSilence IX-A (2020)
RadioSilence IX-B (2020)
RadioSilence X-A (2020)
RadioSilence X-B (2020)
Silent Dawn (2020)
The Dark Days Inventions Vol. 1 (2021)
Odyssey Alpha (2021) (EP)
The Dark Days Inventions Vol. 2 (2021)
Newton's Cradle Vol. 1 (2021)
Newton's Cradle Vol. 2 (2021)
Newton's Cradle Vol. 3 (2021)
Objective Linearity Vol. 1 (2021)
Objective Linearity Vol. 2 (2021)
Objective Linearity Vol. 3 (2021)
Nemeton Vol. 1 (2021)
Nemeton Vol. 2 (2021)
Nemeton Companion (2021)
Derelict Spaces (2022)
Liminal Mind (2023)

An ambient project of Andy Pickford.

See also: Pickford, Andy


Radiowave (USA)

Journey Through Oz (2001)

Radiowave is Greg Paugh. Space Music reminding very much on Jeff Pearce (also technically similar in its use of guitar synth technology) and Mark Dwane, although the last two tracks are a bit embarassing.


Radithor (Spain)

Al Aire (2019)
A Tierra (2021)

Ambient compositions with noisy and rhythmic elements.


Radium (Germany)

Arkos (1998)

Music with Dance elements from the Waveshape duo (Michael Heihs and Volker Jüngerich).

See also: Waveshape


Radium Craze (???)

Ballad For A Cruel World (2018) (S)

Techno-related artist. The track "Floating Under Water" is a nice EM number, though.


Radomski, Krzysztof & Skrobowski, Krzysztof (Poland)

Echoes (2005)

Berlin School music.

See also: Protonic Storm


Radtke, Dirk (Germany)

Sprechstunde (1999)

See also: Cheiron


Radzetskyi, Dmytro (Ukraine)

Radz: Solstice (2019)

Kyiv-based guitarist who on Radz: Solstice uses a self-penned system of MIDI guitars connected to guitar synths. The music was inspired by minimalist composers and will be enjoyed by fans of EM for sure.


Raeithel, Felix (Germany)

Da beißt Niemand einen Faden an dieser Maus ab (2013) (S)
Die Wurlitzerorgel des Geistes (2022)
Dance With Uncertainty (2024)

Experimental modular synth artist. Lots of bleeps and beeps here, percussive compositions and totally weird, spaced-out, abstract stuff.

See also: Kosmokotze


Raekogg (Netherlands)

Duivelsberg (2021)
Best of Dungeon Rap (2021)
Hail Enki I-V (2022)
So Move It Be V (2022)

Short tracks between "dungeon synth", early 1990's melodic EM and video game music.


Raffa, Ryan J (???)

Landscapes And Self Portraits (2019)
Ginkgo (2020)
We Have Always Existed (2021)
Thought Without Image (2021)
Velā (2021) (with Nico Rosenberg and The Svara Ensemble)
4 e and a (2023)

The 2019 album features varied compositions made on modular synth and OP-1, from this musician based in Taipei. His name does not sound like he is a native of Taiwan, though. Anyway, the music is ambient and is rather nice overall.


Raffaelli, Alessandro (Italy)

Esposizioni (1986)

Melodic, easy-listening music by this musician. It is certainly related to the italo-disco sound of the time but will be enjoyed by fans of the more accessible Tangerine Dream from around 1989 (there are even sax solos). It is usually referred to as a library album, although the cover of this LP definitely doesn't look like one.


Raffaelli, Stefano (Italy)

The Secrets of Ra (2000)

World Music from this artist, with upbeat ethnic motifs and downtempo influences.


Raglani (USA)

Joe Raglani (2003) (S)
Inner Piece No. I, Inner Piece No. II (2004)
Blood Piece No. 2 / For A.O. (2004) (S)
Of Sirens Born (2006)
Man Myth Magic (2006)
Oneism (2007)
Living Room (2007)
Dusk Ritual (2008)
Web of Light (2008) (S)
Vanity Well (2009) (S)
Classically Sprained (2009)
Husk (2012)
Real Colors of the Physical World (2012)

Ambient soundscapes, drones and rhythmic analog compositions in classic style from Joseph Raglani (aka Max Tanguy).

See also: Bryter Layter, Temporal Marauder, Tanguy, Max.


Ragni, G.C. (Italy)

Bricolage (1986)
Frasassi - Le Grotte In Concerto (??)

Melodic, easy-listening electronics, similar to the French style and some library music, with an extra "Italo-Disco" touch. Giancarlo Ragni went on to release a few techno singles in the 1990's under various guises, before sinking into oblivion.


Ragsdale, Tom (UK)

Music From the Film Before Dawn (2014) (soundtrack)
Bait (2015)
Dear Araucaria (2016) (S)
Blüdhaven (2016) (EP)
Self Zero (2018)
Shasing Waves (2022) (S) (with Richard Arnold)

Manchester-based film composer and ambient musician.

See also: Ffion, Sulk Rooms.


Rahikka (USA)

Black River (2019)

Ambient project of Carson Rennekamp from Seattle.


Rahn, Lutz (Germany)

Solo Trip (1978)

Electronic album from member of Novalis. Lutz Rahn was born in 1951 in Hamburg.

See also: Novalis, Solaris.


Raica (USA)

Books (2011)
Dose (2012)
Treh (2013)
Lucent Glances (2013)
Leeft (2014)
Motorsatz (2014)

Exploratory synth compositions by Chloe Harris.


Raicevic, Nik (USA)

Head (1970)

This Los-Angeles synthesist released 6 albums of Electronic Music between 1970 and 1975. He developed a style that presaged the so-called "Berlin School" of Electronic Music, using analog synths in studio and during performances. He left music business in 1976, selling his moog to a former race car driver Steve Roach. His albums are extremely hard to find and they were never re-issued on CD, as far as I know.

See also: Pascal, Nik


Raimey, Kathy (USA)

It Is Always Now (2007)
Still Moving (2011)

Melodic music with a huge piano presence. Often new-agey, comparable to artists like Patrick O'Hearn and Suzanne Ciani (in her new age phase). Only the EM-related works are listed.


Rain (UK)

Theory of Stillness (1998)
Theory of Wholeness (1998)

The author classifies his music as Ambient / Dark Ambient and, indeed, after listening to Theory of Wholeness I can tell you that this music is classic long-form Ambient that will be liked by fans of the deepest Steve Roach, Oophoi, Matthias Grassow and similar artists. The music starts so slowly and subtly that I first thought that something was wrong with my CD player. Even after 2 whole minutes into the track the music was barely heard, although of course some people might not consider this "music" at all. What we get here is basically a set of drones overlapping each other and arranged in recurring waves of sound. The atmosphere is that of mystery with a dash of melancholy. I enjoyed it very much and I noticed that as the track progresses you get used to its flow and when it's finally over, you don't want to let it go. Some people might find a 70+ minute track with not a melody or rhythm in sight and only the slightest of variation a boring idea but those who love this type of Ambient will be mesmerized by this work. Very similar in concept and sound is Theory of Stillness, although this time major harmonies are used, so the track's got none of the dark shades present on Theory of Wholeness and the mood of mystery is replaced with that of serenity. Once again the music is very repetitive and is designed to create an atmosphere, with only the slight variations, mainly in loudness. The music will be liked by lovers of the most minimal works of Steve Roach, Vidna Obmana, Oophoi and Robert Rich. Rain has also released a third album, called Cerulean Blue (2004), which is basically an album of songs. More or less each track has an introduction that consists of narration layered on top on concrete textures, a string ensemble section and a rock section (the song itself). The vocalist (Rain) sounds like a cross between Mark Hollis from Talk Talk and David Sylvian with even a bit of Bono from U2 when doing the higher notes! His voice is pleasant to the ear and the music is very sincere and heartfelt. It's not easy-listening but not terribly "difficult" either. Imagine a mixture of spoken narration, concrete sounds, string ensemble, melanchonic rock song-writing a bit in the style of David Sylvian, a touch of Britpop, a dash of ambient soundscaping - and you get what Cerulean Blue is all about. Although not EM by any stretch, this is truly a wonderful work. Highly recommended! I just have to wonder what a diverse and talented musician this guy is.


Rain Drinkers (USA)

The Healing Begins Now (2010)
Bore Upon the Breath of Dawn (2010)
Dwelling (2011)
Urthen Web (2011)
Springtide (2011)
Yesodic Helices (2012)
Cast of the Rye Wolf (2012) (S)
Wood Violet (2014)

Rain Drinkers is a Wisconsin-based duo of Joe Taylor and Troy Schafer. They use violins and other classical instruments (mostly string section), guitars and synths for a flowing, ambient style marrying "Americana" music (Morricone etc al.) with classic droning Ambient style, minimalism, and a touch of pioneers like Popol Vuh. I think that the culmination of their output to date (as of 2023) is the massive, pulsing, Berlin School-like title track from Wood Violet. Their music is often not very electronic-sounding, but their style is definitely unique and interesting.


Rainbow Generator (Australia)

Dance of the Spheres (1977)
Origins (1977)
Tincantations (1978)
Endings (1978)
Quantum Mechanix (1979)

Classic Electronic Music from Australian cosmonauts. Rainbow Generator was formed in 1976 by Mojo and Rob Greaves. The music will hugely appeal to fans of Tangerine Dream, Schulze, etc, with enough unique elements. The band has many offshoots.

See also: Charlz-010, Mojo, Krozier And the Generator, Voodoo Chile, Digital Dreaming, Generator, The.


Rainbow Serpent (Germany)

Silent Running (1994)
Plays SpaceMusic (1994)
Futuregate (1995)
Cosmovision (1995)
Voyager (1996)
Ancient Astronauts (1996) (recorded in 1993)
The Face of Earth (1996)
Mosaique (1997)
Cutted Scenes (1999)
The Sequel To Voyager (1999)
Silverblue (1999)
Pulse (2000)
Voices of the First Day (2001)
8th Nerve (2005)
Collection 2005 - 2007 (2007)
Live @ Liphook 2007 (2008)
Elektrik Cowboys (2009) (with Fanger & Schönwälder) (recorded in 2007)
Stranger (2010) (with Isgaard)

Great New Berlin School music by Frank Specht and Gerd Wienekamp (Der Laborant). Rainbow Serpent was formed in 1994 in Oldenburg, Niedersachsen.

See also: Der Laborant, Weinekamp, Gerd, Specht, Frank.


Rainbow Valley (???)

Tipoftheredgianbranch (2012)

Droning Ambient relying on pads. If you like Steve Roach's "Quiet Music" series of albums, you might enjoy this, as a lot of it has a similar vibe, with a bit more noisy distortion in the sound perhaps. There are also many download and split releases from this artist.


Rainchild (Germany)

Trance-ition (1995)

Rather undemanding ambient sound here, consisting mostly of dreamy pads, piano, guitar and percussion, creating a relaxing, dare I say it, new-agey experience. Can be used as background music. A project of Hamburg-born, Canada-based Stefan Schramm.


Raine, Lena (USA)

ESCism (2018) (soundtrack)

Varied soundtrack from this game music composer, ranging from melodic synth / piano music with mellotron flutes to harsher chiptune sounds.


Rainforest Spiritual Enslavement (USA)

Fallen Leaves Camouflaged Behind Tropical Flowers (2011) (S)
Green Amulet Crafts Supernatural Qualities (2011) (S)
Jungle Black Magic And Highlands Green Sorcery (2012)
Taking Place In the Foyer (2012) (S)
Black Magic Cannot Cross Water (2012) (S)
Papua Land Where Spirits Still Rule (2012)
Water Rose Above the Head (2013)
The Plant With Many Faces (2013)
Folklore Venom (2013)
Green Graves (2016)
Ambient Black Magic (2017)
Red Ants Genesis (2018)
Venus Flytrap Exotica (2018) (S)
Flying Fish Ambience (2021)
Seashell Altars (2021)
Jellyfish Reproduce Black Magic (2021) (EP)
Flying Fish Ambience / Saga of Capsizing Dolphins (2022)
Gray Eucalyptus Tranquility (2023)

A project of Dominick Fernow who is also known for countless other projects and pseudonyms. Rainforest Spiritual Enslavement is an unusual artistic statement - an ambient project inspired by tropical ambiences, jungles, black sorcery and wild places on earth, mostly Papua New Guinea. The musical elements are field recordings (lots of them), dark electronics (sometimes drones, sometimes pulsing synthesizers with a touch of "horror synth") and at times subtle ambient techno rhythms. Not everything is progressive here but I'll give it to the author that he actually managed to create a unique sound vision - hazy, dark, humid and mysterious, just like the rainforest jungle itself.


Rainier, Bruce (USA)

What If (2005)

A blend of rich ambient passages and Berlin School pulsations.


Rainsoft (China)

Echoes From Afar (2022)

Rainsoft is Yang Yurou who is currently based in Shanghai. She makes both ambient tracks and techno tracks. The ambient material is pretty nice. The techno one is nothing special (although I'm biased because I'm not that big of a fan of techno in general).


Rainy Season (Russia)

Ëåäÿíîé äîì (1986)
The Return (1992)
The Grasses Album (1993)
Nostalgia (1997) (recorded in 1988 - 1989)
Alone (2000)

This project is known in Russia as "Sezon Dozhdei". Rainy Season is led by Maxim Pshenichnyi and was formed in Saint-Petersburg (then Leningrad) in 1984. Musically, this is flowing Electronic with lots of environmental sounds that create special atmosphere. Hints of everything from Pink Floyd (guitars) to Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream. The second album is quite Ambient-like, while the third one (Nostalgia) contains archive recordings in a wilder, psychedelic / RIO style, with lots of guitar. The project is discontinued.


Raising Holy Sparks (international)

Search For the Vanished Heaven (2017)

This is a sort of a group project with changing members put together by David Colohan. It mostly explores folk structures, with some acoustic drone, etc. The above album, however, is heavily influenced by EM, with Colohan himself handling multiple synthesizers apart from acoustic instruments, plus a large cast of guest musicians, most of whom play synthesizers. Among these are Jez Creek (Modulator ESP), Gunther Schlienz, John Cavanagh (Phosphene), Dominic Cooper and others. The music is mostly of an ambient nature, with some truly cosmic moments, sequences, etc.

See also: Colohan, David


Raison d'Etre (Sweden)

Apres nous le Deluge (1992)
Prospectus I (1993)
Enthralled By the Wind of Loneliness (1994)
Conspectus (1994)
Semblance (1995)
Within the Depth of Silence And Phormations (1995)
Reflections From the Time of Opening (1997)
In Sadness, Silence & Solitude (1997)
Lost Fragments (1998) (recorded in 1992 - 1994)
Collective Archives (1999) (recorded in 1991 - 1996)
The Empty Hollow Unfolds (2000)
Requiem For Abandoned Souls (2003)
Metamorphyses (2005)
The Luminous Experience (2008)
The Stains of the Embodied Sacrifice (2009)
When the Earth Dissolves In Ashes (2012)
Mise En Abyme (2014)
Tales From the Tabula Rasa (2014) (recorded in 1988 - 1991)
De Aeris In Sublunaria Influxu (2015) (with Troum)
XIBIPIIO. In And Out of Experience (2017) (with Troum)
Anima Caelum (2018) (recorded in 2014 - 2017)
Alchymeia (2018)
Daemonum + Daemoniacum (2021)

This project by Peter Andersson is one of the best known names in the Dark Ambient genre and its pretty good stuff, too. Mainly in the classic Dark Ambient tradition ala Lustmord but with some extra melodic touches. Slow, creepy and sad melodies, general gloom'n'doom, deep rumbles and low sounds, chanting monks, occasional dark neo-classical themes and some noisy bits.

See also: Andersson, Peter, Necrophorus, Bocksholm, Nymph Faithest, Atomine Elektrine.


Raj Anand, Chester (USA)

Strawberry (2020)

Moody, restrained, cinematic compositions composed during and inspired by the author's solo trip to Tokyo.


Räjäyttäjät (Finland)

Räjä Elektrik Millenium (2016)

Double LP by this Finnish hard rock band which is a strange diversion for them - based on synthesizers, the music sounds like cheap synth-pop songs, with vocoders, drum machine rhythms etc. Some of the tracks (about three in all, the opening track being one of them) are instrumental, though, and very Prog in sound. File under EM-related.


RajFAjH (Russia)

Ambient Collection (2011) (recorded in 1995 - 2009)

Formed in 1991 in Saint-Petersburg, RajFAjH is a duo experimenting is such genres as black metal, grindcore, noisecore and Ambient. For the latter, look no further than the above collection. Some nice sounds here, from heavy ritual drones and noisy experiments to tasty electronic ambience on "Technogen".


Raju Arara (Austria)

004 (2012)

Pulsing modular synth, sequencer webs and warm analog sounds from Rani Bageria.


Ralla, Augusto (Italy)

La Gabbia Umana (2021)

Supposed soundtrack to a never filmed 1979 sci-fi TV film. I have my doubts about the veracity of this legend, though.

See also: PAQ


Rally Cars & Dinosaurs (USA)

Vol. One: Wizard of Merlin (2021)

Dynamic, often 1980's-styled EM played on multiple classic and contemporary analog instruments.


Rambutan (USA)

Inverted Summer (2013)

Experimental project of Eric Hardiman who has been on the scene for quite a while. Inverted Summer has some material that could be enjoyed by fans of Experimental EM. Further investigation is needed.


Ramirez, Itsï (USA??)

New Animals (2024)

Chicago-based artist. Shrill, glitchy electronics on the shorter tracks and one droning, 16-minute ambient monster with even a touch of mellotron mist.


Ramjoué, Michael (Germany)

Tonstrom (1985)
Desert Dream (1994)

Only two albums so far by this German (his name sounds French, though) musician. His other works are supposedly just ordinary new age. These may be new-agey too, so I am not sure...


Ramona Lisa (USA)

Arcadia (2014)

Art pop singer with elements of Ambient in her sound. The instrumental closer "I Love Our World" is rather nice.


RamonPang (USA)

Third Places (2022)

Ramon Pang is a Los Angeles-based hip-hop / IDM / trap artist. Third Places is more or less along those lines, but closes with a long "World Checkpoint", which sounds like an amalgamation of nebulous vaporwave piano cascades and Zappa's abstract Synclavier work. This will not be for everyone, but it's definitely progressive.


Ramos, David (Spain)

Electronic Sounds Experience (2002) (with LowenStein and Ernesto Sanz de Galdeano)
Nocturnatta (2008)
Snakewoman Soundtrack And Other Delirium Music Inspired by Jess Franco Films (2016)
The End of the Beautiful Things (2019)

Moody ambience, often with a neo-classical feel.


Ramos de Val, Norberto (Spain)

Heaven In Hell (2016) (soundtrack)

Apparently a fan of Tangerine Dream and other EM pioneers, Norberto Ramos de Val distilled these influences into his moody electronic sound on the Heaven In Hell soundtrack.


Ramp (Germany)

Ramp (1996)
Nodular (1998)
Frozen Radios (2000)
Doombient 1: Verbrannte Erde (2002)
Oughtibridge (2005)
Doombient 2: A Declaration of War (2006)
Looking Back In Anger (2006) (recorded in 1996 - 2006)
Industrial Scapes (2006)
Ceasing To Exist (2007) (with Markus Reuter)
Doombient 3: Kalte Sterne (2008)
Debris (2009)
Steel And Steam (2011)
Return (2011)
Astral Disaster (2012)
Synchronize Or Die (2017)
No Sleep 'til Wilmersdorf (2018)
Happy Days Are Here To Stay (2022)
Arp-En-Ciel (2023)

Initially, Ramp (often spelled as ['ramp]) consisted of Lambert Ringlage, Frank Makowski (Tranquillity) and Stephen Parsick and the music was firmly in Berlin School style, with lots of sequences and atmospheres. However, as Ramp's music got darker and more ambient, Lambert left the band.

See also: Lambert, Makowski, Frank, Tranquillity, Parsick, Stephen, Speed of Dark, The, Rounds Per Minute.


Rampue (Germany)

Tagweite (2022)

Although Berlin-based Rampue aka Daniel Krajnyak initially made a name for himself in dance music circles, making electro / bitpop music, on Tagweite he demonstrates a much more progressive approach. This fine EM includes everything from crisp sequencing to ambient synths and some electro beats from time to time.


Ramsby, Staffan Rolf (Sweden)

Händelser över tid (2023)

Swedish ambient artist whose music is essentially a mixture of electronic sounds and field recordings, with touches of piano and other acoustic instruments.


Ramses, Serge (France)

Secret (1978)

French synthesist. Spacey, floating analogue music.

See also: Atom Cristal / Satellite, Guignolos.


Ramsey, Jerome (UK)

The Quiet Barrier (1993)

Cassette release from future member of Rogue Element.

See also: Rogue Element


Randjes, Floue (Belgium)

Floue Randjes (2021)

Short tracks of varying moods - playful, mournful, wacky... Experimental, sometimes synth-heavy, sometimes sample-based electronics. Sometimes quite dramatic and cinematic. Nice stuff.


Randolph, Scott (USA)

Miracle Season (1985)
Pulse (??)

Miracle Season is a very rare release with Electronic Music from this obscure New Jersey-based musician. Side B of this 60-minute cassette is blank.


Random Acts of Elevator Music (Australia)

Random Acts of Elevator Music (2017)

Relaxing and a bit experimental analog synth music by a duo of Matt Adair and Nick Wilson.


Random Genesis (Argentina)

Random Genesis (2020) (S)

Pretty intense ambient / melodic compositions from Alexis Ocampo.


Random Reply (Germany)

Random Reply (1987)

Private release by this duo from Germany with melodic EM style.


Randomize (Spain)

¿Como Se Divertirán Los Insectos? (1986)

Although generally classified as industrial, this album by obscure Spanish project Randomize (Eugenio Muñoz) is much more than that. Yes, it has the weird sampling and the clangs, the strange rhythms and random electronic patterns, but it does occasionally cross into Prog EM territory, as in the closer "La Armonía das Esferas" for example - a blissful, cosmic ambient journey.

See also: Dr. Flanger


Randulv, Hugo (Sweden)

E.F.K. (2020)
Radio Arktis - samlade ljud från den norra polcirkeln (2021)


Rangefinder (USA)

Harmony State (2013)
Night Ride (2013)

A project of Will Long (of Celer). He uses vintage synthesizers to sculpt retro-futuristic repetitive soundscapes with sequencers. A bit Berlin School-like but rather minimal and experimental.

See also: Celer, Mogador.


Rani, Hania (Poland)

On Giacometti (2023)
Ghosts (2023)

Polish-born singer and multi-instrumentalist / synthesist. On Ghosts, she combines some intimate songs with instrumental material that marries her piano playing with a lush synth pallette. Sometimes reminiscent of some Klaus Schulze's sequencer material from the 2000's or like a cross between Schiller and Nils Frahm + a female touch.


Rankin, Philip (USA)

oneL (2018) (S)
Cyber 2: Andromeda's Infection (2019)

Californian synthesist with a varied bunch of tracks.

See also: ØCOASTensemble


Ranko, Slava (USA)

Arctic Hysteria (1981)

Donald L. Philippi (aka Slava Ranko) started to take some interest in Electronic Music in the late 70's, when he began combining synthesizers and biwa (traditional Japanese stringed instrument - his previous sphere of interest). He then released this electronic album in 1981, where he presents mysterious, SF-ish and industrial-like synth soundscapes. Donald Philippi died in 1993.


Rånlund, Sven (Sweden)

La Vie Modulaire 1 (2016)
Oiseaux électroniques en Suède (2020)

Modular synth artist (mostly Eurorack and Buchla). Quirky, experimental, sometimes noisy or vaguely melodic.


Rapoon (UK)

Dream Circle (1992)
Raising Earthly Spirits (1993)
Vernal Crossing (1993)
Fallen Gods (1994)
Cidar (1994)
Birethen (1995)
The Kirghiz Light (1995)
Recurring (1996)
Errant Angels (1996)
Darker By Light (1996)
Easterly 6 Or 7 (1997)
Messianic Ghosts (1997)
Just Say the Faith (1998)
The Fire of the Borderlands (1998)
Tin of Drum (1998)
Oedipus Brain Foil (1998)
Navigating By Colour (1999)
What Do You Suppose? (1999)
D-Lem (1999)
Rapoon vs. Kinder Atom (2000) (with Kinder Atom)
The World Turned Gingham (2000)
Cold War: Drum And Bass (2001)
Evermore (2001) (with Hans-Joachim Roedelius)
Pell Mell (2002)
About Breathing (2002) (with Victor Nubla)
New Cult of the Sun Moon (2002) (with Black Faction)
Rhiz (2002)
I Am A Foreigner (2003)
Salmo Salar (2003) (with Desaccord Majeur)
Monomyth (2004) (with Birds of Tin)
My Life As A Ghost (2004)
From Shadows Sleep (2006)
Mental Travellers (2006) (with Cisfinitum)
Church Road (2007)
Alien Glyph Morphology (2007)
Time Frost (2007)
Obscure Objects of Desire (2008)
The Library of the Dead (2008)
Dreamtime Pantheist (2008) (with Wyrm)
Dark Rivers (2009)
Melancholic Songs of the Desert (2009)
Wasteland Raga (2009)
Disappeared (2010)
Ghosts From A Machine (2010)
The Bush Prophet (2010)
Something Breathing (2010) (S)
Media Studies (2011)
In This World (2012)
Time-Loop Anomalies (2012)
Disappeared Redux (2012)
Stray (2012)
Seeds In the Tide Volume 1 (2012) (recorded in 1993 - 2012)
Dreamtime Pantheist (2012) (with Wyrm)
Calling the Rain (2013) (S)
Manuscipt Stickum (2013)
Seeds In the Tide Volume 2 (2013) (recorded in 2000 - 2003)
Moon And Cups Series #1 (2013) (S)
Conduits And Estuaries (2014)
Fall of Drums (2014)
Machine River (2014) (with Promute)
Tour De Force (2014) (with Pacific 231)
A Long View Across (2014)
Dark Zero (2015)
Downgliding (2015)
Blue Days (2015)
Songs From the End of the World (2016)
The Vindonalda Tablets (2016) (with Pas Musique)
Waiting By the River (2016)
Wanderlust (2016)
Un Flic (2017)
Airstrikes (2017)
Seeds In the Tide Volume 5 (2017) (recorded in 2008 - 2011)
Sanctus Equinox: Mercury Rising I (2017)
The Listening Bell (2017)
Offworld OP1 Equs: Mercury Rising II (2018)
Composited Reality (2018) (with Pas Musique)
Songs From the City, the Steppes And A Dreaming Past (2018)
Little Rocketman And the Planet That Moved (2018)
Sol Laude: Mercury Rising 3 (2019)
Dust of Souls (2019)
A Meeting In the Future (2019) (S) (with Mykel Boyd)
Hotel Bravo (2020)
Post-Folk Lore Vol. 1 (2020) (with Nimh)
Call Fires To Cloud (2020)
In These Ancient Times (2021)
Signals From Stars (2021)
Confluences 1 (2021) (with Pas Musique)
:Cinema Telephonique: (2021)
Seeds In the Tide Volume 06 (2021) (recorded in 2013 - 2016)
Confluences 2 (2022) (with Pas Musique)
Can You Hear That Rain (2022)
Ten Four: Centred Horizons (2022)
Skulls On the Plains of Turkey (2022)
These Are Dreams (2022)
Not That Far From the Moon (2023)

Rapoon is the Tribal / ethnic Ambient project of former member and founder of Zoviet France, Robin Storey. His music is often quite dark.

See also: Zoviet France, Old Castle.


Raposo, Mario (Portugal)

Wolf 424 (2014)

Melodic EM from this Azorean-born musician. Ranges from Vangelis-like symphonic sweep via Space Music to Jarre and rhythmic TD circa Mars Polaris.


Rapp, Volker (Germany)

Planet-Arien (2017)
St. Petersburg (2018)
Valletta (2020)
Carbon Dioxide CO2 (2020)
d7-d5 (2023)

See also: Demo Art


Rapport 1984 (France)

Angle mort (2014)
Afterimage (2014)
Cracks (2017)
Le diable couleur de rose / Music For Fainting (2023)

A project of Aurore Gosalbo from Rouen. The style is experimental and completely unique, mixing synth atmospheres with weird samples, processed voices and stuff.


Rardin, Jake (USA)

Human Island (??)

Upbeat melodic and accessible electronic tracks like Jan Hammer's 80's television series scores.


Rasa (USA)

Serene Timeless Joy (1999)

Long-form ethnic-spiced Ambient from Bill Laswell.

See also: Laswell, Bill, Divination.


Rasal.Asad (Portugal)

Space.Scape (2002)
Asuna (2003)
Lahva (2004) (S)
Thismorphia (2016)
Thisturbia (2016) (S) (with Amantra)

Rhythmless cosmic soundscapes with a few samples thrown in. The project of Fernando Cerqueira - one half of the electro-dub formation Ras Al Ghul.

See also: Walt Thisney


Rasalhague (USA)

Theories Behind Chaos (2009) (EP)
Rage Inside the Window (2011)

Cinematic Dark Ambient from this project out of Indiana. Rasalhague is Kerry Braud.

See also: Maculatum


Rascati, Rick (USA)

Skywatcher (2006)

Music that ranges from techno to sequence-full, melodic EM to new age and Space from this Connecticut-based musician.


Raschke, Joe (Germany)

Evita Baltica (2020)

Solo Electronic Music of this keyboarist of German rock band Karrusell. Melodic, with slow (downtempo) rhythms.


Rashida Prime (Estonia)

Damaged Interface (2016)
Calculus (2018) (recorded in 2016)
Plastic Void (2020)
Chroma (2022)

The music of Rashida Prime is that special brand of Ambient, influenced a bit by the vaporwave genre and the concept of cyberworld in general. Some call it dreampunk, but I don't find this a fitting description. Real name of the musician - Joonas Arro.


Rasinski, Radoslaw (Poland)

Crystal Themes I - IX (1998)
Moonlight Stories (2000)
Krystalizacja (2001)
Inne Oblicze (2001)
Crystal Themes XII - XIX (2002)

Melodic Electronic Music from this Polish artist.


Rasmussen, Bjarke (Denmark)

Fake Ambient (2023)

Not-so-fake Ambient from this drone / experimental musician.

See also: Grøn


Rasta Robert (Netherlands)

60 x 90' (??)

Experimental hometaper from the Netherlands. His first release was Chronologie from 1986. That one had bascially no EM. There was one vaguely ambient piece and the rest was extremely quiet, kind of sublime, noisy electroacoustic stuff. 60 x 90's was supposedly released somewhere in the early 1990's. It expands the sound palette to include synths and drum machines in a wacky, rhythmic style. Some tracks are built on didgeridoo drones. A mixed bag, then, which is mildly interesting.


Rasti, Ava (Iran)

Ginestra (2023)

Tehran-based bassist and piano player, ex-member of a post-punk girl band. Ambient compositions, sometimes impressionistic with a lot of piano, sometimes based on dramatic drones and foreboding melodies.


Rat (Italy)

War Kitchen (1983)
Square (1983) (S)
Swimming Towards the Bank (1987) (S)

Rat is Marco Cacciamani who seems to have been a street musician of sorts, interested in electronic experimentation. He released a few tapes with material that can perhaps be compared to early Schnitzler, Monoton and Asmus Tietchens.

See also: Cacciamani, Marco, N.O.S.


Rat-Alarm (Denmark)

Rat-Alarm (2013)
Rat-Alarm (2017)

Weird electronics with a no wave / punky vibe. Pretty dark stuff that reminds a bit on Ilitch and similar French experimentalists. Some tracks have echoing "vocals", some are instrumental.


Rath, Andrew (USA)

Monophonicum (1984)
Additive Synthesis (1985)
Chronolog (1985)
Apex (1986)
F sub C = Infinity (1986)
Mind Pictures (1986)
Off-World (1987)
Impressions of the City (1987)
Reset (1987)
Extended Meditations (1988)
Matrix (1988)
Cipher (1989)
Quantum (1989)
Truth Or Consequences (1989) (with L. Paisley)
One Small Step (1989)
The Sound Museum (1991) (with Peter Gulch and Chuck van Zyl)

Dana Andrew Rath is a synthesist and member of Electronic Music band Xisle. His solo works are in the classic cosmic EM style. Dana is known for having played many solo live concerts, including several planetarium shows. His 1989 album Quantum was released on the Synkronos label.

See also: Xisle


Rath, Ben (UK)

You're Making This Sound (2015)
A Drop In the Ocean (2015)
Forgiveness (2016)
All In Good Time (2016)
Love & Suffering (2016)
Black Heart Music (2017)
Anything Is Possible (2018)
Any Given Moment (2019)
Resolve (2023)

Soft ambient drones from this artist who uses acoustic guitar and electronics.


Ratledge, Mike (UK)

Push Button (1979) (with Karl Jenkins)
Movement (1982) (with Karl Jenkins)
Riddles of the Sphinx (2013) (recorded in 1977) (soundtrack)

Mike Ratledge played keyboards in Soft Machine from the very beginning of the group (that would be 1966) and up until 1976, when Karl Jenkins took on the keyboard chores. An expert synthesist in his own right, Ratledge produced some electronic sound libraries with his ex-Soft Machine cohort Jenkins. Riddles of the Sphinx is a solo electronic soundtrack. Criminally unavailable during decades, this music only saw the light of day in 2013.

See also: Soft Machine, Planet Earth.


Ratljost (UK)

Ratiocination - Transmission 4 (2017) (EP)
High Altitude (2018) (EP)
Parkerbarrow (2018) (S)
Brumal (2021)
Diurnal (2022)

A project of ambient artist James Waddington. Relaxing, post-rock-y, new-agey...


Ratskevitch, Vladimir (Russia)

The General Statement of the Problem (1989)
Songs (1989)
The Square of Salvation (1990)
Suite T (1992)
Painting (1995)
Syphilis (1996)
Mah Jongg (2008)

During the 70's, Ratskevitch was a leader of several rock groups and in the 80's he created the first Russian computer music studio "Vector". His music is probably in a very personal style. Somewhere in the 90's he started incorporating more and more modern club elements (techno, acid jazz, d'n'b, jungle, etc) and making music based exclusively on computer sampling, doing remakes of other musicians' work and so on, therefore, drifting out of the stylistic frames of music covered by EEM.


Ratteu (Taiwan)

Hello, My Darling - The Last Meeting Within 20 Minutes (2020) (EP)

Sort of a chiptune / progressive EM concept about an aged computer.


Rättö, Mika (Finland)

Ed Benttonin briljantti stabilismi tai taivaallinen kylpysaippua (2006) (with Jussi Lehtisalo)
Polkupyörällä Vuokkopenkereelle (2009) (recorded in 1996)

Member of Circle. His solo album from 2009 was recorded back in 1996 and is an avant-garde rock effort sung in Finnish. It is pretty nice and has something of a Zappa flair. It helps if you understand Finnish, though. The reason for inclusion, though, are the two instrumental tracks "Matkalla Paratiisisaarille" and "Väärennettyä Rahanvaihtoa" that have been compared to Carpenter and Goblin. They combine electronics and symphonic instrumentation (piano and string section) for a sound that is darker than the bulk of what's heard on the disc. Ed Benttonin briljantti stabilismi tai taivaallinen kylpysaippua (try to say it as fast as you can!), recorded with his colleague from Circle Jussi Lehtisalo (one in a series of albums that these two released) is very krautrock-influenced, although I wouldn't call the bulk of it EM. Tracks like the opener and especially the superfast motorik-laden instrumental "Kulje suoraan pannuhuoneeseen ohittamatta lähtöruutua" are pretty interesting, though. File under EM-related.


Rau, Alsen (Germany)

___________ (2016)

Experimental electronics from this synthesist (real name = Philipp Meiers).

See also: Scheich in China, Esmark.


Rauber, François (France)

Images Bibliques (1977)
Interludes (1979)

French composer (1933 - 2003). Rather versatile, but mostly known for his sountracks, library music and children's music. His discography has yet to be explored. However, at least these two seem to contain EM pieces in "orchestral electronic" style that will be enjoyed by fans of Synergy and likeminded artists.


Rauch, Michael (Germany)

German synthesist who contributed to the "Distant Blue" EM sampler from 1993.


Rauchquarz (Germany)

Uferböschung (1981)
Glücklische Zeiten (1988) (S)

Synth duo of Manfred Asmus and Wolfgang Harder. Uferböschung was recorded and mixed by Serge Blenner.


Rauelsson (Spain)

Vora (2013)
Mirall (2018)
Anna - Original Soundtrack (2021) (soundtrack)

Rauelsson is an alias of neo-classical composer Raúl Pastor Medall who on Anna added synthesizers, mixing them with his neo-classical arrangements. Partially electronic soundtrack, then, and definitely EM-related.


Raukes, Dorothea (Germany)

Deutsche Wertarbeit (1981)

Synthesist of Streetmark fame. Solo album. Dorothea''s name appears only in credits while to many this LP is known simply as "Deutsche Wertarbeit". First track is inspired by Kraftwerk circa The Man-Machine, the rest is more experimental but always rhythmic, close to the Dusseldorf School.

See also: Streetmark


Raum (USA)

Event of Your Leaving (2013)
Daughter (2022)

Ambient duo of Liz Harris (Grouper) and Jefre Cantu-Ledesma. Hushed voices, choirs, pianos, processed guitars, synths and lo-fi sound artefacts.

See also: Cantu-Ledesma, Jefre


Rauten (Germany)

Mission (2021)

Rich analog EM from Johannes Rix. Sequences, pads, melodies and all the right stuff.


Rautiainen, Juha-Matti (Finland)

The Endless Now - Music For Stagnation (2016)
Above Me Weeps the Sky (2018)
Off the Map (2021) (with Nemesis)
Still Water (2021)

This artist uses only bass guitar and processing to achieve either an ambient or pulsing / Berlin School sound. I must say that the range of textures on tracks like "Berlin" or "Etna" is great and it is sometimes hard to believe that everything was achieved via bass guitar. Therefore, I consider this album (The Endless Now) to be a remarkable achievement.


Ravagnac (France)

Bludrex (2017)
Aqualog (2019)

Analog synth music. Diverse, mostly ambient, but also influenced by the 1970's sound. A couple of techno-sounding tracks as well.


Raven, Dave (USA??)

Synthesist with a classic EM style.


Ravenblood (Ukraine)

Âiä÷óæåíiñòü (2014)
Àííà (2015) (S)
Ëåãåíäè Ìàðàìîðîøà (2016)
Îäâi÷íà æóðáà (2016)
The Limit of Perfection (2019)

Dungeon synth-related project with folk and neo-classical influences.


Raven's Bane (USA)

Sorrow Breeds (2001)
Misery Preserved (2004) (recorded in 1998)

Dark Ambient from Robert Cruzan.

See also: Profane Grace


Ravenstine, Allen (USA)

Farm Report (2013) (with Robert Wheeler)
The Pharaoh's Bee (2015)
Terminal Drive (2017) (S) (with Albert Dennis)
Waiting For the Bomb (2018)
Electron Music / Shore Leave (2020)
Nautilus / Rue du Poisson Noir (2021)
Crossing Daylight (20222)

Ex-member of Pere Ubu and Red Krayola. Some of his solo work as a synthesist may be interesting. The Pharaoh's Bee features swarming, insect-like electronics and otherworldly theremin solos. Further investigation is needed.


Ravenveer, W. (Belgium)

Fuzzy Hair Electronics Vol. 1 (2016)
Fuzzy Hair Electronics Vol. 2 (2020)

Experimental electronics, with bleeps, noises, processed vocals etc. Vaguely proggy.


Ravi, Alessandro (Italy)

L'offerta dell'acqua (1992)
Il Mundo Nuovo (1993)
Diario di una Mente Sospesa (1995)
Oltre il Buio (1998)
La Frontiera Invisibile (2000)
Dawn of A Prayer (2005)
Once Was the Lightness (2007)
Frames of A Lost Reality - Vol. 1 (2011)
Frames of A Lost Reality - Vol. 2 (2011)
Dream Drum (2011)
Oasis of Nativity (2012)
Back & Forward (2014)
Drops of Progs (2015)
Chronicles From A Vanishing Planet (2016)
Five Factor (2017)
Hidden Archeology (2017)
Music For Ballet (2017)
Afterglow (2018)
Whispering Rooms (2018)

Italian percussionist and multi-instrumentalist. His output explores world fusion, progressive rock, ethnic music and, yes EM / Ambient. Alessandro Ravi collaborated with electronic musician Raffaele Serra and that's where the EM influence could have originated.


RAW (Turkey)

Gate (2022)

Beepy experimental electronics made with the help of live coding. Stretching the definition of EM a bit here, but to me it sounds quite progressive.


Raw M.T. (Italy)

Realtà Invertita (2020) (S)
Vulvic Planet (2021)

Italian techno artist Giorgio Bacchin explores minimal and cosmic sound with a few analog synths.


Raw Materialists, The (New Zealand)

Fun Dots (2018)
Concrete Cuts 1 & 2 (2019) (S)
Concrète-Cast #3 - The Perpetual Foreigner (2019) (S)

A duo of Kevin Kermack and Scott MacFarlane with a weird sound, mixing guitar drones, funk rhythms and krautrocky / synthy Prog EM moments.


Rawmean (USA)

Tutulemma (2015) (S)

Experimental electronics from San Francisco-based Ramin Rahni. This is not his full discography but the Prog EM influences are mostly limited to his Tutulemma tape.


Ray (USA)

Ethereal Journey (2001)
Ascend To Love (2001)
Healing Space (2003)
Celestial Touch (2005)

Soft keyboard music with influences from Serrie, Roach and Tangerine Dream. Very, ahem, new-agey sort of thing. The real name of the musician is Ray Leonard. He discovered Electronic Music pretty early in his life but it wasn't after playing with some rock bands that he could fully devote himself to playing solo music with synthesizers and keyboards, working from his home studio.


Ray Ban (Australia)

Ray Ban (2016)
Polarized (2021)

Harsh, rhythmic, experimental electronics with gnarling analog synths.


Ray, Julian (Canada)

Argonauts of Cosmos (2010)

Julian Ray is a new age musician from Ontario. This is his first, and so far only, Space Music album.


Ray Lucas, Jesse (USA)

AHM/OHB (2021)

This guy mixes classical /jazz instrumentation with electronic modules by Buchla and Verbos for a nice, archaic, chamber sound.


Raybould, Tom (UK)

The Machine (2014) (soundtrack)

Varied electronic soundtrack.


Raymar, Steve (USA)

Gaining Altitude (1999)

Space Music.


Rayment, Colin (UK)

Twenty4 (2002)
Continental Divide (2004)
Morula (2006)
Acclimation (2013)
Abstract Dimensions (2015)
Beyond the Aurora (2016)
Architects of Orion (2017)
FRB (2019)
Transitional States (2019)
Igneous (2020)
Evolving Forms (2021)
Equilibrium (2022)
Time Dilation (2023)

Synthesist. Early output (circa 2002) is melodic electronics like latter-day Tangerine Dream, sometimes using similar digital preset sounds.


Raymond (France??)

Au réveil (2024)

Nice ambient compositions with a strong electro-acoustic element. Pretty moody and reflective stuff.


Raymond, Zander (USA)

Seymour (2020) (with Matthew Sage and Gianni Andreatta)
Qualia (2022) (with Dan Derks)
Secrets From A Squirrel (2023)
Parayellowgram (2023) (with M. Sage)

Ambient compositions based on the sounds of modular synthesizers, field recordings and computer programming. Abstract, tinkling, melodic, lulling...


Rayo-60 (Spain)

Compases de Espera (2013)
A House Is Not A Home (2016) (S)
Los Mares de Sonora (2018)
Cortando Ramos en un Refugio Temporal (2018) (S)

Ambient project from Barcelona with an unusual, warm, cosmic and hypnotic sound, a bit Cluster-like in places.


Rayon Vert (???)

Haze (2020)
Meshes of the Afternoon (2021)

Melodic ambient compositions. Hazy, sort of lo-fi, with an ethereal / vaporwave feel.


Razen (Belgium)

Reed Bombus LFO For Conrad Schnitzler (2014)
Remote Hologram (2014)
Endrhymes (2016)
Blue Rot (2021)
Postcards From Hereafter (2023)

Avant-garde improvisational ensemble consisting of Baart Reekmans, Brecht Ameel, David Poltrock and Kim Delcour. They make use of various rare and forgotten instruments, mostly acoustic but also electronic, such as the Ondes Martenot, which gets center stage on Side A of Remote Hologram. If you like combinations of folk / ethnic instrumentation and electronics, give Razen a try. This is not their full discography.


Razgraad (Italy)

The Water Towers (2016) (S)
The Ideology of Pessimism (2017) (S)

Razgraad is Salvatore Miele from Bologna. Most of the time rather grating and experimental (although listenable) electronics with a strong industrial flair. There are more melodic / atmospheric moments, though, and the debut tape concludes with a dramatic EM piece "NeuTanz", composed in an individual style, but obviously influenced by the classics.


Razing Darkness (USA)

Retina Voices (1999)
Razing Germs (2003)
The Anxious Journey (2004)
Aether Current (2005)

Black Space / Ambient Noise from Jason Danielson.


Razlaff, Dominic (Germany)

Landscapes (2015)
In Love With Magnetic Tape (2016)
Hovering (2017)
One Day In June (2019)
Rainy Sessions (2019) (with Toni Dimitrov)
Melancholie (2019)
Sonnenschein (2021)

Prolific ambient artist with lots of download-only releases, including a lot of EP's.


Razzaq, Abdur (USA)

The Night of Power (1983) (with Rafiyq)

Abdur Razzaq is a pseudonym of New Jersey musician and keyboardist Dennis Matthews. In 1983, together with Calvin Vivian, who was going by the name "Rafiyq", he released a sort of a spiritual / political jazz record, with recited poetry and keyboard-based music, mostly played solo in the studio by Matthews on an electric piano, a Minimoog, a Crumar string synth and a Roland CR-78 drum machine. The first track is a long track with poetry and background music, while the second one is a shorter, but completely instrumental track. Good for fans of jazzy electronic hybrids.


Rea, Dennis (USA)

Giant Steppes (2020)

Ex-guitarist of Earthstar with his solo music. Giant Steppes was recorded in Seattle and Siberia and is directly influenced by traditional music and songs of the Uyghur, Russian, Tuvan and Tiberan people. In fact, two of the tracks are basically modern arrangements of traditional Tuvan and Russian songs. Then there's a jazz influence by way of sax playing and of course Rea's spacey guitar. There is also a noticeable krautrock / EM influence, especially on the long, motorik-laden closer "The Fellowship of Tsering" which is quite impressive. I know that the EM influence may be a merit of keyboardist Steve Fisk (who plays both mellotron and synths here), but I gotta give Dennis a credit for being the arranger and composer of the whole thing. So, partly a World Music extravaganza, partly an ethnic rock record with throat singing and all, Giant Steppes is a nice album made by a talented musician. File under EM-related.

See also: Earthstar, Savant.


Real Fish (Japan)

Tenon (1985)

New wave / art pop band formed by Seiji Toda. They released 3 albums from 1984 to 1987, this is the second one, on which some more ambient, instrumental material can be found, similar in spirit to some solo work from ex-YMO members. File under EM-related.


Real Virtuality Project, The (Netherlands)

The Real Virtuality Project (1994)

This was an early 1990's project of Rolf van Slooten and Ronald Wijnands that later gave birth to Wave World. These guys combined Electronic Music with computer-animated movies, resulting in pioneering multimedia performances. Their self-titled cassette is a soundtrack to those performances.

See also: Wave World


Realms In Exile (???)

Himring (2021) (recorded in 2020)

Cinematic fantasy ambient / dungeon synth.


Realtime (Germany)

Journey Into Space (2003)
Lights of the Universe (2006)
Solar Walk (2013)
Live In Cologne (2014)
Magnificent Imaginations (2015)
Swinging Amplitudes (2016)

Realtime is a duo of Thomas Bock and Norbert Hensellek. Mixture of rhythmic sequencer-based pieces with some slight Space Music edges.

See also: Union-Taste


Reaves, Giles (USA)

Wunjo (1986)
Nothing Is Lost (1988)
Letting Go (1989) (with Jon Goin)
Sea of Glass (1992)
The Deep End (2001) (with Aashid Himons)
Principles of Peace (2002) (with Aashid Himons)
Something Is Found (2002)
Joy (2002)
A Hidden Space (2003) (with Tony Gerber and Aashid Himons)
The Range (2007) (with Dave Fulton)
Elder Crossing (2019) (with Tony Gerber)

Nashville-based electronic musician. Mainly Space Music.

See also: MindSpiral, Spacecraft.


Rebello (Brazil)

Speedrun (2018) (EP)
Teve Momentos (2022)

A mish-mash of synth-based styles, mostly hyperactive jazz-rock with flashy solos and abrupt rhythm changes.


Rebelo, Nuno (Portugal)

A Sagração do Mês de Maio (1989)
Improvisa​ç​õ​es Cristalizadas (2023) (recorded in 1989 - 1990)

Subtitled "1a Sinfonia Falsificada" ("1st Fake Symphony"), this album (A Sagração do Mês de Maio) is a double LP set released by this Portuguese composer and musician. Nuno Rebelo started in pop and rock bands but then switched to experimental music and improvisation. The above album is based completely on MIDI sounds and electronic instruments of the day. Sometimes it tries to imitate symphonic music, but in many cases ends up sounding a bit like Klaus Schulze circa 1988, with repetitive sequences and rich, bombastic orchestrations.


Reber, Tobias (Switzerland)

Mother of Millions (2021)

Intense, textured, a bit noisy synth compositions from this experimental musician, member of Blast Unicorn and Centrozoon.

See also: Centrozoon


Rebotini, Arnaud (France)

Someone Gave Me Religion (2011)
Frontieres (2016) (with Christian Zanési)
Le Vent Tourne (2018) (soundtrack)
Fix Me (2019)
Curiosa (2021) (recorded in 2019) (soundtrack)
Shiny Black Leather (2021) (EP)
Occhiali Neri (2022) (soundtrack)

For good or bad, since about 2009 it has become something of a trend to include progressive EM influences in dance / techno / new italo productions. Sometimes even long 10+ minute epics find their way onto LP's by modern disco freaks. Examples? Lindstrøm, Prins Thomas et al. Jumping on that bandwagon is French producer Arnaud Rebotini with his 2011 LP. The disc starts with a long 13-minute track clearly influenced by Tangerine Dream and other pioneers. It then proceeds to more rhythmic territory and closes with yet another track that could interest EM fans.


Rec008 (Russia)

Far Away From Home (2015)

Alexey Tarasov creates melancholic ambient music.


Recent Arts (Chile / Germany)

Recent Arts (2016)
Skin (2019)
Hypertext (2022)

Moody electronics with lots of samples as well as elements of IDM and glitch. Recent Arts is a duo of Valentina Berthelon and Tobias Freund. Hypertext has something of a subtle surveillance theme going.

See also: Berthelon, Valentina, Freund, Tobias.


Rech, Zózimo (Brazil)

Pictures of A Solar System (2006)
The Life of A Star (2006)
Le Quattro Stagioni (2014) (with Adrianne Simioni)

Some of the 2006 album (Pictures...) is energetic mixture of guitar and electronics (reminds me a bit on Guido Meyer). The rest is nice spacey EM, both upbeat and floating, with sounds that often hint at Tomita.


Reckzeh, Uwe (Germany)

Behind the Northern Wasteland (1997)
Part of Time (1998)
Cosmic Water (2001)
Timecode (2003)
Point North (2006)
Altitude 30000 (2007)
Unnatural Light (2009)
Subsesizer (2011)
Mirror Images (2012)
Virtual Minds (2013)
Perfection Mode (2015)
Surreal Dreams (2018)
Voyage (2021)

More or less classic formula synthesist. Inspired by the usual suspects, Uwe Reckzeh, a Nordrhein-Westfalen-based artist has been making Electronic Music since the 1980's. His first album was published in 1997.


Recondite (Germany)

Daemmerlicht (2018)
Dwell (2020)

A project of downtempo / hip-hop musician Lorenz Brunner. Daemmerlicht is a moody album with influences from the mentioned genres, plus a strong Prog EM influence. Dwell is another nice work with an EM touch.


Record of Tides (Germany)

Swan EP (2017)

Slow rhythms, synths and ambient soundscapes from Sven Piayda.


Recou Futur (Denmark)

Køb-k (2018)
Even More Done With Law (2020)

Cosmic synth compositions with a devotional / new age edge.


Red Blood Divine (Spain)

Sequenza Lunga (2016) (S)

This duo of synthesists is heavily inspired by vintage horror synth scores.

See also: mynationshit, Sentionaut.


Red Cangaroo (Australia)

Heave (2016) (EP)
Suffocate (2017)
Ecstatic (2018) (S)

Droning ambient artist from down under.


Red Cliffs (Germany)

Communion Is A Sacred Word (2017)

A bit collage-like ambience, with synthy parts, noisy parts and lots of samples. A project of Jan Warnke and Thorsten Soltau.

See also: Soltau, Thorsten


Red Electric Rainbow (USA)

Fuck In New Day (2009)
The White Whale Sings, The Blue Whale Cries (2009)
Your Voodoo Really Bores Me (2009)
Aerosol Hangover (2010)
Boredom In Paradise (2010) (S)
LSD Sunshine (2010)
Harmonic Sail (2010)
Ascending the Divine (2010) (S)
Homegrown Oscimation (2010)
Peyote Disco (2010) (S)
Sky Underneath (2010)
Shanghai Complex (2010)
Pale Blue Blossom (2010) (S)
Ice Petals Flowers Resolving (2011)
Come And Melt Your Face Off (2011)
Dark Days (2011)
Surfing the Breaks (2011)
Fluorescent Landscapes (2011)
Night Visions (2011) (S)

Chicago-based artist Daniel D. Smith who describes himself as "21 century face melter and sonic explorer". He has a huge discography and is a pretty ambient, droney affair most of the time. However, some releases are more noisy. It's a daunting task to try and decide which releases are of interest to fans of ambient EM. The above discography is not complete but contains most releases.


Red Falcon Projects, The (USA)

Lost Transmissions (2020)

Synth duo. Various styles, including EM (on tracks like "Arpdia", "Goonies III" and others).

See also: High Tides, Forrest, Dorosoto.


Red Fog (Canada)

Buried On Vanth (2015)

Obscure soundscapes.


Red Fog (Germany)

Break the Barrier (1982)

Private release. The style is not known but the music is mixed by George A. Speckert who had another private release out around the same time.


Red Gremlin (UK)

The Rise of the Gazunderlings (2021)

Cheesy, wacky, analog synth-based project. Sort of like dungeon synth on gremlin themes.

See also: Zundmarazkhulshilkîn


Red Martian (USA)

Little Hopes (2000) (S)
Cowboy And the Vocoder (2009) (S)
Miami / Daisy Bell (2012) (S)
Your Computer / Behind the Mask (2012) (S)
Retrailing (2015)
någonting (2015) (S)

Way strange band. Formed by Stephen Jones and based in Seattle, they are basically a shoegaze / post rock outfit. However, they started out as a punk-influenced band and have also done completely electronic stuff. How schizophrenic is that? Really, their material is so varied that it seems to be done by completely different people. Maybe it was wiser to invent various pseudonymes for each style of music they make... Anyway, I included only their releases containing electronic stuff. In these, they find themselves in the Kraftwerk mode, sometimes with influences of other Prog EM pioneers creeping in. Någonting was released on an Edison wax cylinder.


Red, Michael (Canada)

Gateways (2022)
ERAS (2023) (with Randy Raine-Reusch)

Reflective ambient material recorded as a soundtrack to a dance performance.


Red Moon (Slovenia)

Eclipsing (2019)

Menacing synth compositions from this duo. Not so dark, more like mysterious.


Red Needled Sea (Greece)

4 Days Off (2006)
23.04 (2007) (S)
Old River Blues (2007)
Signal Transmission (2007)
Release Research (2007) (S)
Time.Recall.Now (2007)
Flowers To the Dead (2008)

Abysmal soundworlds from Greek artist Panagiotes Alexiades (Panos Alexiadis).

See also: Lunar Miasma


Red Noise (France)

Sarecelles-Locheres (1970)

With Patrick Vian and John Livengood. A real relic of French electronic and experimental scene. (this is not exactly EM, more like crazed experimental jazz-rock with a clear Zappa influence).

See also: Vian, Patrick, Livengood, John, Spacecraft.


Red On (Germany)

Ghana (2015)
Red On (2017)
Drums (2021)

A project of Nuremberg-based Philipp Dittmar. Mostly related to witch house, glitch, IDM and electroacoustic I would say, but the Prog EM influence is definitely there, especially on tracks like "All the Holy Astronauts". File under EM-related.


Red On Maroon (UK)

The Tape Works Pt. 1 (2018)
An Analogue Mind (2018) (S)

Droning ambient soundscapes with a bit of a lo-fi feel. A project of Kevin Buckland.


Red Passenger (Spain)

Al Sr. Garson, con amor (2022) (S)

Spanish jazz rock / trip-hop band that released this charming tribute to the late Mort Garson, full of plant-inspired melodic electronic themes.


Red Root Vegetable (USA)

Red Root Vegetable (2001) (EP)

A rare release by one R.A. Dinitto. One acoustic track, one supposedly Berlin School one and the rest experimental synth / EM with some analog monstersynths used, like the Polyfusion modular and ARP 2600.


Red Setter (UK)

Zener_19 (2020)
Water Feature (2022)

Varied EM by Ian Wilde. Zener_19 was done exclusively with the Minimoog D app.

See also: Mammals In Rhythm, Greening Lambourne.


Red Stars Over Tokyo (Belgium)

Layers (2008) (EP)
Helen In the Mirror (2009)
I Never Gave Up (Because I Never Started) (2009)
Not Moving (2010)
Hits of Sunshine (2011)
4 Track 12" (2012) (S)
Melody Attack (2013)
Crossing A Frozen Sea (2013)
Deconstructing Happiness (2016)
Infinity From the Mouth of Night (2017) (S)
Live at STUK Leuven, 12.05.2016 (2018)
Earth Is Heaven / Heaven Is Hell (2020) (S) (with CPR)

Varied electronic artist Jeroen Lauwers from Belgium. Ranges from experimental to spacey / melodic.


Red Summer (UK)

Release (1982)

Similar to Mike Oldfield but not that elaborate. A few electronic moments as well. File under EM-related.


Red Zone (USA)

Red Zone (1985)

This rare LP is a soundtrack to a multimedia performance with music composed by McGregor Boyle, a pioneer in computer applications for music. The music is largely sequenced and there are some spoken word parts.


Reddie, Bill (USA)

Atlantis Revisited (1972)
Ascent Into Now (1973)
Starbody (1974)
Empathy (1977)
Omni (1978)
Life Cycle (1982)

Obscure composer from Las Vegas who ran a private label, Channel 1 Records and released a few LP's in the 1970's under the "Experimental Music Research, Inc." banner, featuring music of the experimental variety (some with spoken word), performed mostly on ARP synthesizers.


Redfadesbeforeblue (USA)

Compendium (2005)

Mixture of ambient and Berlin School synth styles from member of The Amaranth Signal.

See also: Peck, M., Amaranth Signal, The


Redolfi, Michel (France)

Hardscore (1980) (with Andre Jaume)
Immersion / Pacific Tubular Waves (1980)
Sonic Waters (1984)
Desert Tracks (1988)
Sonic Waters 2: Underwater Music (1989) (recorded in 1983 - 1989)
Nausicaa (1991) (with Michel Pascal and Luc Martinez)
Vox In Vitro: Opera Noir (2004)
Sons-Frissons (2012)
Music On Mars (2014)
The Exoplanets / Sci-Fi Memories (2016)

Sonic alchemist and Ambient musician, born in 1951 in Marseille. He discovered Electronic Music pretty early in his life and helped in development of the first digital synthesizers in the late 70's. After that he switched to environmental sonic research with his own "subaquatic music" concept.


Re-Drum (Russia)

Fragments of A Faith Forgotten (2002)
In the Shadow (2004)
Four Whispers For the Bees (2005)
Untitled (2006)
Inhalation (2008) (with Rattus)
S (2009)
Eclipse (2013)
Convection (2014) (with Emerge, Elektrojudas and Gerald Fiebig)

Atmospheric droning Ambient from Pavel Aleshin.


Redshift (UK)

Redshift (1996)
Ether (1997)
Downtime (1999)
Siren (2002)
Halo (2002)
Wild (2002)
Faultline (2004)
Oblivion (2004)
Toll (2006)
Wild 2 (2006) (recorded in 1996 - 2002)
Last (2007) (recorded in 2005)
Turning Towards Us (2008)
Wild 3 (2009)
Colder (2011) (recorded in 2004)
Life To Come (2015)

Mark Shreeve and friends creating Berlin School Electronic Music. I've heard an excerpt from their eponymous first album and that sounded like a copy of Phaedra-period Tangerine Dream, even using the same sounds. Too derivative for my tastes. However, I have also listened to several tracks from their subsequent albums and they were fairly good. If you like Berlin School music, it might be a good idea to check out Redshift. The band's got a cult status among EM fans.

See also: Shreeve, Mark, Stone Idols.


Redundant Rocker, The (Germany)

The Piping Fish (2006)
Collider (2006)
Heart (2009)

The Redundant Rocker is Bernhard Wöstheinrich who is known as one half of Centrozoon. Ambient music somewhat comparable to Biosphere. The Piping Fish was a limited release and was later re-released with the new title Live In Düsseldorf. Bernhard has collaborated with Ian Boddy on Moir and Klaus Hoffmann-Hoock (aka Cosmic Hoffmann) on Conundrum.

See also: Centrozoon, Wöstheinrich, Bernhard.


Reeb, Bernard (France)

Electrolyse (2006)
Secret Sounds (2006)
Calligraphy (2007)
Aïma Dust (2008)

Bernard Reeb has been experimenting with synthesizers, tape loops, guitars and processing devices since the late 1970's. His main influences are Klaus Schulze and Mike Oldfield. Recently he has released several albums with music that ranges in style from dreamy, cosmic synthesizer pieces to drones / soundscapes and gentle, atmospheric guitar textures.


Reed, Dan (USA)

Alchemy (2019)
Alchemy 2 Beats (2020)

Instrumental ambient material from this singer born in Portland, Oregon. Sometimes with a Vangelis feel.


Reed, Lou (USA)

Hudson River Meditations (2007)

Guitarist, singer, songwriter and famous glam rock / proto-punk / noise rock / hard rock musician. He already pioneered noise / industrial music with his feedback-based experimental release Metal Machine Music in 1975. Hudson River Meditations could be considered a bastard son of that album, with Reed opting for an ambient approach this time. The music is quite minimal (can be considered Minimal Ambient overall), with waves of synth notes and quiet, sinewave-y drones.


Reed, Rick (USA)

The Symmetry of Telemetry (2023)

Veteran experimental musician from Austin, Texas. The Symmetry of Telemetry was recorded with Buchla and Moog synths, as well as shortwave radio and a few other tools. It is a fine, hypnotic EM work for fans of both Experimental genre and ambient forms alike. There are also some parallels to pre-Timewind Klaus Schulze and other early 1970's krautrock / EM pioneers.


Reed, Robert (UK)

Sanctuary (2014)
Sanctuary II (2016)
Sanctuary Live (2017)
Variations On Themes By David Bedford (2018) (S)
Sanctuary III (2018)
Cursus 123 430 (2020)
The Ringmaster Part 1 (2021)
The Ringmaster Part Two (2022)

Welsh keyboardist (of Magenta fame) usually working in progressive rock realms. On Cursus, he gets inspiration from classic Electronic Music, mostly of melodic kind (Jarre, Vangelis, etc.). The Sanctuary series of albums are more in Mike Oldfield vein.


Reedale Rise (UK)

Doing Regular Things (2020)

A project of Simon Keat from Liverpool who is known for his electro music. On Doing Regular Things, he experiments with ambient EM extensively. The atmospheric tracks on that release are not bad at all. I wonder what a completely EM / ambient album from him would sound like. Best track: "Dead Calm".


Reef Frequent (USA)

Still Lives (2018)

Vaporwave-related project / musician from Ohio. Still Lives is halfway between Replica-era Oneohtrix Point Never and ambient synth.


Reeking Eclipse (Canada)

Demo (2023) (S)
Reeking Eclipse (2024) (S)

Gloomy, melancholic synth compositions inspired by "dungeon synth" and ambient music.


Reeno (USA)

Movie Music Vol. 1 (2011)
Movie Music Vol. 2 (2013)

Aka James Reeno. Stated to be influenced by Jarre, TD, Vangelis and Kraftwerk, this album really finds itself in funky kraftwerkian mode most of the time, with sharp rhythms, bubbly bass and synth melodies galore. The influence of all those others is much more subdued for some reason, although the opening track seems to be a direct rip-off from Jarre's Revolutions and some TD-isms do pop up from time to time.


Rees, Gary (UK??)

Things That Go Bump (2021)

Varied, mostly shorter, melodic / rhythmic tracks.


Reeves, David (Canada)

Narcos (1995)
Otras (1995)
Otras II (1995)
In Starless Space (1995)
Otraslab (1997)

Quite atonal ambient Space Music on FAX label.


Reflected Illusions (Canada)

Side Effects (2008)
Radio Waves (2016)

A project of Reza Najafi who states to be influenced by the Berlin School but in fact he doesn't sound like any of the pioneers, mainly because of the heavy use of digital synths and the minimal nature of the compositions. Their first album Psychosis was mainly a rhythmic experiment in processed samples and C64 sounds. On Radio Waves his Berlin School influences became much more obvious.


Reflection of A Star (France)

Galaxy IC 4970 (2013) (S)
650 000 Light Years (2013) (S)
Endless Skies (2013) (S)
GHX 872-C (2013) (S)
Lost In A No-Sound Space (2014)
Medical Planet (2014) (S)
Ancient Galaxy May Be Most Distant Ever Seen (2014) (S)

Dark Space / deep ambience project from France.


Reflex Blue (UK??)

Twin Waters EP (2022) (EP)

Techno project of Cooper James Fraser. The Twin Waters EP closes with an ambient track "Blue Tongue Sun". A one-track inclusion so far.


Regan, Samuel (USA)

Stil de Grain (2015)
A Warm Room (2017) (S)
Ides (2017) (S)
Apart / 9 (2019)
Behind Veils (2020)

Ambient artist.


Regard Extreme (France)

Aux Morts (1993)
Resurgence (1996)
Die Weisse Rose (1997) (with Les Joyaux De La Princesse)
Vague a l'Ame (1998)
Utopia (2003)
Recueil en 7 Mouvements (??)
Anaphore (2017)
The Odyssey (2018)

Described as Neo-Classical Ambient, I think this music (composed by former radio DJ Fabien Nicault) is a bit too active for the term. 


Regen Graves (Italy)

Doctrines of Fear (2017)
The Cruelty of Hope (2019)
Herbstlicht (2019)
Climax (2021)
Preservation (2023)
Falsche Fragen (2023) (with Runes Order)

Solo electronic project of member of doom metallers Abysmal Grief. The Cruelty of Hope focuses on doomy analog synths and organs and is inspired by the works of Polish film director Krzystof Kieslowski.


Region 5 (UK)

Viaggio per Spazio (1983)
Dietro Il Silenzio (1984)

Cosmic, floating synths, Dark Space textures. In Tangerine Dream's Zeit realms.

See also: Alto Stratus, Vrije, Adhara, Electric Junk, Triax.


Regional Idents (UK)

Channelling (2019)

Mostly shorter tracks of varying moods from David Briggs.


Regivar (Italy)

Colonna Sonora Per Un Film Immaginario (2002)
Afairytaleelatyriafa (2003)

A pseudonym of Italian sound artist Raffaella Graziosi. Dark soundscapes coupled with concrete textures. At times even reminds on the darker works by Klaus Schulze and other 70's pioneers.


Règne (France)

The Kingdom of the Sibyllines (2023)

Repetitive, medieval-sounding, cinematic dungeon synth / ambient synth themes.


Regottaz, Jean-Stephan (France)

Stéphan (1981)
Creation (1982)
Symphonie d'Eclipses (1984)
Galaxy (1985)
J.S.R. (1985)
Delirium (1986)
Understars (1986) (S)
En Concert (1988)
En Concert (??)
85/86 En Concert et Feerie (??)
En Concert (??)
En Concert (??)
En Concert (??)
Grandeur Nature (1989)
Fantastic World (2005)

This artist started in the 1980's, doing one-man synthesizer shows ala Jarre. He often performed in a space suit, presaging the image of groups like Daft Punk by almost a decade. Jean-Stephan's music is flashy, melodic and rhythmic.


Regrelh (France)

Cants dels Trobadors: La Douceur d'un Son Nouvel (1979)

An album that mixes Occitan folk music with experimental electronics. Not for the general EM fan, but those who are interested in various World Music fusions might find this to their liking.


Regular Music (USA)

Buddy Cops (2012)
Vase & Ass (2014)
Online Summer (2019)

Synthesizer group with an abstract and sometimes sequencer-laden sound.


Rehlinger, Jakob (Canada)

Time Cocoon (2018)
Powehi (2019)
Datenautobahn (2020)
Wooden Moon (2021)
Ten Sorrows (2022)

Analog EM in classic style (both Berlin School pulsations and more ambient / eerie sci-fi stuff) from this synthesist.

See also: Babel


Reich (Argentina)

Reich (2020) (S)
Magick (2020)
Reborn From Fire (2020) (S)
Die Glocke (2020) (S)
Fourth Reich In Space (2021)

Strange electronics on historical themes. Not really Martial Ambient, more like a mixture of melodic synth sound (a bit similar to synthwave) and some ambient influences.


Reichel, Achim (Germany)

Die Grune Reise (1971)
Echo (1972)
A.R. 3 (1972)
A.R. 4 (1973)
A.R. 5 - Autovision (1974)
Ehrolung (1975)
The Art of German Psychedelic 1970 -74 (2017)
71/17 Another Green Journey (2022)

Also known as A.R.& Machines. Technically it is similar to Inventions For Electric Guitar by Manuel Goettsching. I think some of his music features vocals to a certain extent. After 1975 or so, Achim's sound shifted from guitar driven electronics / krautrock to more direct bluesy / song-oriented approach. These albums have very little or nothing to do with EM, and were, therefore, omitted from the above discography.


Reichel, Klaus (Germany)

Inspirations (1984 - 1988)
Soul Without Time (1989)
Astral (1990)
Lost In the Darkness (1991)
Traumwelten (1993)
Windspiele (1994)
Zirkon (1995)
Mondschatten (1996)
Parts 97 (1997)
Distanz (1997)
In Colors of Dreams (1998)
Das Licht der Anderen Welt (1998)
Konturen (1998)
Electronic Boogies (1998)
Erinnerung An Zartlichkeiten (1998)
Im Purpur (1999)
Fantasien (1999)
Fractale In Concerto (2000)
Im Meer der Zeit (2001)
Silvercircle (2007)
Musik Vom Rand der Milchstrasse (2008)

I think the music of this synthesist was used in several planetariums. The tracks have got a spacey quality to them, with a fat synth sound (Klaus uses analogue synths only).


Reid, Amy (USA)

Isolated Bliss (2020) (S)

Varied synth compositions. Mostly of ambient nature, but also rhythmic and with sequences.


Reid, Gordon (UK)

Aliens (2000) (soundtrack)

Soundtrack to the film "Aliens of the Sea" that will probably appeal to fans of Vangelis, with a Floyd vibe in there as well.


Reid, Zachary (USA)

Songs For Cyanide (2014)
My Return To the Ground Will Be Lonely (2015)
Hate Noise (2016)

Tucson, Arizona-based ambient artist with sort of a melancholic sound that combines synths and some sustained guitars. The real name of the author is Zack Hansen. He is also known as a drummer for some doom / sludge / grind bands.


Reifegerste, Peter (Germany)

Weites Land (1990)
Animals Amnesty (1992)


Reigns (UK)

The Widow Blades (2011)
The Walled Garden (2020)

Started as a shoegaze duo in the early 2000's, Reigns developed a more hauntology / EM-related sound for The Walled Garden.


Reimer, Donovan (Canada)

Black Holes (1988)
Space Encounters (1989)
Worlds Apart (??)
A Matter of Heart (1993)
Far From Earth (1996)
Past Works (1997)
Terraform (1998) (recorded in 1995 - 1998)

Mostly Space Music from this planetarium composer and synthesist. Some ethnic flavored tracks. One track on Far From Earth was recorded in Michael Stearns' studio and produced by him.


Rein, Paul (Sweden)

Future Electronic Lounge (2005)

Paul Rein (real name - Pauli Kaj Olavi Reinikainen) is a Swedish singer-songwriter who was an italo disco star in Sweden in the 1980's. He wrote songs for such pop artists as Christina Aguilera, Victoria Beckham, Jessica Simpson and Mandy Moore, among others. Future Electronic Lounge is his attempt at imagining what lounge music will sound like in the future. The results are rhythmic and melodic, with lots of processed / robotic voices and more than a hint of 1990's / 2000's Kraftwerk.


Reine, Isabelle (USA)

I'll Be Dead By Tomorrow (2019)
In the Reine (2020)

A rather strange one - minimal, repetitive synth ditties with some acoustic guitar. A bit dungeon synth-like perhaps.


Reinhard, Samuel (Switzerland)

Miniatures (2020)
Interior (2021)

Miniatures features quiet, hypnotic Ambient constructed from processed piano loops.


Reinhardt, Jonas (USA)

Jonas Reinhardt (2008)
Powers of Audition (2010)
Music For the Tactile Dome (2011)
The Prime Revealer (2011) (S)
Rusting Ciphers of A Forgotten Sky (2012) (with Abyss of Fathomless Light)
Mask of the Maker (2013)
Ganymede (2014)
Palace Savant (2015)
The Encyclopedia of Civilizations Vol. 1: Egypt (2017) (with Jürgen Müller)
Conclave Surge (2018)
A Ragged Ghost (2022)

Nom-de plume of California-based Jesse Reiner and his group. He started with music in the mid 1990's and used "Jonas Reinhardt" moniker for the first time in 2008, first as a solo artist and then assembled a band. He has returned to producing music solo. The material draws from many sources and traditions, including the Berlin School and the Dusseldorf School. Jesse uses a lot of analogue synthesizers and vintage drum machines.

See also: Palermo, Damon Eliza, Electric Placebo.


Reininger, Blaine L. & Rouse, Mikel (USA)

Colorado Suite (1984) (S)

Mini-LP by ex-Tuxedomoon musicians. Reminds on cheesy 1970's library music but with experimental touches and a few vocals.


Reis, Hector M. (Switzerland)

Roman Architecture (2021) (S)

A pseudonym of Christian Schneider. Dark soundscapes.


Reisig, Brandon (USA)

Here & There (2023)

Synthesist from Ohio with a vivid, analog, modular-based sound. Lots of drones, arpeggios, bleeps & beeps & sequences here.


Reiter, Joerg (Germany)

Scenic Colours (1986)

Nice library music on Sonoton in flowing synth style with some acoustic instruments like flutes, pan pipe and recorder added.


Reitmann, Heinz (Austria)

Reitingmusic (1987)


Reitz, Lothar (Germany)

The Well And Stars (2006)

Synthesist with sort of an experimental style, with some acoustic instruments alongside electronics. Relaxed, atmospheric, but with a quirky electracoustic touch.


Reitzell, Brian (USA)

Logan's Sanctuary (2000) (with Roger Joseph Manning Jr.)
30 Days of Night (2007) (soundtrack)
Auto Music (2014)

Musician, composer and producer born in 1966. The 2000 album with Roger Manning is a fictive "sequel" soundtrack to a 1976 classic "Logan's Run" (the film had an electronic score by Jerry Goldsmith). The music is very analogue and at times cheesy. 30 Days of Night is a soundtrack in pure Dark Ambient style.


Rekombinant (Italy)

A Bridge Between Us (2023)

Rekombinant is Alfonso Montagnese. On A Bridge Between Us, he collaborates with a lot of different musicians, achieving varied results - from art-pop songs to almost classical-sounding pieces, trip-hop rhythms and bubbling Prog electronics. The music is not bad and sometimes pretty nice, although a bit lacking in direction. The curious part is that the cover art of A Bridge Between Us bears a striking resemblance to Klaus Schulze's Deus Arrakis. Sorry, Alfonso, but with all due respect I guess I prefer Klaus' release in the end.


Relaxer (USA)

A Family Disease (2018)
Coconut Grove (2019)
Hedonic Fatigue (2020) (S)
Concealer (2021)
Forcefield: A Guide For the Perplexed (2022)

A project of Daniel Martin-McCormick from New York. About half of the tracks on Coconut Grove are techno bangers. But another half are ambient electronics and some of them, like "Agony", are actually very good. I think the guy should really explore more of the ambient / progressive EM sound. A Family Disease also has some of his material in that vein, but quite frankly it's all rather uneven.


Remanence (USA)

Apparitions (1996)
Lamkhyer (2002) (S)
A Strange Constellation of Events (2005)
Lamkhyer (2015)

Diverse music with several Dark Ambient styles by John Phipps and Brian McWilliams (Aperus).

See also: Aperus


Remédio, Ricardo (Portugal)

Natureza Norta (2017)

This artist combines classic EM sounds (including sequencing) with 2010's trends like UK bass and related styles. Dark, driving, moody...


Remember (UK)

Route Back Home (2015)
Walking To Heartache (2015)
Welcome To Axico Industries (2016)
The City Is My Friend (2018)
ルートバックホーム (2020)
Four Shots of Green Stone (2020)
Show Me, Enlighten Me, Love Me (2023)
A Deep Dive Into the Conflicted And Scared Psyche (2023)

Vaporwave artist who is known under countless other pseudonyms. Route Back Home, more known under the Japanese transcription (ルートバックホーム), is a completely ambient work, that to me seems to be somehow inspired by "Blade Runner" dystopian visions and similar imagery. Nice, melancholic and atmospheric. Walking To Heartache (ハートエイクに歩い ) continues in the same direction. The City Is My Friend introduces some downtempo rhythms but also a rich synth sound right from the Prog EM school.


Remember Ecstatic Duo (USA)

Palo Santo (2021)

Synth / flute duo of Mike Sharp and Kristine Reaume from Austin, Texas. Nice relaxed sequencer flights with flute leads.

See also: Sharp, Michael C.


Remember Green (Denmark)

Electro Shock (2011)
After Shock (2012)

Varied rhythmic / melodic music with a strong Kraftwerk influence from Steen Chorchendorff Jorgensen. Nattefrost collaborates on the debut album.


Remo Rau Project (Switzerland)

Voyage To the Stars (1985)

Remo Rau is a Swiss jazz pianist and vibraphone player. For this album, released under the "Remo Rau Project" group name, he recruited fellow jazz musicians Art Lande, Paul Grabowsky and Peter Waters. All of them play Roland synthesizers and piano and there are also a drummer and a double bass player. Given the musicians' mindset and background, a lot of the music sounds like synth-heavy jazz. Then there are some collages and classically-inspired sections that sound a lot like Synergy. Fans of the latter may want to check it out.


Remo Sh (USA??)

The Coming of Soon (2021) (recorded in 2016 - 2017)

Interesting stuff. Composed first on guitar, the tracks were then transferred to the Ableton software using MIDI technology and further treated to get the desirable ambient results. Complex, unpredictable, organic-sounding EM.


Remora (UK)

Bodyglue (1995)
94-95 (1995)
Remora (1996)
The Clockwork Ammonite Shells (1997)
Aggregate (1997)
Acroyer (1997)
Per-aa (1998)
Narcoma (2001)

Remora is an alias of Scottish experimental analog synth artist Ian Middleton.

See also: Middleton, Ian


Remote Spaces (Poland)

Spirals (1998)
Alpha (2000)
Elektronicznie (2000)
Ypsilon Project (2003) (with Odyssey)
Silos (2004)

Rhythmic Space Music and classic EM. Remote Spaces are a duo of Konrad Jakrzewski and Krzysztof Horn. It was formed in 1993.


Remotion (Netherlands)

Between Fiction And Reality (2001)

Very good New Berlin School music by Richard Stuij and Arjan Steenbergen..

See also: Liveform


Removed From This Life (Poland)

I w godzinę śmierci naszej, Amen (2019)
2020 A Mind Odyssey (2020)

Depressive dark ambience with lots of distant choirs.


Remy (Netherlands)

Exhibition of Dreams (1999)
The Art of Imagination (2000)
Connected (2003)
Disconnected (2003)
A-Live! (2004)
Different Shades of Dust (2004)
Sense (2006)
This Is Not the End (2008)
EoD (2009)
I-dentity (2011)
The Great Church Trilogy (2011)
Sessions 2012 (2013) (with My Breath My Music)
Fears (2016)
The Return of Planet X (2017) (recorded in 2012)
The Return of Planet X Encore (2017) (recorded in 2012)
The Other Side (2020)
The Other Side: Lost In Reality (2023)
Live At BYSS (2024) (with Däcker)

Remy Stroomer makes music in the vein of Klaus Schulze circa late 80's - early 90's, which separates him from the bulk of neo-prog EM acts that seem to focus on the 70's / early 80's Berlin style. Different Shades of Dust is a superb effort, featuring three strong Electronic Music tracks, brimming with sequences, intricate structures and wonderful screaming solos. The first track, "Following Differences" throws away the tradition of atmospheric intros by getting straight into business with one of the best sequences I've ever heard. It's urgent and dramatic - very effective, indeed. After a while it is joined by additional tones, making up a complex rhythmic tapestry of sound that really calls those best moments of late 80's / early 90's Klaus Schulze to mind. Very tasty! Great key changes as well. Really, if Schulze from the said period is your thing, you will enjoy this one. In the second part some mellotron choir is applied to great effect as well as dramatic string / pad chords. This is one epic track. The second track, called "Shades In Darkness", starts with VCS3 effects, as well as broken rhythms and distant mysterious mellotron choirs. Then a resonating bass line introduces itself which is joined by another one and we really start to motor along. This track, as well as the last one features great analogue solos. Although Remy doesn't use the mighty mini, he's got a memorymoog, which is essentially six minimoogs stacked together, so the solos sound smooth and at the same time biting - great timbre. This might be different synth of course, but the sound is very moog-like anyways. mellotron choir returns after the 9-minute mark. New sequences are introduced that are soon joined by drums, bass lines and cosmic solos that this time somehow remind me on the ones played by Klaus Schulze in the 70's on his ARP Odyssey. Excellent sound, I could listen to this for ages. Dramatic string arrangements are another focus of this track (including the well-structured pizzicato string runs). Most of the time there's really a lot going on, Remy's music is very intense! Intense is also the word that could be applied to the appropriately titled and very evocative "Moving Through Dust", with its Arabic moves, mellotron choirs, great sequences and absolutely over-the-top, screaming' n 'roaring moog solos. Yeah, twist that filter! Different Shades of Dust is an excellent album of edgy, progressive (and decidedly un-commercial) Electronic Music that I enjoyed immensely. Remy is certainly a musician to look out for, and being that he is still very young, I guess we can expect a lot of great music from him in the future. Remy Stroomer is also the founder of AKH Records, through which his own albums are released and distributed.

See also: Mäläskä, Planet of the Arps.


Remy, Patrick (France)

Constellations (1981)

French synthesist. A single with two tracks from Constellations was also released.


Ren, Kenichi (Japan)


Ren M (USA)

Anchor (2020)

Varied ambient compositions apparently inspired by the Minecraft universe.


Ren Toudu (Sweden)

Intangible (2012)
Nemorphilist (2014)

Ambient music by Eki Jokisalo, released on Chilean label Ovnimoon Records that specializes on Goa-trance music.


Renard, Eric (France)

Reve Errance (2004)

Solo music by this synthesist, similar to Bertrand Loreau. Eric Renard started his career in the 1970's, playing in a rock group Belle de Jour. There are some Celtic influences felt in his work.


Renart (France)

Et Le Rêve Des Absents (2014) (EP)
Fragments Séquencés (2017)

Varied EM, mostly flowing and sequenced or upbeat and dancey. The non-techno material is nice, the techno one ranges from ok and slightly interesting to forgettable.


Renaud, Alain (France)

Alain Renaud (1975)
Out of Time (1976)
Back And In Again (1978)

Very little info on this musician. The first album: sort of spacey sound, with lots of echoing guitar work, a bit similar to Richard Pinhas in style (who also co-produced the album). Out of Time features music that can be labeled "jazz-rock". However, synthesizers are used, especially on the long "Straight Ahead" on side two, which is the closest this album gets to EM. It starts in a folky manner, then guitar joins in and then a weird electronic section follows, only to return to folk melodies at the end (thanks Michael Walpole for this information). Back And In Again: here we have participations from Patrick Gauthier, Benoit Widemann and Richard Pinhas. Guy Delacroix plays bass (he will later appear on Jean-Michel Jarre's Revolutions). The style is reportedly more jazz-rock than EM, but with already three Heldon dudes giving a hand you can't go wrong, can you?.


Renaux, Philippe (France)

Concerto pour Enfant et Moog (1975) (S)
Noëls Cosmiques (1977)

Also known under its English title, We Wish You A Cosmic Christmas, this album features completely electronic interpretations of Christmas songs by this producer and Rockets-related musician. A curiosity of sorts, it's not terribly progressive but perhaps deserves a place here for the novelty factor.

See also: Research, Soft Energy.


Reno, Michael (USA)

Revelation II (1977)

The above LP was pressed privately by the West Valley College in California. It is a theater piece with some interesting electronic arrangements.


Rental, Robert (UK)

Paralysis / ACC (1978) (S)
Mental Detentions (1979)
The Bridge (1979) (with Thomas Leer)
Live: West Runton Pavilion 6/3/79 (1981) (with the Normal)
Different Voices For You Different Colours For Me Demos 1980 (2018)

Experimental artist born in 1952. "The Normal" that collaborates with Robert Rental on the small one-sided live LP released in 1981 (2 years after the gig) is actually Daniel Miller. The music is rumored to be on the experimental side. But that's all I know. Robert Rental died in 2000 in London.


Rental Snakes (USA)

Jjinggles (2023) (S)

Imagined synth jingles with lots of crisp electronic sounds and wacky voice samples.


Renzetti, Joe (USA)

Aniron (2004)
Thanatos (2009)

Ambient electronic artist based in Ohio.


Repeat Eater (France)

Deep Desert Dweller (2021)

A project of electro / acid artist Julien Guillot. Deep Desert Dweller is an album inspired by the Dune universe and it combines his usual style with nice and weird experimental / progressive touch. File under EM-related.


Repeated Viewing (UK)

The Three Sisters (2015) (soundtrack)
Frozen Existence (2015)
Street Force (2016)
Art Imitates (2016)
Street Force II (2017)
Pieces Vol. 1 (2018) (with BurningTapes)
The Beach House (2019)
Nature's Revenge (2019)
Murdercoaster (2022)

Giallo / horor synth revival project of Alan Sinclair from Glasgow. Drums, guitars, lots of analog synths and mellotrons galore.


Repetition/Distract (Germany)

Not Even In Sleep (2008) (EP)
Old Weevil Neighbourhood (2011)
Salles des Perdus (2012)

A project of Felix Hoeck. Dark Ambient with a strong electro-acoustic bend.


Repetition Repetition (USA)

Repetition Repetition (1985)
The Machinist (1987)
Lakeland (1987)

A duo of Ruben Garcia (synthesizers) and Steve Caton (guitar). Supposedly, hypnotic, ambient and repetitive music.

See also: Garcia, Ruben


Repetto, Angelo (Switzerland)

Sundown Explosion (2021) (EP)

Krauty electronics with real drums, guitars and tons of synths from this Zurich-based artist. Pretty nice stuff.


Repetto, Marco (Switzerland)

Tonus - Music Labor Research Result (2002)

Marco Repetto is an electronic artist from Bern, whose style is characterized by melodic, rhythmic sequences, electronic rhythms and lots of repetition (no pun intended). He also acts as a techno DJ. Formerly a punk drummer, he got into electronic sounds in 1989.

See also: Alphageneric#Taurus, Bigeneric.


Reptilicus (Iceland)

Unison (2018) (with Senking)

Long-standing experimental / industrial project. Unison features modular synthesizer works in duo format and may interest fans of Experimental EM.


Requena, Luke (Canada)

Mirror Stage (2021)

Electronic Music inspired by Tarkovsky's "Solaris" from this Vancouver-based artist. Cosmic, sequencer, melodic. Nice stuff.


Requisitio Sensus Aeternum (Russia)

Oskolki Estestva (2009)
Psevdorealnost' (2009)
Polyot v Neizvestnost' (2009)
Pamyat' (2009)
Pod Zemlu (2009)
Stremlenie.... Otchayanie... Apatia (2010) (EP)
The Only One Is Dead, Who... (2011)

Russian Dark Ambient project formed in 2008. Mostly drones and pads, with not much else going on.


Res Magnifica (Latvia)

Dream, Still (2021)

Ambient project from Riga. Mostly flowing and based on pads.


Research (France)

Sideral Cosmic Sound (1978)

Obscure French formation that plays covers of well-known synth tunes (Jarre, Space Art, etc.). There are also a few supposedly original compositions that have a nice, analogue sound to them.

See also: Renaux, Philippe, Soft Energy.


Reservoir (USA)

Reservoir (1996)

Reservoir is a solo venture of member of indie rockers Space Needle - Judson Ehrbar. On his debut, he plays only a Korg Delta synth and a drum machine for a minimal, somewhat lo-fi, partly ambient and partly rhythmic / melodic sound. He then released a vocal song-oriented album Pink Machine in 1997.


Residual Drifter (Germany)

Loss of Being (2020)

Pretty varied ambient material here. Mostly pretty stark and dark, although never pitch-black. Sort of an industrial flair prevails here.


Resilience (USA)

Forgotten World (2020)

Pretty nice dreamy ambience with sounds of nature and psychedelic touches from this duo. Released on Carpe Sonum.

See also: Matthews, Si, Eric "The" Taylor.


Resinator (UK)

Heavy Rituals (2019)
A Spring Festival (2019) (S)
Apothecaries' Weight (2019)
Internal Astronomy (2020)
Warp Lord (2021)

Aka Resin Eater. Dungeon synth-related project that also explores other styles, even sequencer-based EM on "Heavy Machinery".


Resonance (Spain)

Valediction (2024)

Based on the Canary Islands, Javier Pérez Rodríguez is a Spanish synthesist composing rich, clas

Resonance Association, The (UK)

Failure of the Grand Design (2007)
We Still Have the Stars (2008)
No Secrets, Only Codes (2010)
Clarity In Darkness (2010) (recorded in 2009)
Heliopause (2011)
Choose Euphoria (2023)

Hybrid space rock / electronic duo consiting of Daniel Vincent and Dominic Hemy.


Resonant Drift (USA)

Resonant Drift (2004)
Resonant Drift Version 2.0 (2005)
Flow Mingled Down (2006)
The Call (2009)
Passages (2011)
Full Circle (2012)

Floaty, ambient sound from Bill Olien and Gary Johnson out of California, USA.

See also: Common Ground


Resonant Lines (Belgium)

Quantum Call (2020)

Darkish electronics from Belgian Claude Celli. Drones, noises, some techno rhythms... Pretty cerebral and nocturnal sound here.


Respira (Denmark)

The Mating of Heaven And Earth (2018)

Unclassifiable Ambient that somehow brings up images of caves in my mind. A mixture of synth sounds, some glitchy elements and echoing loops.


Response Pirituba (Brazil)

st (2013) (S)

Rhythmic, heavy, monotonous electronics, drums and guitars, a bit in the spirit of Heldon, although more melodic and with an extra brass-rock dimension.


Respuesta Alternativa (Spain)

85 / 86 (1987)
Un Largo y Profundo Sucro (2021) (recorded in 1987 - 1990)

Solo project of Jesús María Catalán Aller, keyboardist of new wave band Modas Clandestinas. This is crisp, melodic, easy-listening electronics with a jazz fusion flair often reminding on Estonian Synopsis that occupied a similar terrain. A pleasant listening overall, even if it is nothing very sophisticated.


Restricted (USA)

The Shattered Man (2020) (EP)

Cinematic compositions between synthwave and EM.


Resurge (Germany??)

Wetware (2023) (S)

Deep ambient sounds with elements of dub. Atmospheric stuff.


Retaillaud, Julien (France)

Calme (2020)

Solo compositions from member of shoegaze duo Candle and 1990's indie rockers Carmine. Varied, mostly ambient stuff mixing synths and guitars.


Retep Folo (Sweden)

Music For Cats (2016) (S)
Galactic Sounds (2018)

Retep Folo is a pseudonym of Peter Olof Fransson, an artist linked to the "hauntology" scene. As Retep Folo, he uses such instruments as Farfisa Syntorchestra, Wersi Combo Organ, vintage drum machines and more, to create cheesy, "wooden", early 1970's (or even earlier) style Electronic Music with a nice, warm sound. (Italy)

Descending Into Crevasse (2012)

A duo of Lino Monaco and Nicola Buono that started in the IDM vein. This album, however, contains freezing, polar ambient soundscapes.

See also: Le Officine di Efesto


Retribution Body (USA)

Retribution Body (2009)
The Enemy of the Good (2012)
Aokigahara (2015)
Self-Destruction (2018)
Bathomet (2022)

Providence, Rhode Island-based artist (Matthew Azevedo). He has a minimal ambient sound, sometimes on the edge of hearing (Deep Ambient), sometimes noisier and more intense.


Return To Titan (USA)

Stages 1 - 4 (2014)
Stages 5 - 8 (2014)

Possibly the best project of Chuck Daar. The first album features no instruments and consists of processed recordings only. The second is a relaxing Space Music / Berlin School trip, with even a touch of Pink Floyd (by means of spacey guitars).

See also: Daar, Chuck, Hexagram, Cathedrals of Sound, A.V.P., Architectures, Vapor State, Sky People, The.


Reuben Son (USA)

Cortical Migrations (2010)

Boston area artist who released a string of cassettes on various labels. He is mainly known as an acoustic guitar player and a field recording alchemist. However, this release is a departure for him and is completely based on synthesizers.


Reuben-Diavola, Antoine (USA)

Chronicles: Diavola - Noxilux Beta (2006)
Chronicles: Diavola - Radix III (2008)


Reuber (Germany)

Anna (2000)
Ruhig Blut (2001)
Kintopp (2004)
Südpol (2007)
Ring (2010)

Timo Reuber is a member of Klangwart. Experimental electronics, I think.

See also: Klangwart


Reunion Island (USA)

Collapse (2020)

A trio of Texan musicians Ashley Cromeens, Brad Loving and Matt Leer. They mix various styles, but mostly go for flowing pads, melodic sequences and real drums. "Cicada", "Erasto Dream" and "Monomer" could be recorded by Cluster in their prime.


Reuter, Markus (Germany)

Taster (1997)
Containment (1998)
Distant Rituals (1999) (with Ian Boddy)
String Unit (2000) (with Dagobert Böhm and Zoltán Lantos)
Older Than God (2000)
Digitalis (2001)
The Longest In Terms of Being (2001)
Jodrell Bank Planetarium (2002) (with Ian Boddy)
Pure (2004) (with Ian Boddy)
Trepanation (2006)
Ceasing To Exist (2007) (with Ramp)
Eleven Questions (2007) (with Robert Rich)
Dervish (2009) (with Ian Boddy)
Descending (2010) (with Tim Motzer)
Todmorden 513 (2011)
Lament (2012) (with Stephen Parsick)
Colour Division (2013) (with Ian Boddy)
Sultry Kissing Lounge (2014)
From Worlds Unseen A Light Yet Streams A Sound Replete (2015) (with Zero Ohms)
Mundo Nuevo (2015) (with others)
Memento (2017) (with Ian Boddy)
Lift A Feather To the Flood (2017) (with Robert Rich)
Falling For Ascension (2017) (with others)
Rapture (2018) (with Tim Motzer)
Monde, Vol. 1 (2019)
Monde, Vol. 2 (2019)
Monde, Vol. 3 (2019)
Sun Trance (2020)
Shapeshifters (2020) (with Tim Motzer and Kenny Grohowski)
Oculus Nothing Is Sacred (2020)
Outland (2021) (with Ian Boddy)
Aufbruch (2021) (with J. Peter Schwalm)
Gratitude Vol. 2 (2021)
Voyage of Blacwyd (2022) (with Aralee Dorough)
Bleed (2022)
(with Tim Motzer and Kenny Grohowski)

Great Ambient composer. The music is very cosmic and quite engaging, this is the sort of Ambient music that I happen to like, because a lot of the music filed under this term consists mainly of just meaningless slow noodling, very quiet and generally with a sweet, ethereal atmosphere, or sounding too static (Eno). This, on the opposite, is dynamic flowing sounsculpturing, which may seem cold to some, but definitely, not to me. Recommended.

See also: Centrozoon


Reutoff (Russia)

Das Absterben (1998)
Three Souls For A Reasonable Price (1998)
Regno di Pianta (2000)
ReuTRauM IV (2000) (S)
ReuTRauM III (2001) (S)
Prime (2001)
ReuTRauM VI (2002) (S)
Unseen Rituals (2002)
Montecristo (2002) (with Quattro Bravo Eballieros)
The Fourth Face (2002) (S)
ReuTRauM V (2003) (S)
Gute Nacht Berlin (2003)
From the Womb (2003) (S)
ReuTRauM II (2003) (S)
Maska (2003)
Three Withered Souls (2006) (recorded in 1998 - 2006)
1998 - 2008 (2008)
Deprivatio (2008)
Kreuzung Zwei (2008) (with Troum)
Tanz der Kleinen Schweinen (2008)
Kreuzung I - IV (2009)
ReuTRauM I (2012) (S)
ReuTRauM VII (2012) (S)
NullRauM (2014)
No One's Lullabies (2014) (S)
Eigengrau (2014) (with Sal Solaris)
Eating the Dust (2018)

Melancholic soundscapes.


Rev, Martin (USA)

Martin Rev (1980)
Clouds of Glory (1985)
The Sum of Our Wounds (2023) (recorded in 1973 - 1985)

I am not sure how many of EEM readers would actually enjoy or be interested in Martin Rev's music. This member of Suicide released a range of solo albums over the years. In the early days, he mixed cheesy electronic rhythms with thick synth textures for a sound that can be roughly placed between synth-punk intensity of Martin's former band and the prog EM experiments of kraut pioneers Conrad Schnitzler, Cluster and Kraftwerk. Most of the music on these albums is instrumental. This is an incomplete discography for this "fringe artist" in the EEM roster. File under EM-related.


Rev, Mikkel (Norway)

The Art of Levitation (2023)

Hypnotic, sequencer-based EM and 1990's-styled ambient techno from this artist.


Rêve Humide (Russia)

Shine (2018)

St. Petersburg-based duo with a lush, melodic / ambient sound and something of an erotic theme going.


Revenant Sea, The (UK)

The Revenant Sea (2013)
Their Worlds Are Lost In the Din of Jets (2013) (with Roadside Picnic)
Terror From Space (2014)

Ghostly sci-fi ambience from Matt Bower.


Reverberant Evenings (Italy)

1st Report (2013)
After the Silence (2014)
Every Man Is the End of the Day (2016)

Droning soundscapes from Palermo. Good stuff a bit in the style of Oophoi.


Revideolized (USA)

TheMooNDriveNDark (2006)
Look-In (2007)
Sounds From the Canyon (2008)
Revideolized (2009)

Melodic and rhythmic EM with something of a darkwave touch.


Reykjavik606 (Spain)

The Eleven EP (2014) (EP)
Stop Looking For Happiness In the Same Place You Lost It (2016) (EP)
Everything Happens For A Reason (2017) (EP)
Kontakt (2019) (EP)
Endless Summer In Peckham (2020)

Basque duo mixing jazz instrumentation and electronics.


Rex Ilusivii (Serbia)

Disillusioned! (1987)
In the Moon Cage (2015) (recorded in 1988)
Koncert SNP 1983 (2016)
Selected Works
(2018) (recorded in ??)
Fool For Love (2019) (S)

Rex Ilusivii was a pseudonym of Mitar Subotić, one of the pioneers of ambient and electronic music in Serbia. His first LP, Disillusioned! from 1987, included a long track "Thanx Mr. Rorschach" as side B of the LP, based on themes of Erik Satie, one of his early influences. He then recorded a number of works in the experimental and electro-acoustic fields. His way of combining field recordings and samples with folk influences and subtle electronics was rather unique, as evidenced by In the Moon Cage, containing archive material from his Paris days in 1988. You can sort of consider it a version of World Music. Sometimes you also get that Klaus Schulze circa The Dome Event feeling, although Mitar's way of working with samples is slightly different. Mitar Subotić moved to Brazil circa 1990 to become a prominent producer and sound engineer, working with many luminaries of the local scene (combining Brazilian styles with electronics). Mitar tragically died in 1999 while trying to save his freshly recorded material with Bebel Gilberto when his studio in São Paulo caught fire.


Rex Kyed (Denmark)

Rex Kyed (2018)

Danish ambient duo consisting of Anders Rex and Peter Kyed.


Rex, Thilo (Germany)

The Dominoe Principle (1991)

This music was originally intended for a movie that never came out. The album has a couple of melodic tracks and some strange cut-up collages or snippets from the movie. Sadly, Thilo Rex died in 2009, only 51 years old.

See also: Megabyte, Quiet Force.


Rey (Denmark)

Rey (1992)
Hidden Vibrations (1999)
Innovative Desert (2008)

Versatile music, generally reminding on the latter day Tangerine Dream with a good dose of ambience tossed in and occasional tribal and techno elements popping up. Real name of the musician - Ulrik Rey Henningsen.


Reyes, Jordan (USA)

A Central Nervous System Depressant (2016)
Close (2019)
A Night With My Aunt's Dolls (2019) (S)
Fairchild Soundtrack + Border Land (2020)
Broken Sleep (2020) (EP)
Sand Like Stardust (2020)
Closer (2020)
What Is A Ghost? Is It Really Me? (2021)
Everything Is Always (2022)
Controlled Burning (2022) (with Eli Winter)

Diverse compositions from this Chicago-based artist who likes to focus on modular synthesis.


Reyes, Jorge (Mexico)

Ek-Tunkul (1983)
A La Izquierda Del Colibri (1985) (with Antonio Zepeda)
Comala (1986)
Viento De Navajas (1987)
Nierika (1989)
Prehispanic (1990)
Cronica De Castas (1990) (with Suso Saiz)
Bajo El Sol Jaguar (1991)
Tlaloc (1991) (with Francisco Lopez)
El Costumbre (1993)
Prehispanic Music For the Forgotten Spirits (1994)
Prehispanic Mystic Rites (1994)
The Flayed God (1994)
Tonami (1995)
Prehispanic Rituals (1996)
Mort Aux Vaches (1996)
The Other Conquest (2000)
Vine, Bark & Spore (2000) (with Steve Roach)
Pluma De Piedra (2002) (with Piet Jan Blauw)
Live In Tucson 2000 (2013) (with Steve Roach)
The Ancestor Circle (2014) (recorded in 2000) (with Steve Roach)
Primitive Substance (??)

Jorge Reyes was an iconic figure in Mexican music thanks to his unique combination of Ambient Space and Prehispanic influences. He was born in 1952 in Uruapan. During the 1960's Jorge studied classical music, jazz and electronic music in Germany. A period of traveling followed, with Jorge visiting such exotic places as India and Tibet. In the 1970's Jorge formed a couple of groups that combined rock music with prehispanic instruments. In the early 1980's, Chac Mool came into being - a progressive rock band. There, Jorge mostly played guitar and flute. Around that time his solo career started, with Jorge bringing his EM and Ambient influences to the fore. I've heard some of his music but it was a long time ago. I remember the music was fairly good, though. It's not very synthetic, but instead very organic-sounding stuff. Sadly enough, Jorge Reyes passed away on the 7th of February, 2009, in his home studio, at the age of 57. The cause was heart attack.

See also: Suspended Memories


Reynolds, James (USA)

The Mind's Eye (1991)

Varied soundtrack to a computer animation video. David Lanz is one of the guest players here.


Reznick, Graham (USA)

Glass Angles (2018)
Robophasia (2018)
The Grandfather (2019)
The Interconscious Catalogue (2022)

Los Angeles-based artist influenced by Kraftwerk, electro, synthwave and soundtracks.


Rh- (???)

Alder Wood Witching (2015) (EP)
Rh-'s IO (2018) (recorded in 2011)
Waterfield (2023) (recorded in 2012)
Golden Crowns of Annunaks (2023)

Dark Ambient project of Arthur Burns, member (keyboardist) of depressive black metal band Deep-Pression.


Rhaeticus (USA)

Space Station (2019)

Dark, sometimes collage-like electronics from Eddie O. and Eric Holmes.


Rhea (Belgium)

November Stars (2006)
The True Color of Titan's Lakes (2008)
Bourgoyen Promenade (2008)
Crescent (2013)
At Cosmic Nights (2015)
108 Minutes That Changed the World (2018)
Close To Moving Ice (2020) (recorded in 2018)

Rhea is the project of synthesist Mark De Wit (formerly of Purfoze). November Stars features long tracks of darkish Space Music - deep, otherworldly, flowing, gently rhythmic and echoing. Awesome, evocative textures. This is music to travel the spaceways. The first track ("Far Magnetar") features ethereal pads, effects and gentle sequences. It may all sound rather generic but you have to listen to it to really understand that this is quite simply some of the best "picture music" ever created. The sound is very good, I wonder, what equipment Mark used on this album. This is not music for passive listening. I do not recommend listening to this while doing other things, as you'll lose the flow, so to speak. "Keio Nebula" starts with a pulse and mysterious sounds of the dark variety. The track gradually develops, adding sounds, growing in intensity. More sequences are added and the track becomes quite loud and busy for a Space Music number. "Back In Space" surprises with upbeat tinkling sequences and menacing pads. The sequences go up and down, changing key, mutating, but somehow the track doesn't manage to grab me like the first two did. The album continues with "Fading Andromeda" - another sequencer-based track. This track is better than the previous one, although I still think that Mark's music works best when the sequences are put in the background and the atmospheres / soundscapes become the focus of the music (not vice versa). Anyway, "Fading Andromeda" is a pleasant EM number. I am sure I'll feel the urge to return to it after a while. A very beautiful composition. Halfway into the track, the sequences subside to give way for a floating section that's full of warm pads and cosmic soundscapes that gradually fade into the void. Nice! "Nebula Moog" starts with the darkest section so far. Soon an echoing sequence glides into the surface, forming the basis of this great atmospheric (and brooding) track. To sum it all up, I will say the following: I love EM and I love astronomy, so... yes, I loved this album!

See also: Purfoze


Rhedin, Anders (Denmark)

Kyoto Window (2019)

Tranquil synthy Ambient with an oriental edge.


Rheged (UK)

Rheged (1999)
Xwhyz (1999)
Mirage 2000 (2000)

Rheged is Carl Matthews.

See also: Matthews, Carl


Rhein (Germany)

Takes (2018)
Spiel (2020)
300_1 (2020)

Long tracks of droning synths etc.


Rheingold (Germany)

Rheingold (1980)
R. (1981)
Via Satellit / Fantasie (1983) (S)
Dis-Tanz (1984)

Dusseldorf new wave band led by Bodo Staiger. Their albums generally sound like a mixture of Neu! and Kraftwerk styles and could be considered partly EM. Rheingold had a female singer (not all tracks have vocals though). The first album was mixed by Conrad Plank.


Rhoades, Robert (UK)

Galactib Bathtub (2020) (S)

A pseudonym of Ben Champion. Interesting EM with tinkling sequences and melancholic melodies. Sometimes abstract. Best track: "Vertice".


Rhodes, Bill (USA)

Mind Break (1985)
Quantum XII (1986)
1986 (1986)
Outside Looking In (1986)
Anthology (1986) (recorded in 1981 - 1986)
Keyscan (1986)
The Neo-Classical Works (1987)
Neo-Classical Works Vol. 2 (1987)
Expression (1988) (recorded in 1980 - 1988)
Interfaces (1988)
Mind Break (1991) (recorded in 1978 - 1989)
Twilight Zone (1991)
Sculptures (1991)
Burning Faith (1991)
Music For the Next Century (1992)
Stardancer (1992)
Me Helix, You Axis (2001)

On IC label.

See also: Everfriend


Rhodian (Greece)

Rainbow In A Shattered Sky (2021) (S)
The Subjectivity of Time (2022) (S)
Rhodian (2022) (S)
Castello (2022) (S)
Decay of Humanity (2023)

Dark music project mixing elements of neo-classical, Greek folk, "dungeon synth", Dark Ambient and arpeggio / sequencer-based EM.


Rho-Eta Omega (Netherlands)

S.O.L. (1994)

Electronic Music by Sven Hansen released under a pseudonym. S.O.L. translates to Secrets of Life.

See also: Ivo, Electronic Universe, Hansen, Sven


Rhomb (USA)

Hidden Topographies (1998)
Lunatic (2000) (EP)

A duo of Michael Bentley and Nathan Kreisberg somewhat influenced by the 70's Electronic Music (TONTO, Klaus Schulze, Kraftwerk etc).

See also: Apiary, The, eM, Mollusk, Bentley, Michael.


Rhombus Index (UK)

Kernel Phase (2022)

Varied ambient compositions. The second half of Kernel Phase contains remixes.


Rhucle (Japan)

But the Flow of Time Is Only Present There, Might Not Have Any (2014)
Sleep Tape Vol. 1 (2014) (S)
Summer Candle (2015)
Luscious Sounds (2015)
Tattered Jacuzzi / White City Light (2015) (S)
Angel / Silent / Anxiolytic (2015) (S)
A Water Letter From You (2016)
Shimmer (2016)
Night Life (2016) (with Silentwave)
The Moon's Sigh (2016)
Colourless (2016)
Meadow In the Sky (2016)
Yellow Beach (2016)
White Ditties (2016)
Rustic Lullaby (2016)
Handmade Ocean (2017)
Tint (2017)
Wonderland (2017)
Quiet Moments (2017)
Before It Started Raining (2017)
Deep Consciousness (2017)
Reflection of the Shine (2017)
My Summer Girl (2017) (S)
Raw (2017) (S)
Cold Curtain (2017)
Emotions (2017) (S)
October Sea (2017)
Afternoon Stroll (2017) (S)
Beautiful Fragments (2017) (EP)
Personal Time (2017) (S)
Short Trip (2017)
Far In the Distance (2018)
Waves And Dots (2018)
Tears (2018)
Spring Telepathy (2018)
A Little Long Day (2018)
Winter Missions (2018)
Phantom Holiday (2018) (with Kromeshna)
In the Air (2018)
Stereo Tone / Stay Alone (2018)
New Rain (2018)
Fade In (2019) (S)
Sound Diary (2019) (with Toni Dimitrov)
So Sweet (2019)
Lately (2019)
From the Bottom (2019)
Photosynthesis (2019)
霧が晴れたら (2019)
日向ぼっこ (2019) (S)
Predawn (2020)
Middle (2020)
Above the Clouds (2020)
雪化粧 (2021)
Cycle (2021)
ほろほろ (2021)
With (2021)
Royal Blue (2021)
With (2021)
Maboroshi No Sazanami (2022)
Summer Chronicles (2023) (with David Cordero)

Tokyo-based ambient artist with some vaporwave influences and a lot of field recordings (water, birds, voices etc.)

See also: Rubies, The


Rhunes (USA)

Rhunes (2015) (EP)
Message of the Mystics (2020)

Krautrock-influenced one-man band from Missouri.


Rhythm & Noise (USA)

Contents Under Notice (1984)
Chasms Accord (1985)

Interesting project. Although related to the industrial scene and definitely influenced by that sound (lots of noise, concrete textures, electroacoustics, strange rhythms, classical interludes etc.), there are also moments of genuine kosmische synth drift. File under EM-related. Rhythm & Noise revolved around Naut Humon and a couple of friends.


Rhythm of Cruelty (Canada)

Memory Lapse (2021)

Edmonton-based Post-Punk collective who on Memory Lapse experiment with the EM genre, with nice sequencing on tracks like "Fleeting Moments". Actually, the whole album is rather moody and nice, with a dark-ish, neurotic vibe and often a "Heldon meets Jon Hassell" mood.


Rhythmic Theory (UK)

Travelling Without Moving (2016) (EP)
Circulation (2016)
Mechanized Dreaming (2019)

Bristol-based producer of techno, jungle, drum'n'bass and related styles who also shows a strong EM influence and potential. Some of the tracks on the above releases are EM and / or Ambient. With Mechanized Dreaming, it's a complete plunge into the world of sci-fi-ish electronics and ambience.


Ricardo Autobahn (UK)

Interrobang (2007)
The Golden Age of Video (2017) (S)

Under this pseudonym hides John Matthews, a pop musician, member of Cuban Boys and synth-pop duo Spray, among other projects. As "Ricardo Autobahn", he composes solo music, which is electronic, melodic, largely instrumental and pleasantly reminiscent of (or influenced by) Kraftwerk, which is not very difficult to guess. Also some mainstream pop / EDM influences can be easily detected on some tracks, as well as those of spacesynth. Sometimes dangerously un-progressive.


Ricci, Davide (Italy)

Ritual Journey (2019)
Ashes From Fallujah (2021)
The Occult Summoner (2022)

Dark, pulsing Electronic Music a bit in the style of Parallel Worlds, Dave Bessell et al (not identical but with a similar mood).

See also: Balance


Ricci, Vito (USA)

Postones (1983)
The Inferno (1983)
Say No More (1984)
Music From Memory (1985)
Cicada Music (??)
Ancient Music (??)
Whims (1995)
Musique d'Ameubliement (??)
Symphony For Amiga (2016)
My Little Life (2017)
Web1 (2024) (S)

Vito Ricci is a composer of multiple theater scores, as well as author of film soundtracks and live performances. He released his varied music (his electronic works are listed) on cassette, LP and CD.


Rice Goff III, Charles (USA)

Summit (1997) (with Hal McGee, Brian Noring, Shawn Kerby and Phil Klampe)
Cryptomnesia (1997) (with Hal McGee and Brian Noring)
Unholy Trinity (1998) (with Hal McGee and Phil Klampe)
Lobhia Aur Khumbi (1998) (with Hal McGee)
Meshed Mixages (2002) (with Bret Hart and Hal McGee)
Verve of the Void (2003) (with Hal McGee)
Organic Matter In the Midst of Space (2014) (S) (with Michael LaGrega)
Bare Arms On Public Streets (2014)
Sharpness of Formulation (2015) (with Michael LaGrega)
Heartbreaking Randomness (2023)

Veteran hometaper. His discography is extensive and I guess a lot of it will be too experimental. However, he does seem to like some good outer space alien electronics from time to time. For example, his Organic Matter In the Midst of Space, released in collaboration with Michael LaGrega, features music not unlike the busier and slightly noisier version of Zeit. Some collaborative stuff with Hal McGee is also interesting.


Rich, Robert (USA)

Modal Improvisations (1980)
Sunyata (1981)
Trances (1983)
Drones (1983)
Live (1984)
Inner Landscapes (1985)
Numena (1987)
Geometry (1987)
Rainforest (1989)
Strata (1990) (with Steve Roach)
Gaudi (1991)
Soma (1992) (with Steve Roach)
Propagation (1994)
Night Sky Replies (1995)
Yearning (1995) (with Lisa Moskow)
Stalker (1995) (with Lustmord)
A Troubled Resting Place (1996)
Fissures (1997) (with Alio Die)
Below Zero (1998)
Seven Veils (1998)
Humidity (2000)
Shamballa (2000)
Somnium (2001)
Bestiary (2001)
Outpost (2002) (with Ian Boddy)
Temple of the Invisible (2003)
Calling Down the Sky (2004)
Open Window (2004)
Echo of Small Things (2005)
Lithosphere (2005) (with Ian Boddy)
Electric Ladder (2006)
Music From Atlas Dei (2007)
Michael Somoroff's Illumination (2007)
Eleven Questions (2007) (with Markus Reuter)
React (2008) (with Ian Boddy)
Zerkalo (2008) (with Faryus)
Live Archive Vol. 1 (2009) (recorded in 1989)
Live Archive Vol. 2 (2009) (recorded in 2000)
Live Archive Vol. 4 (2009) (recorded in 2001)
Live Archive Vol. 5 (2009) (recorded in 2002)
Live Archive Vol. 6 (2009) (recorded in 2008)
Live Archive Vol. 7 (2009) (recorded in 2008)
Ylang (2010)
Medicine Box (2011)
Nest (2012)
Morphology (2013)
Premonitions 1980 - 1985 (2014)
Perpetual (2014)
Filaments (2015)
What We Left Behind (2016)
Vestiges (2016)
Lift A Feather To the Flood (2017) (with Markus Reuter)
Live At the Gatherings 2015 (2017)
The Biode (2018)
Tactile Ground (2019)
Caelum et Infernum (2020) (with Perceptual Defence)
Offering To the Morning Fog (2020)
Neurogenesis (2020)
Travelers' Cloth (2023)
For Sundays When It Rains (2023) (with Luca Formentini)

American synthesist (b. 1963) and one of the best-known Ambient composers. Raised in California, Robert became interested in electronics already in the 1970's, before he attended Stanford University, where he was able to experiment in the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics. When he was 13 (that would be 1976), he assembled his first analogue synthesizer. Some local live performances followed, Robert's concerts getting longer and deeper, sometimes lasting all night. Robert called his performances "sleep concerts" and encouraged the audience to bring their sleep bags and drift off while Robert coaxed floating, relaxed sounds from his synthesizers. A unique concept and hardly repeated by any other artist. His recording career started with 1981's Sunyata which made Robert a unique voice in Electronic Music and Ambient in particular. I think his music is great stuff, sometimes with ethnic influences, sometimes dark. His 1995 album with Lustmord (Stalker) is considered one of the staples of Dark Ambient sound. This is really scary, moody stuff. Don't listen to this before going to bed. The only thing I couldn't get into was Robert's flute playing on one of the tracks with it's ethnic sounding overtones, which for me sounds a bit out of place on this work. Don't get me wrong, I don't mind flute sounds on ethnic or World themed albums, it's just that it doesn't seem to fit with the rest of material on Stalker. But maybe that's just me, you have to listen to it yourself and decide whether you like it or not. Overall, this is really great stuff, so it's highly recommended. Robert's latest collaboration with British synthesist Ian Boddy is said to be a great journey through thickly textued ambient rhythms, captivating atmospheres and great sound effects. The other two albums I have (and love) are Strata, a collaboration with fellow synthesist Steve Roach, and Gaudi from 1991. Pieces like 'The Grotto of Time Lost' and 'Forever' from Strata are alone worth getting the whole album for. Beautifull stuff and overall a very satisfying album.

See also: Amoeba


Rich Ruth, Michael (USA)

Calming Signals (2019)
Where There's Life (2021)
It's A Beautiful Day In the Gulch (2022) (with Alex Swartzentruber)
I Survived, It's Over (2022)

The 2019 work is pastoral EM like a version of Cluster inspired by Americana music recorded by the artist in his home studio in Nashville, Tennessee. The ubiquitous sax seems to be the album's trademark. Pretty unique stuff. Where There's Life continues in the same style, but even more relaxing / meditative perhaps.


Richard, Charles (???)

Sonic Earth (2021)

Nice Ambient with a classic sound, a bit similar to early 1980's American artists.


Richard, Jean (France)

Mad Mutilator / Trepanator (2017) (recorded in 1983 and 1992) (with Patrick Giordano) (soundtrack)

Horror synth soundtracks to B-movies.


Richard, Jean-Pierre (France)

Musique Pour Le Voyage Interieur (1989)
Mouvances (1991)
Chemins... (1993)

Ex-Alpha du Centaure.


Richards, Raymond (USA)

A Coaxed Ghost (2022)

Pedal steel guitar player who is also into synths. He uses them extensively on A Coaxed Ghost, sometimes with sort of spacey / symphonic Vangelis / Pink Floyd results (as on "Absent Nebula").


Richards, Tom (UK)

Selected Live Recordings 2013 - 2016 (2016)
Pink Nothing (2019)

Varied musician and instrument builder based in London. Pink Nothing is an attempt to create semi-automated compositions on Mini Oramics Machine - an instrument designed and build by Tom based on the original "Oramics" visual synth concept and method by electronic pioneer Daphne Oram. Rhythmic, repetitive, quirky, experimental...


Richardson, Andrew (Australia)

Expanse (1984)

Ballet music from this Australian flutist. The lineup is Andrew Richardson: flute; Ian Eccles-Smith: keyboards. So it's a combination of flute and melodic synth themes. Bordering on new age and Ambient I would say. Richardson would go on to release Rainforest in 1985 - an album featuring mostly flute and field recordings and so, outside of the EEM's stylistic frames.


Richet, Christian (France)

The First (1989)
Faces of Fire (1995)
Percutone (1998)
Yada (2002)
Waves (2005)
Seven Years Later (2012)
Crépuscule (2016)
Two Visions of Unreal Worlds (2019)
Life Is But A Dream (2022)

Synthesist with several albums on the Musea label. Supposedly, traditional electronics, although pretty repetitive.


Richie, Keith (USA)

Sidetracks Volume 1 (2003)
Sidetracks Volume 2 (2005)
Sidetracks Volume 3 (2005)
Realite De Destination (2005)
Sidetracks Volume 4 (2006)
The Maestoso Interstellar Suite (2006)
La Familie du Solenoide (2007)
Xenogenesis Vol. 1: Dawn (2018)
Epica (2021)

Space Music and varied rhythmic / melodic synthetics from this USA-based musician. The author cites Tangerine Dream and John Carpenter as his main influences.


Richter, Ian (???)

Bloody Marys With An Angry Goddess (2021)

From hard-hitting techno to wacky prog EM. A varied bunch of tracks recorded by this artist during his stay in Vietnam. File under EM-related.


Richter, Max (Germany)

From Sleep (2015)
Out of the Dark Room (2017)
Ad Astra (2019) (soundtrack)
Voices (2020)
Voices 2 (2021)

German-born British neo-classical composer with a characteristic style, based on light, airy or melancholic piano sound, strings and sparse electronic noises. In 2015 he released an ambitious project Sleep, which represented his research of the dreamstates. It lasts for about 8 hours and is released in digital format only. The music is meant be slept to. From Sleep is a physical CD released by Deutsche Grammophon with some extracts of that work. Max Richter's trademark sound is here, with him using classical instrumentation (a real orchestra lent a hand) alongside synthesizers. The music is, quite expectedly, very dreamy and lulling, but also emotionally charged. If you like Harold Budd, Brian Eno and all the other ambient guys who like to play some piano, you might enjoy this one as well, although Sleep is more classically-inspired. Some of the tracks are based on electronic pads or drones, though. Max Richter is a very prolific soundtrack composer as well.


Richter, Max van (UK)

Resurrection (2002)

Arcane musician (Paul Lawler). Same style.

See also: Arcane, Lawler, Paul.


Richter, Pavel (Czech Republic)

Outside-Inside (2012)

Atypical, ambient electronic album from this Czech guitarist.


Rico, Randy (USA)

The Creation (2007)

Colorado-based artist who makes diverse instrumental Electronic Music / progressive rock.


Ridder, Roman (Germany)

Dawning (2017)
Endless Path (2019)

Warm ambient soundscapes with shades of dub from this Dusseldorf-based artist. A bit similar in spirit to the output of the Databloem label.


Riedl, Paul (USA)

Fish Season: Cosmic River (2021) (with Morris Kolontyrsky)
Ambient Mixtape Vol. 1 (2021) (recorded in 2014 - 2021)
Ambient Mixtape Vol. 2 (2021)
Fish Season: Fish II (2022) (with Morris Kolontyrsky)
Ambient Mixtape Vol. 4 (2022)
Ambient Mixtape Vol. 5 - The Water Tape (2022)
Cloudscapes (2022)
Ocean of Peace (2023)
Quintessence (2023)

The first Fish Season is a cosmic synth session by Blood Incantation members that predates their Timewave Zero release. Paul Riedl also composes solo synth music.

See also: Blood Incantation, Hoverkraft, Extraterrestrial.


Riechmann, Wolfgang (Germany)

Wunderbar (1978)

Electronic Music from this late ex-Streetmark synthesist. Starting his musical career in 1966, Wolfgang Riechmann formed an early band with Michael Rother and future Kraftwerk member Wolfgang Flür. He then joned Streetmark, and at around the same time (circa 1977) started his solo career. Unfortunately, the author did not see the release of his only LP, as in 1978 he tragically died (stabbed to death).

See also: Streetmark


Rieck, Stephen (Canada)

The Walls Have Eyes (1983)
Hard Reality (1984)

Obscure artist from Georgetown, Ontario, who made music sometimes a bit similar to symphonic or abstract Synergy style. He released a few tapes.


Rieg (Norway)

Source (1980)
Music For Wind (1980)
Voices (1981)
Return (2007)
The Absynth Ritual (2010)

Darkish synth music from this musician whose pseudonym is simply his real name (Geir) backwards.


Riegler, Heinz (Australia)

Survey #1 (2009)
Survey #2 (One Thousand Dreams I Never Had) (2012)
Sleep Health (2013)
Score For A Mineral Landscape (2013) (S)

Experimental musician based in Syndey. Survey #2 features shorter tracks of varying moods. Sleep Health contains long-form ambient compositions.


Riehl, H. Anton (USA)

Receiver 2 Meditations (2021) (soundtrack)

Analog synth enthusiast and composer from Los Angeles. Receiver 2 game soundtrack features nice and diverse EM, ranging from ambient to sequencer, but always relaxed.


Rieman, Eric Glick (USA)

Ten To the Googolplex (2001)
Lung Tree (2005) (with Lesli Dalaba and Stuart Dempster)
Echoes of Syros (2009) (with Stuart Dempster and Tom Heasley)
In My Mind, Her Image Was Reversed (2011)

Ambient music created exclusively on modified Fender Rhodes piano. Eric Glick Riemam is an experienced composer, improviser and jazz musician.


Riemann, Kurt (USA)

Electronic Nightworks (1983)
The Wizard of Oz (1985)
Gaia (1989)
Alaska (1993)

Synthesist from Anchorage, Alaska. The first album was produced by Klaus Schulze for his IC label and contains electronic interpretations of classical compositions. It was praised by Wendy Carlos, among others. The Wizard of Oz is suitably whimsical and on subsequent albums he developed his own style, creating original compositions.


Rien Virgule (France)

Trente Jours à Grande Échelle (2015)
Le Couronnement des Silex (2019)
La Consolation des Violettes (2021)
Concert au Goutailloux (2023)

Experimental quartet from France, sounding like a mixture of Art Zoyd and Goblin, with lots of organ sounds.

See also: Duval, Manuel


Riera, Aleix (Spain)

Computers' Synthesystem I (1999)
Computers' Synthesystem II (1999)
Twilight Zone (2003)

Spanish synthesist. Twilight Zone starts with "Running Between Diamonds" that immediately sets the tone for the whole album - melodic, rhythmic Electronic Music with Jarre stylings, especially during his Oxygene - Equinoxe period. It's quite obvious that a lot of modern digital synths were used here, but the subtle melodic sequences and the melodic style leave no doubt about the primary influence. "Running Between Diamonds Part 2" & "Running Between Diamonds Part 3" are full of bass lines, thumping beats and once again that typical "Jarre" melodic edge. I must admit I do enjoy Aleix's themes very much as they do seem to work and stick in your head after a while. Some moments do approach techno a bit too much for my liking, though. "Part 3" is the slow part, but the general ingredients are still there. Well done. "Looking For the Lost" returns to the upbeat style but sounds somewhat simplistic to me. "Defining G Part 1" has a very strange beginning with odd voices & abstract sounds. After a while a sawy bass synth ascends and gives way to a subtle melodic sequence that is soon joined by rhythm and other sounds. A very simple, repetitive and techno-like track. Perhaps the one I like the least so far, although I must admit the last part was fairly intriguing. The short "Part 2" is pretty beautiful - winds sounds, rain effects, subtle synth pads and mournful notes on top. Next is "Eyes of Children" that starts with resonating bell-like tones similar to those used by Schulze circa 1976 - 1977. After a while a melodic theme is introduced that I'll admit is pretty nice - very relaxing and soothing stuff. The theme is then embellished by some additional effects and stronger sounds. It all becomes a bit tiresome after a while, though. "The Sounds of Mars" is a really dramatic number at the beginning but becomes surprisingly lightweight and easy-listening when the rhythms are introduced. The dramatic moments do return a couple of times but never really reach any peak. "Space Chords" starts with deep drone and some white noise effects. The track is pretty minimal with repeating synthesizer sequences. On the other hand, it's pretty dark too, and reminds more on the Berlin School than on Jarre. Very mysterious stuff with no real theme or melody - just dark waves of sound and the sequence. Pretty good, this one. "Twilight Zone Part 1" is fairly bright in comparison, with a distinct symphonic theme - reminds on the more commercial Jarre mixed with some dance influences. Some atmospheric moments sound very much like the beginning of Vangelis' The City. This track is basically just electronic pop, nothing special about it. The second part is more laid-back and is dominated by pads and a bass rhythm. Some sample use here is clearly from the Zoolook school of thought. "Part 3" starts with clocking rhythms but after a while sequences are introduced along with a bass drum. More sequences are laid on top and it turns into quite a chugger. I liked that one a lot - it's the most sequencer-heavy track on the album. "It's Time To Get the Rhythm" is a bonus track whose main "attraction" seems to be the rhythm itself (obviously), as well as samples of what sounds like processed rap voices (!) And do I also notice an odd Duke Nukem 3D sample in there as well? Sounds more like a musical joke really. If you are looking for some melodic EM vaguely in the style of Jarre (i.e. without copying), give Twilight Zone a try. 

See also: Jesdat


Riesco, Jorge (Spain)

Jorge (1998)
Isamel Florito (2000)

Spanish artist with a complex style that blends rhythmic loops, symphonic soundscapes and intricate melodic lines.


Rigaud, Alex (USA??)

Transformation (2018)

Mixture of ambience, jazz and downtempo rhythms.


Rigel Centaurus (Russia)

Into Infinity (2012)
Habitable Zone (2012)
Atlas Coelestis (2012)
One Year On Numiba 32 (2013)
Galactic Center (2013)

Space Music by Andrey Hlybov.


Rigel Orionis (USA)

Complexities (2006) (with Stephen Philips)
A Cold Day In Purgatory - Disc 1 (2006)
A Cold Day In Purgatory - Disc 2 (2006)
Night Heat (2007)
Creative Sociopathy (2007)
The Drone Tone (2007)
Anatomy of Zen Part 1 (2008)
Anatomy of Zen Part 2 (2008)
The Winds of Kidron (2009)

Ambient. Rigel Orionis is a pseudonym of Jim Brenholts.

See also: Tin Moth's Breath, Orion's Belt.


Right Knider (Greece)

Piletosoma (2013)
Tectonivora (2014) (S)
Meizodon: The Cobra Session (2014) (S)
Organodesma (2015)
Aurora Urbanis (2017)

Right Knider is a project from Athens that combines some 1980's disco influences and soundtrack moods with progressive EM. Piletosoma is a limited and numbered cassette release containing studio outtakes recorded over the period of one year.


Rihmasto (Finland)

Koneisto (2000)
Café Ursulassa (2001)
Uoma (2002)
Metsän Juurella (2007)

Finnish ambient duo with music mostly of the darker variety and with lots of field recordings.


RikeErik (Germany)

Contact (2016)

Melodic EM from Erik Matheisen (Coral Cave) and Rike Casper (Lila).

See also: Coral Cave, Lila, Spectral Tune.


Rildrim (Spain)

The Lonely Wizard (2006)
Breathing Beauty (2008)
Fractal Universe (2011)
Poetry of the Unnamed (2011)
Ecosystems (2014)

Hypnotic, nature-inspired Ambient with a touch of new age. Rildrim is Carlos Butler from the Canary Islands.


Riles, Zak (USA)

Earthwave (2023)

Guitarist, sound engineer, member of rock / experimental bands Grails and Watter. There is enough guitar on Earthwave, but also heaps of electronics in a driving, melodic, rhythmic style akin to Ashra, F.D. Project, Maxxess, etc. The music was recorded in isolation during the pandemic in Zak's rural Kentucky studio. Nice.


Riley, Terry (USA)

Happy Ending (1972) (soundtrack)
Lifespan (1975) (soundtrack)
Shri Camel (1980)
Songs For the Ten Voices of the Two Prophets (1982)
The Light Is Real (2023) (with Thollem McDonas and Nels Cline)

Legendary minimalist composer. The soundtrack "Happy Ending" has some prog EM moments as well as some purely avant-garde passages. Songs... was made using two Sequential Circuits Prophet 5 synthesizers.


Riley, Windsor (USA)

The Move of Life (1986)

Typical Electronic New Age of the time, not in an esoteric way but rather in new instrumental mould (although it is about 90% synthesizer-based). Some subtle Vangelis-isms are to be found here.


Rimbert, Francis (France)

Bionic Orchestra (1979)
Sponsor Spots (1980) (with Jean-Pierre Savelli)
April Orchestra Vol. 36 (1980)
Passing Shot (1980)
Duty Free (1982) (with Jean-Pierre Savelli)
FR2 (1982) (with Frédérick Rousseau)
April Orchestra Vol. 51 (1983)
April Orchestra Vol. 54 (1984)
April Orchestra Vol. 56 (1984)
April Orchestra Vol. 64 (1986)
Keyboards Songs (1987)
Digital Faith (1988)
A.L.I.V.E. (1989)
Scenario (1991)
Double Face (2005)
Mecanique du Temps (2006) (S)
Snap Shots (2007) 

French composer and synth programmer born in 1952. He studied at the conservatory and, spending the bulk of the 1970's as one half of a rock / folk duo, he discovered synthesizers while working at a musical instrument shop in the end of the decade. He immediately got hooked and started experimenting with the new and exotic gear. He quit his rock band Fanchris and concentrated on solo electronic compositions. In 1979, he met Jean-Michel Jarre who was doing gigs at that time. This immediately brought mutual friendship and collaboration. In the early 1980's, Francis did some comissioned works for music library labels that were basically Francis alone with his synthesizers. Starting from 1986, Rimbert has been present on every major Jarre gig as an additional keyboard player and programmer. Francis is also known to have collaborated with several major synthesizer manufacturers like Roland and Ensoniq.


Rime Trails (Denmark)

Solstice (2017)
Sacred Groves (2018)
Perigee (2018)
Among the Farthest Hebrides (2020)
Ama Nesciri (2022)

Ambient with a huge piano presence.


Rinder & Lewis (USA)

Cataclysm (1980)

Disco duo formed by two producers Laurin Rinder and W. Michael Lewis. After completing several projects during the 1970's, they started in 1977 under their own names with Seven Deadly Sins and released several albums until calling it a day somewhere in the mid-1980's. They progressed from standard disco to weirder realms. The title track from Cataclysm, for example, is good punchy Electronic Music with a fat rhythm. Further investigation is needed.

See also: Lewis, William Michael


Ring, Liis (Sweden)

Åker (2018)
Homing (2023)
Vaikelu (2023)

Swedish indie pop / experimental artist currently residing in Tallinn. Åker contains a nice electronic track: "One Night With Serge", recorded, as you've guessed it, on a Serge modular synthesizer. Homing is another EM / ambient electronics-related work, although it also has a strong acoustic / field recordings component. Also check out her music as Cirkl.

See also: Cirkl


Ringard (France)

Especial Vol. 2 (2016) (S)

Techno producer from Rennes. For some reason, he included an ambient track on his Especial Vol. 2 EP. It is called "A Matter of Time". I wonder if he would explore more of that territory in the future. A one-track inclusion.


Ringbearer (Canada)

The Way Is Shut (2009)
The Dark Side of the Mountain (2013)
A Journey Across Middle Earth (2013)
Udying (2017)
King Under the Mountain (2017)
A Wind Through the Grass (2017)
Ghost of the Father (2019)
A Nameless Fear (2020)
Wraith (2022)
Dragons (2022)

This music mixes bombastic orchestral stuff with more ambient material, much in the way that Uruk-Hai from Austria does it.


Ringhof (Switzerland)

Nallo (2019)
Ballad For Heavy Lids (2021)

A project of Bern-based Silvio Brügger who is into modular synth-centered composition in ambient realms.


Rings Around Saturn (Australia)

Rings Around Saturn (2015)
Dream Theory (2015) (S)
Erosion (2015) (EP)
4 (2015)
Erosion Part 2 (2017) (S)
UNTHANK 011 (2017)
Rings Around Saturn (2018)
Artificial Visual System (2020) (S)
All Things Shining (2023)

Varied soundscapes by Dan White aka Rory McPike from Melbourne. Often based on sequences and the sounds of analog synthesizers.


Rintamäki, Jukka (Finland)

The Lost Fast One (2014)
Aspirin - An Introspective Compilation (2016) (recorded in 2000 - 2015)

Ambient artist with a strong neo-classical bend, as well as a bit of industrial in his sound. Jukka Rintamäki is also a game soundtrack composer.


Rion (UK / Japan)

ホタル (2013)

Droning, semi-acoustic ambience from this duo.

See also: Hawgood, Ian


Riordan, Marc (USA)

Life Systems (2021)

Chicago-based drummer and pianist. Life Streams features soft, tinkling electronic compositions with ambient and neo-classical influences.


Riot Meadows (USA)

[Natural_Circuitry] (2013)

Wisconsin-based artist who works at the crossroads between vaporwave and Ambient. I will try to list his EM-related and ambient works, omitting his vaporwave-oriented stuff.


Riou, Ronan et Molle, Marion (France)

Le voyage avec Jean-Marie (2015)
La Flourenn en Mars (2020)

Le voyage avec Jean-Marie is long pieces broken into multiple short sections filled with voices / dialogues, field recordings, acoustic guitar and electronics that sound like Cluster doing circus music.


Riparbelli, Pietro (Italy)

The Haunting Triptych (2010) (with Philippe Petit)
Whinny Muir (2011) (with Yannick Franck)
Three Days of Silence - The Mountain of the Stigmata (2012)
Becoming Sound (2014) (with Alessio Ballerini)
Sortie (2014)
The Quarter Tone Piano Pieces (2014) (with Claudio Rochetti)
Vacuum (2015)
Metamorfismo (2017) (S) (with Emanuele Becheri)

Italian multimedia artist who uses a lot of field recordings. Of interest is his dark synth work Vacuum.


Riparetti, Tony (USA)

The Interrogation of Cheryl Cooper (2021) (soundtrack)
Crazy Six (2021) (soundtrack)

The Interrogation... is a mostly (dark) ambient soundtrack with some rhythmic moments.


Ripperton (Switzerland)

Sight Seeing (2018)
Contrails (2019)

Completely ambient / EM albums from this musician previously known for a few techno / house productions.


Ris (Serbia)

Frozen Idols (2022) (S)
Bauk Buka (2022) (S)
La Pastorale del Destino (2023)

Doomy synth music influenced by horror scores.


Rising Star (USA)

Totally Space (2001)

Marc Handschuh aka Rising Star was raised in Germany but now resides in California, USA. He built his first synthesizer in 1979 and has been playing around with sounds ever since. However, soon his music took a complete turn towards the new age side of things, with Marc being preoccupied with putting out "meditation" or "healing" music. I am not even sure that this artist should be in EEM at all, all I know is that Totally Space is slightly different from his usual output, being more in Space Music mould.


Rising Sun Systems (Netherlands)

Oberheim Space (2018) (recorded in 2015)

Another pseudonym of the uber-prolific Danny Wolfers. This one has a nice EM feeling to it - smooth, a bit ambient, relaxing, melodic and warm synth sounds and sequences dominate.

See also: Wolfers, Danny, Legowelt, Weltman, Klaus, Falckenhaus, Franz, Phalangius, Knutson, Saab, Smackos, Nomad Ninja, Occult Orientated Crime, Ufocus, Zandvoort & Uilenbal, Taniyama, Satomi, Osmo, Sammy, Psychic Stewardess, The, Bontempi 666, Lobosquillo, Mavelli, Florenza.


Ristovski, Laza (Serbia)

Trazis Oprostaj / Anzelika (1980) (S)
Merge (1982)
2/3 (1983)
Vojnicki Dani (1984)
Roses For A General (1984)
Opera (1985)
The Lady In Red (1991)
Quit (1993)
Naos (1994) (with Aleksandar Lokner)
Necista krv (1997) (soundtrack)
Gondola (2002)
Drvo Zivota (2008)

Lazar (Laza) Ristovski was born in Novi Pazar, Serbia. During the 1970's, he became the founder and keyboard player of progressive rock bands Smak and Bijelo Dugme. His solo albums contain Electronic Music with huge organ presence. For the last several years of his life, Laza was confined to a wheelchair because of multiple sclerosis. Despite that, he continued to write and perform music. He died on October 6, 2007.


Rites (USA)

Nadador del Alma (2014)

A project of Ohio-based Evan Scott Sharfe, member of coldwave duo Skeleton Hands. Here, it's ambient electronics, pretty varied and a bit noisy.


Rites of Fall (Poland)

Truthsayer (2017) (EP)
Towards the Blackest Skies (2019)

Warsaw-based project in ambient style, but sort of active and often with rhythms and repeating melodies. Rather unique and nice overall.


Ritter Space (Spain)

Classified Orbit (2017) (S)

The above is an unlikely "12 EP containing two techno tracks and two Prog EM tracks (the opener and the closer).


Ritualz (Mexico)

Häxan (2020) (recorded in 2018)

Varied project of Juan Carlos Lobo Garcia from Mexico City. The above is his imagined soundtrack to 1922's classic silent horror movie. It was performed on various synths, drum machines and sequencers and has a pulsing, often Carpenter-like and / or noisy sound.


Rival Consoles (UK)

Articulation (2020)
Overflow (2021)
Now Is (2022)

Rival Consoles is a project of London-based Ryan Lee West. He is related to the club and IDM scenes. However, on Articulation, there is a strong influence of Ambient and Progressive EM, with elements of IDM and deconstructed club music. A crossover work, then.


River of Dreams (UK)

Return Journey (1986)
Vision of Change (1988)
Sundown (1991)

River of Dreams is (was?) a duo of Dave Palmer and Steve Morrell. Both played synths and Dave Palmer also played guitar. It seems that they were based in Newcastle and their cassettes were released by Moonrise Recordings. Their music is melodic EM.

See also: Eternal Moon


Rivera, Jerod S. (USA)

Virgo (2021)

Oakland-based composer and synth collector. Varied music made mostly with analog machines - from IDM rhythms to pure analog proggyness.


Riverrun (UK)

Pentimento (2010)
La Mer (2011)
New Cartographies (2013)
Romer Shoal (2016)
Lilliput (2018)
Southernmost (2019) (with William Delano)
The Same Silent Hill (2020)
Avalon Marsh (2021)
Crow Covert (2022)

A project of ambient artist Daniel Land. Nice, reflective sound. Not dark. Comparable to Brian Eno.

See also: Arber


Riverside (Poland)

Eye of the Soundscape (2016)

Polish progrock band. Eye of the Soundscape focuses on their instrumental work, with remixed album tracks and completely new compositions.

See also: Duda, Mariusz


Rivest, Tom (Canada)

Voyage dans l'Universe (1984)

Ex-Pollen musician Jacques Tom Rivest. He has a couple of other albums that don't have anything to do with EM. This one is too obscure.


Rivet (Sweden)

On Feather And Wire (2021)
L+P-2 (2023)

A project of Malmö-based Mika Hallbäck Vuorenpää. Rhythmic, quirky, experimental electronics with touches of Chris & Cosey, Moebius, Schnitzler and even Klaus Schulze circa Trancefer.


Rizzuto, Filippo (Italy)

Animazioni, Fiabe, Avventure (1974)

Obscure electronic library music.


RKB Vitesse (UK)

The More You Love Yourself the More You Will Be Loved (2020)

A project of Oliver Marchant - member of synth-pop / eurodance collective SDF. Mostly dancey tunes here, but the album (The More You Love...) closes with a long ambient track "Place Beyond Worry", which is pretty nice.



Epic Proportions (1984)
Vanishing Species (1988)

Electronic trio of Reginald Taylor, Louis Boone and Marlena Valenti. The style is not known at the moment.

See also: Boone, Louis


rlung (Russia)

Nontenporary (2019)

A project of Russian-born, Taiwan-based Iana Koroleva. Intense, cinematic electronic compositions.


RNGMNN (Germany)

Twentyseven (2007)
On Darker Trails (2018)
The Devil's Yell (2019)
Arctic Interference (2019)
Sector Hydra (2019) (with Dronny Darko)
False Dawn (2021)
Never Sleep Again (2023) (with Karina Dorin)

Ronny Engmann is a Berlin-based Dark Ambient artist who uses a lot of field recordings.


RNLT (???)

Ìð³þ ïðî ×îðíîáèëü (2022)

Long, collage-like pieces with voices and electronic sounds. A bit dark.


Roach, Bruce (Australia)

Gut (2019)

Diverse short tracks, from minimal synth-like to weird voices and, yes, Prog EM.


Roach, Steve (USA)

Now (1982)
Traveler (1983)
Empetus (1984)
Structures From Silence (1984)
Quiet Music (1986)
Quiet Music 2 (1986)
Quiet Music 3 (1986)
Western Spaces (1987) (with Kevin Braheny and Richard Burmer)
Dreamtime Return (1988)
The Leaving Time (1988) (with Michael Shrieve)
Desert Solitaire (1989) (with Kevin Braheny and Michael Stearns)
Stormwarning (1989)
Strata (1990) (with Robert Rich)
Australia: Sound of the Earth (1990) (with David Hudson and Sarah Hopkins)
Ritual Ground (1991) (with Solitaire)
World's Edge (1992)
Soma (1992) (with Robert Rich)
Origins (1993)
The Lost Pieces (1993) (recorded in 1988 - 1992)
Artifacts (1994)
The Dream Circle (1994)
Well of Souls (1995) (with Vidna Obmana)
Kiva (1995) (with Michael Stearns and Ron Sunsinger)
Dust To Dust (1995) (with Roger King)
Magnificent Void (1996)
The Dreamer Descends (1996) (S)
Halcyon Days (1996) (with Kenneth Newby and Stephen Kent)
Cavern of Sirens (1997) (with Vidna Obmana)
On This Planet (1997)
Gunyal (1998) (with David Hudson)
Ascension of Shadows (1998) (with Vidna Obmana)
Slow Heat (1998)
Body Electric (1999) (with Vir Unis)
Light Fantastic (1999)
Truth & Beauty: The Lost Pieces Vol.2 (1999) (recorded in 1987 - 1996)
Atmospheric Conditions (1999)
Midnight Moon (2000)
Vine, Bark & Spore (2000) (with Jorge Reyes)
Prayers To the Protector (2000) (with Thupten Pema Lama)
Live Archive (2000) (with Vidna Obmana)
Circles And Artifacts (2000) (with Vidna Obmana)
The Serpent's Lair (2000) (with Byron Metcalf)
Early Man (2000)
Blood Machine (2001) (with Vir Unis)
Core (2001)
Streams And Currents (2002)
Innerzone (2002) (with Vidna Obmana)
Trance Spirits (2002) (with Jeffrey Fayman)
All Is Now (2002)
Day Out of Time (2002)
Darkest Before Dawn (2002)
Life Sequence (2003)
Texture Maps - The Lost Pieces Vol. 3 (2003) (recorded in 1987 - 2003)
Spirit Dome (2004) (with Vidna Obmana)
Fever Dreams (2004)
Holding the Space: Fever Dreams 2 (2004)
Mantram (2004) (with Metcalf and Seelig)
Places Beyond (2004)
New Life Dreaming (2005)
Possible Planet (2005)
Somewhere Else (2005) (Vidna Obmana)
Immersion: One (2006)
Terraform (2006) (with Loren Nerell)
Kairos (2006) (with Steve Lazur)
Proof Positive (2006)
Storm Surge (2006)
Immersion: Two (2006)
Fever Dreams 3 (2007)
Arc of Passion (2007)
Immersion: Three (2007)
A Deeper Silence (2008)
Landmass (2008)
Empetus / The Early Years (2008) (recorded in 1982 - 1984)
Nada Terma (2008) (with Metcalf and Seelig)
Dynamic Stillness (2009)
Destination Beyond (2009)
Stream of Thought (2009) (with Erik Wøllo)
Afterlight (2009)
Immersion: Four (2009)
Live At Grace Cathedral (2010)
Dream Tracker (2010) (with Byron Metcalf and Dashmesh Khalsa)
Sigh of Ages (2010)
Nightbloom (2010) (with Mark Seelig)
The Desert Inbetween (2010) (with Brian Parnham)
Immersion: Five (2011)
Road Eternal (2011) (with Erik Wøllo)
Live At SoundQuest Fest (2011)
Journey of One (2011) (recorded in 1996)
Groove Immersion (2011)
Back To Life (2011)
Low Volume Music (2012) (with Dirk Serries)
Tales From the Ultra Tribe (2012) (with Byron Metcalf)
Soul Tones (2012)
Future Flows (2013)
Rasa Dance (2013)
Live Transmission From the Drone Zone At Soma FM (2013)
Live In Tucson 2000 (2013) (with Jorge Reyes)
Spiral Meditations (2013)
At the Edge of Everything (2013) (recorded in 2000)
The Long Night (2014) (with Kelly David)
The Delicate Forever (2014)
The Delicate Beyond (2014)
The Ancestor Circle (2014) (recorded in 2000) (with Jorge Reyes)
Monuments of Ecstasy (2015) (with Byron Metcalf and Rob Thomas)
Skeleton Keys (2015)
The Skeleton Collection 2005 - 2015 (2015)
Etheric Imprints (2015)
Bloodmoon Rising (2015)
Recordings 1982 (2015)
Alive In the Vortex (2015)
Vortex Immersion Zone (2015)
Emotions Revealed (2015) (recorded in 1983 and 1982)
Live In Tucson: Pinnacle Moments (2016)
Second Nature (2016) (with Robert Logan)
Biosonic (2016) (with Robert Logan)
This Place To Be (2016)
Shadow of Time (2016)
The Delicate Beyond (2016)
Fade To Gray (2016)
Painting In the Dark (2016)
Spiral Revelation (2016)
The Passing (2017)
Nostalgia For the Future (2017)
Long Thoughts (2017)
Molecules of Motion (2018)
Electron Birth (2018)
Return To the Dreamtime (2018)
Mercurius (2018)
Heliosphere (2019) (with Radiant Mind)
Atmosphere For Dreaming (2019) (recorded in 2018)
The Gesture of History (2019) (with Sam Rosenthal and Nick Shadow)
Invisible (2019) (recorded in 2014)
POV (2019) (with Miles Richmond and Peter Grenader)
Bloom Ascension (2019)
Trance Archeology (2019)
The Sky Opens (2020)
Stillpoint (2020)
Nectar Meditation (2020) (with Serena Gabriel)
POV2 : The Case For Square Waves While Searching For Happy Accidents (2020) (with Peter Grenader and Miles Richmond)
A Soul Ascends (2020)
Inanna's Dream (2020) (with Serena Gabriel)
Tomorrow (2020)
Into the Majestic (2021)
Temple of the Melting Dawn (2021) (with Serena Gabriel)
As It Is (2021)
Live At SoundQuest Fest 2021 (2021)
Beyond Earth & Sky (2021) (with Michael Stearns)
Zones, Drones & Atmospheres (2022) (recorded in 2021)
Nautical Twilight (2022) (with Frank Beissel)
What Remains (2022)
Ambient Church - New York City (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Rest of Life (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Sanctuary of Desire (2023)
Desert Winds of Change (2024) (recorded in 2023)

American synthesist and a giant of Ambient music. Steve Roach was born in 1955 in La Mesa, California. He was once a professional motorbike racer but was heavily inspired by the works of German electronic pioneers Tangerine Dream and Klaus Schulze. He started playing synthesizers at the age of 20, both solo and in groups. Over the years he's become one of the premier names in American Ambient. However, Roach's music is not all about Ambient, he also did some rhythmic works in Berlin School style, especially in his early days. For the Berlin School fan I can recommend Now, Traveler, Empetus and Strormwarning. His 2002 release, Core, can be also classified as Berlin School although certalinly with a modern twist. His Ambient works are all very diverse and generally they can be divided into small groups, like classic Ambient and Space Music (Quiet Music), Tribal Ambient (for instance, Origins or Ritual Ground - Roach is considered to be the founder of this direction in Ambient music), finally, some of his works are rather dark, so those who like Dark Ambient music may also try some of his albums (Early Man being a great example). In other words, with all his 'normal' releases, collaborations and numerous samplers on which Roach's music is featured, he is one of the most prolific composers of Electronic Music today. He's worked in too many styles to really try to mention here, but is generally filed under categories such as Ambient, Tribal, World, Space and Rhythmic.

See also: Suspended Memories, Moebius.


Roads, Jim (Bulgaria)

Íîùíèÿò âëàê (2022)

Seems to be a hard rock musician (Jim Roads is most likely a pseudonym). However, some tracks on Íîùíèÿò âëàê are electronic. There is a long ambient synth piece "Aurora Borealis", a march-like "Alternate Reality" with its nice analog sounds and a few electronic moments here and there in other tracks of the album. File under EM-related.


Rob (France)

Maniac (2012) (soundtrack)
Un Ciel Radieux (2018) (soundtrack)
Campfire Creepers (2018) (S) (soundtrack)

Rob (real name - Robin Coudert) is a French musician born in 1978. Maniac is his sountrack to a thriller movie starring Elijah Wood and Nora Arnezeder. Amazingly, the music is synth based and is done completely in the style of 1970's - 1980's synth soundtracks and has a strong prog EM vibe to it. Campfire Creepers is another EM-centered score. Ditto for Un Ciel Radieux, although that one mixes quite a bit of orchestral elements to a base of electronics.


Rob What (Canada)

Steak House (2017)

An alias of Winnipeg-based artist Rob Volar. From pure instrumental pop cheese to quite good atmospheric EM.


Robbins, Janet (USA)

Carrying the Bag of Hearts, Interpreting the Birth of Stars (2004) (S)
Carrying the Bag of Hearts, Interpreting the Birth of Stars Vol. 2 (2005) (S)
Carrying the Bag of Hearts, Interpreting the Birth of Stars Vol. 3 (2008)
Song of the Gypsy Tree (2011)

When I got her first CD, I thought to myself: well, well... finally, a female EM artist! And my delight was even bigger when I started listening to it only to find out that the music is actually very good! Ok, so what we have here is a three track mini-CD of rhythmic Space Music and floating Ambient. The first track is called "At the Heart of A Spiral Galaxy". It's a long cosmic journey, with laid-back tribal / electronic rhythms supporting flowing atmospheres and melodic phrases - pretty deep, relaxing and tasty, a must for Space Music fans. Various effects and cricket sounds can be heard in the background, which give it a nocturnal atmosphere. This is great music to watch the stars. "Voluntary Exile" is the odd one of the lot. Basically a sparse minimalistic piano / electronics workout, it really came as a surprise. Interesting track, nonetheless, very ambient and atmospheric. There's a sense of melancholia throughout that I found highly enjoyable. Finally, "In the Beginning" is a solid slab of primordial Ambient, akin to the best works by artists like Steve Roach or Robert Rich. It's totally rhythmless and very deep. At some point there's even a great, totally mesmerizing mellotron string sound! A very nice little CD from a talented musician. I sure want to hear more. Recommended.


Robeone (USA)

Circles (2019)
Halos And Dogs (2021)

Robert Schindler aka Robeone is a keyboardist and synthesizer player who works both in the studio and as a live performer. His style is flashy and complex, based on progressive rock, jazz fusion and Electronic Music traditions.


Robert, John (USA)

3 Steps From Tomorrow (1992)
Secret Realms (1993)
Intuition (??)

Relaxing, mysterious.


Robert, Justin (USA)

Blood Reef (2015)

Diverse compositions from Justin Wierbonski. Ranges from loop-based ambient to cosmic and relaxing synth.


Robert, Sébastien (France)

Emerging Threshold (2021)

Varied ambient electronics from this artist based in The Hague. A mixture of rough synthesized atmospheres and processed field recordings made in Chile.


Robert T (USA)

Night Waves (2016)
Format A (2016)

Robert T Wilson is an ex-air traffic controller turned synth musician channeling the 1980's soundtrack vibes mostly (Tangerine Dream), with a touch of current synthwave scene.


Roberts, E.R. (Canada)

Moods For Sauna 1 & 2 (2017)

Calm synth compositions, sort of minimal and lo-fi.


Roberts, Francis (USA)

Guardian Beast Sleeps (2019)
Musical Instrument d e a t h Interface (2019)
The Friends You Met Along the Way (2020)
Story From Another Time (2020)

Basically a dungeon synth artist (he describes his music as "Fantasy ambient"), Francis Roberts sometimes prefers to use analog synths, which makes his music more EM-like.


Roberts, Gowlan (UK)

Gorn (2003)
Strom (2007) (with Etheocles Stevens)

Ambient soundscape artist who releases his music on Seetyca's Mbira Records imprint. The latter collaborates on Gorn.


Roberts, Jim (???)

Audio Landscapes (1984)


Roberts, John (USA)

Can Thoughts Exist Without the Body (2019)

Ambient music using mostly textures and instruments typical of neo-classical music, such as piano, strings, etc., but arranging them in a way typical of Ambient that uses synthetic sounds.


Robertson, Al (UK)

The Axe Gets Axed (1981)

Scottish minimal synth pioneer, producing synthesizer-based musics since the late 1970's. Just like The Klingons, a band he would form in the early 1980's, on this solo cassette release he mixes the usual minimal synth fare of the time with the ever so slight Prog EM influence (Kraftwerk seems to be the most obvious point of reference). Thankfully, not much in terms of vocals or lyrics here, although vocalizations are used sparsely on some tracks and the whole thing has a very crude, homemade / DIY quality to it. File under EM-related.

See also: Klingons, The


Robertson, Don (USA)

Resurrection (1981)
Starmusic (1982)
Spring (1984)
Anthem (1986)
Castles In the Sun (1988)

Don Robertson (born in Denver, Colorado, in 1942) is a name that some hardcore new age fans might have heard about. Indeed, I think some of his stuff is too sweet and new-agey for any true EM fan's ears. But you should definitely check out works like Resurrection and Starmusic, both of which are classics. Don Robertson debuted in 1969 with a hippie-inspired atmospheric world / folk album called Dawn. By the beginning of the 1980's, Don had discovered European Electronic Music of artists like Manuel Goettsching, Klaus Schulze and so on. These guys made an influence on his own vision of music, hence the change in direction during that period.


Robertson, Matt (UK)

Forecast (2013)
Entology (2018)
Enveleau (2021)

Warm ambient compositions made on analog equipment. Some gently rhythmic stuff as well. Entology is more rhythmic and propulsive.


Robertson, Tim (Honduras)

Outer Planetary Church Music (2015) (recorded in 1993)

Honduran-born, Tim Robertson is a much-travelled artist who had this idea to create "church music for future space colonies" during his stay in Africa. At least that's what the label's legend says. Long, drawn-out organ tones with a cosmic sound.


Robidoux, Michel (Canada)

Nova (1989) (with Raôul Duguay)
Moon (1996)

Michel Robidoux is a composer from Quebec who seems to be heavily involved in writing scores for theatre performances. The above albums contain Space Music.


Robillard, Maxime (USA)

From There To Here (2019) (with Milo McBride) (soundtrack)

Long ambient electronic tracks from this duo.


Robinson, Stewart (UK)

Deep Thought (1990)

Electronic Music recorded in Edinburgh, Scotland.

See also: Urban, Peri, Tranceport.


Robitaille, Jean (Canada)

Pendulum (1988)

As far as I'm concerned, Jean Robitaille (from Quebec) is mostly known for his jazzy elevator muzak. However, I've seen at least this album (it's not his only release) compared to early work by Pascal Languirand. In all honesty, I don't know if I can trust this information but there you have it. Further investigation is needed.


Robodrum (Poland)

Elektro Mafia (2020)

Polish electro project with a very heavy Kraftwerk influence circa Computer World / The Mix. I wish it was more based on the exploration of sounds and atmospheres and less on the beats, though.


Robohands (UK)

Shapes (2020)
Giallo (2022)
Palms (2023)

Robohands is London-based drummer and multi-instrumentalist Andy Baxter. On Giallo, he is inspired by Italian soundtracks of the 1970's and 1980's, as well as pioneering electronic / krautrock sounds of bands like Tangerine Dream and NEU!. Heavy use of the Roland Juno-60 synth here.


Robomaster (USA)

The Undiscovered Tapes (1997) (recorded in 1976 - 1995)

A project of San-Francisco-based Michael Schiess who has been around since the 1970's.


Robot City (Germany)

Scientific Romance (2002)
Die Planeten (2007)
The Replicator (2019)

Solo project of Albin Meskes, formerly of Yourovision.

See also: You, Silicon Dioxide.


Robotboot (USA)

The Emphemeral (2016)
Continuous (2018)

Chicago-based project who seems to have been releasing chiptune-related music prior to The Ephemeral. The latter ventures into lush, soundtracky synths and rhythms, though, mixing elements of synthwave and EM. The music was allegedly done with hardware instruments only.


Robotnick, Alexander (Italy)

Ce N'est Q'Un Debut (1984)
Analog Session (2010) (with Ludus Pinsky)

A marriage between italo-disco and Kraftwerk, mostly leaning for the latter. Included here because of said Kraftwerk reference. File under EM-related.

See also: Giovanotti Mondani Meccanici


Rocchi, Claudio (Italy)

Suoni di Frontiera (1976)

Claudio Rocchi (1951 - 2013) was a progressive folk musician and singer-songwriter who is mostly known for a series of early 1970's vocal albums. He then released this experimental electronic work that has a sort of a Cluster / Harmonia vibe to it (can also be compared to Giorgio Moroder's Einzelganger project from a year earlier), only to return to song-based work later in that decade, this time opting for a slicker pop sound. The preceding album (Rocchi, 1975) is said to be interesting as well. Further investigation is needed.


Rocchi, Stefano (Italy)

Contatto (2014) (S)
Contrasto (2015) (S)
Some Times (2017) (S)

Rome-based musician who is into cinematic music influenced by the whole retrowave scene and sci-fi soundtracks.


Rocco, Nick (USA)

Echolalia (2020)

Great and unique EM here - complex sequencer patterns, rich orchestrations, melodies that seem to use alternative tunings... An artist to look out for.


Rocha, Marcel (Brazil)

Live Looping 2010 (2010)
Ancient Computer Music (2011)
Strange Creatures (2016)
Imaginary Folklore (2018)

Experimental musician from Brazil who on Live Looping explored guitar looping techniques. With Strange Creatures, though, he entered the electronic domain, presenting varied, cinematic compositions.


Rochet & Pizarro (Spain)

Helio (2013)

Barcelona-based duo with an analog, sequencer-based (Berlin School) sound.


Rochette, Alain (Belgium)

Synthesis (1986)

Ex-member of chamber rock ensemble Present, Alain Rochette released at least two solo works: the acoustic-based jazz album Modulation in 1982 and this effort here that combines jazz / fusion influences with synthesized sounds and structures. File under EM-related.


Rochowski, Marco (Germany)

Silent Motion (2017)
The Essential Collection (2023) (recorded in ??)
Voyage of Discovery (2023) (recorded in ??)

Master of spacesynth music (for me definitely one of the best in the genre). Silent Motion gathers his slower, more ambient works. Nice, relaxed, melodic EM.

See also: Macrocosm


Rocket Robert (USA)

Rocket Robert (1982)

Privately pressed LP with Electronic Music made on analog synthesizers. Stylistically diverse, from spacey to rhythmic and experimental.


Rockford Kabine (Germany)

Copenhagen Climax (2013) (soundtrack) (with Marcella & The Forget Me Nots)

German trip-hop duo consisting of Stefan Zweers and Jochen Berndt. They are known for having scored a lot of weird and B-grade movies, including some adult ones. Copenhagen Climax belongs to the latter category. The tracks are very diverse and mostly short and nothing special but you should hear the 15-minute krauty EM monster "Axis of Pain" with its strange synth sounds, weird rhythms and fuzzy distorted guitars. There are also some neat and even genius touches elsewhere throughout the album.


Rockman, Walt (Austria)

Biology (1972)
The Walt Rockman Moog Moods (1975)
And His Synthesizer Band (1975)
Under Water Vol.1 (1978)
Pollution (1980)

These are library records, apparently filled with interesting electronic sounds. Walt Rockman (real name - Gerhard Narholz, b. 1937) is also known as John Epping, Otto Sieben, Tony Tape etc etc.

See also: Epping, John


Rocks (USA)

Rocks (??)

Privately pressed cassette release from Santa Fe, NM. The style is not known at the moment.


Rodap, Claude (Martinique)

Syn_Ca (1982)
Bélétronic (2016) (recorded in 2000, 1999 and 1996) (S)

Syn_Ca is a slightly EM-related disc by this musician from Trois-Îlets, accompanied by the Fregate Orchestra, apparently from Guadeloupe. It sounds like jazz-fusion which is very heavy on the synths. In fact, analog synths form the very basis of the music, they provide bass, pads, solos, etc. There is also percussion, drums and some guitars. The music is hardly progressive for the most part, but is pretty nice and unique overall, and there are also some spacier, proggier moments, such as the beginning of the opener "Zolpen" and some of the melodies do have a vague Jarre feel. The Fregate Orchestra went on to release at least one more album in 1986, which I know nothing about at the moment. Bélétronic is a mini-release with some archived tracks by Rodap, which are more or less in the style of Syn_Ca, but with a more 1990's sound.


Rodbourne, Chris (UK)

Frozen Thoughts (1994)


Roddy, Amos (USA)

Kingdom (2018) (soundtrack)
In Other Waters (2021) (soundtrack)
Citizen Sleeper (2022) (soundtrack)

Amos Roddy is a Portland, Oregon-based artist. Citizen Sleeper is a nice, moody electronic soundtrack to a video game. Cinematic, spacey, synthy, melancholic...


Röde, Jonas (Sweden)

Går (2015)

Swedish artist who uses processed sax and electronics for an avant-tinged, experimental, ambient sound. This is only very marginally EM, but the influence is there.


Rodent (USA)

Veracis / Viands (2016) (S)
Rodent (2016)
FG026 (2017) (S)
Despair Procedure (2019)

Eric Rodent Cheslak is an Asheville, NC-based synthesist with a special focus on modular sound sculpting (mostly Eurorack). Ranges from intense and noisy to ambient and even bits of sequencer.


Röder, Klaus (Germany)

Elektronische Kompositionen (1981)
Kompositionen 1981 - 83 (1983)
Kristallisationen (2009)
Kristallisationen 2 (2010)
Prélude Pour La Fraternité / Präludium Für Die Brüderlichkeit (1989), Electronic Vocal (1978), Überraschungen (1972) (2022)
Etüde Für Klangwandlerorchester (1984), Cloches Imaginaires (1983), Zweiter Tanz (1976), Dritter Tanz (1976) (2022)

Klaus Röder (born in 1948 in Stuttgart) was a short-time member of Kraftwerk in 1974. He has also developed his own musical language that will most likely be enjoyed by fans of Experimental electronics.

See also: Kraftwerk


Rødhåd (Germany)

Anxious (2017)
Mood (2020)
Out of Place Artefacts (2021) (with Vril)
In Vere (2022) (with JakoJako)
Out of Place Artefacts II (2022) (with Vril)

A project of Mike Bierbach from Berlin. Mood represents a series of ambient soundscapes and gently rhythmic / pulsing EM pieces.


Rodi, Georges (France)

Electronic Sounds (1974)
Actual (1975)
Actual 2 (1976)
Space (1979)
Sound Power (1980)
Spaciology (1984)
Kaleidoscope (1984)
Synthesis (1985)
Hot Shots (1987)

Synthesist born in Cannes. Georges Rodi is known as the driving force behind the sound of Arpadys - a space disco band. Most of his solo records are library releases.


Rodinia (Germany)

Drumside / Dreamside (2015)
Ex Anima (2017)

German guitar player Jan Weissenfeldt. He seems to be an electronic musician also, presenting on Drumside / Dreamside one side of drum-heavy krautrock with guitars and synths and another side of atmospheric, predominantly electronic, compositions. Ex Anima follows in pure Dusseldorf motorik vein, with guitars, drums and synths galore.


Rodion G.A. (Romania)

The Lost Tapes (2013) (recorded in 1978 - 1984)
Misiunea Spatială Delta (2014) (recorded in 1984) (soundtrack)
Behind the Curtain (2014) (recorded in ??)
Rozalia (2018) (recorded in 1978 - 1983)
Sesiune cu Rodion (2018)

Unearthed treasures by this Romanian underground electronic collective (led by Rodion Ladislau Rosca) whose released output during the years of their existence as a group consisted of several sampler appearances on state-owned Electrecord label. This is hard-edged electronics, with drum machines, heavy solos and distorted sounds. It has that punky, Heldon vibe to it (sometimes reminding also on Suicide) and some vocals. Interesting, one-of-a-kind band.


Rodionov, Andrei & Tikhomirov, Boris (Russia)

Pulse 1. Musical Computer (1985)
512 Bytes (1987)

Pulse 1 distinguishes itself as one of the first Russian LP's created with the help of a computer (a Yamaha CX5). Cheesy but interesting, briefly. The music was intended as some kind of a soundtrack for sport events / physical exercise. Has hints of 80's Jarre and Tangerine Dream from the same period, but pretty original overall and very down-to-earth in comparison with those artists. The second album contains vocal tracks and pretty neat instrumentals that opt for a much darker and more appealing sound than the first LP.


Rodrigues, Everton (Brazil)

Project (Instrumental Songs) (1996)

Everton Almeida da Silva aka Everton Rodrigues is a Brazilian composer based in Porto Alegre.


Rodriguez Flamingo (Germany)

Emporiosa (2005)

A pseudonym of Oliver Jahn, who is an organist and a member of surf band Los Bandidos. His album Emporiosa contains "exotica" songs recorded with the help of Dr. Böhm Böhmat-S - a weird vintage bass accompaniment / synth instrument. Reportedly, some of it will appeal to fans of Kraftwerk even.


Rodriguez, Griffin (USA)

The Stress Prince (2017) (S)

Originally from Chicago, Griffin Rodriguez is a bassist and multi-instrumentalist who records ambient music. Rather sparse instrumentation here, from guitar sketches to woody and chirpy analog electronics.


Rodríguez, Ilia (Spain)

Media hora (y un epílogo) (2018) (soundtrack)

Largely electronic soundtrack by this guy who had previously played in a couple of doom metal bands. From pulsing Carpenter to Tangerine Dream, dark soundscapes, vocal pop, upbeat melodic metal / rock and acoustic guitar-centered songs with a Pink Floyd feel.

See also: Hypnodial


Rodriguez-López, Omar (Puerto Rico)

Un Corazón de Nadie (2012)

Puerto Rican-born artist based in Texas, leader and one of the founders of heavy progressive rock band The Mars Volta. He has a hell of a lot of solo releases in many different styles, mainly neo-psychedelia, progrock, noise rock, experimental rock and general weirdness. Some of his releases lean towards the electronic side, such as the one above (Un Corazón de Nadie), which is not necessarily and not always sounds like a "Progressive Electronic" record, but more often than not does have sort of a weird Moebius feel to it. Beware the "vocals" on a couple of tracks.


Rodwin, Graham (UK)

Raga-Man (1983)
Information (1984)
Music As Pleasure / On Mullinbridge (1985) (S)
Commander In Chief / Follow the Leader Part 1 (1986) (S)
Charlotte Rampling (1986)

Synthesist from Belfast, releasing his music on his own cassette imprint, right from the start influenced by the Berlin School of Electronic Music and European melodic EM style (Jarre et al).


Roe, Michael Thomas (USA)

Cathedral (1993)
Seashore Solitude (1993)
Lake Infinity (1996)
Mi. T. - Con 04 (2004) (with Conrad Schnitzler)
Aquatic Wine Music (2006) (with Conrad Schnitzler)
Mic & Con (2007) (with Conrad Schnitzler)
Brain (2009)
Endoplasmic Flow (2011)

Michael Thomas Roe is an accomplished synthesist and electronic musician. He is also one half of the duo TouchXtone. In his solo albums he combines sounds of nature and field recordings with synth atmospheres.

See also: TouchXtone, Endoplasmic Flow.


Roedelius, Hans-Joachim (Germany)

Durch die Wuste (1978)
After the Heat (1978) (with Dieter Moebius and Brian Eno)
Jardin au Fou (1979)
Selbstportrait (1979)
Selbstportrait II (1980)
Selbstportrait III (1980)
Auf Leisen Sohlen (1980)
Lustwandel (1981)
Wenn der Sudwind Weht (1981)
Offene Turen (1982)
Wasser Im Wind (1982)
Flieg Vogel Fliege (1982)
Geschenk des Augenblicks (1984)
Wie das Wispern des Windes (1986)
Momenti Felici (1987)
Weites Land (1987) (with Czjzek)
Bastionen der Liebe (1989)
Der Ohren Spiegel (1990)
Variety of Moods (1990)
Apropos Cluster (1990) (with Dieter Moebius)
Piano Piano (1991)
Friendly Game (1992) (with Capanni & Alesini)
Fruhling (1992)
Cuando...Adonde (1992)
Tace! (1993)
Greetings Piano (1993)
To Cover the Dark (1993)
Theaterworks (1994)
Simfonia Contempora No.1 (1994)
Selbstportrait IV (1995)
Selbstportrait VI: Diary of the Unforgotten (1995)
61jahr Roedelius (1995)
Vom Nutzen der Stunden: Lieder vom Steinfeld Vol.1 (1996)
Pink, Blue And Amber (1996)
La Nordica (1996)
Meeting the Magus (1997) (with Aqueous)
Aquarello (1998) (with Capanni & Alesini)
Global Trotters Project Vol.1: Drive (1998)
Die Boten der Corona: Lieder vom Steinfeld Vol.2 (1999)
Selbsportrait VII (1999)
Move And Resonate (1999) (with Alquimia)
The Persistence of Memory (1999) (with Tim Story)
Roedeliusweg (2000)
Veni Creator Spiritus (2000) (with Spitzer-Marlyn)
Acon (2001) (with Conrad Schnitzler)
Evermore (2001) (with Rapoon)
Das Verwirrte Schaf (2001) (S)
T'ai (2002) (with Richard Barbieri and Claudio Chianu)
Self Portrait VIII: Introspection (2002)
Lunz (2002) (with Tim Story)
Amerika Recycled (2004)
Neverless (2005) (with Morgan Fisher)
Snapshots / Sidesteps (2007)
Inlandish (2008) (with Tim Story)
Errata (2008) (with Dwight Ashley and Tim Story)
Fibre (2009)
Ex Animo (2010)
The Gugging Album (2011) (with Kava)
Sustanza di Cosa Sperata (2011) (with Celletti)
Reverso (2011) (with The Fratelli Brothers)
Stunden (2011) (with Schneider)
Plays Piano (2012) (recorded in 1985)
King of Hearts (2012) (with Christopher Chaplin)
NNNNeonLLLLights / Well Sustained / Schlummer (2013) (S) (with Lloyd Cole and Stefan Schneider)
Selected Studies, Vol. 1 (2013) (with Lloyd Cole)
Selected Pieces 1990 To 2011 (2013)
Tiden (2013) (with Stefan Schneider)
Lazy Arc (2014) (with Tim Story)
Tape Archive 1973 - 1978 (2014)
Lindabrunn Recollage (2014) (with Werner Moebius)
Deshalb, Stäubschen, Offen / Chambers, Tired Resistance, Element Objects (2015) (S) (with Stefan Schneider and Sven Kacirek)
Imagori (2015) (with Christoph H. Müller)
Ubi Bene (2015) (with Leon Muraglia)
The Vienna Remixes (2016) (S) (with Christoph H. Müller)
Nordlicht (2017) (with Carl Michael Von Hausswolff)
Einfluss (2017) (with Arnold Kasar)
Triptych In Blue (2017) (with Christopher Chaplin and Andy Heath)
Imagori II (2018) (with Christoph H. Müller)
Lunz 3 (2019) (with Tim Story)
Selbstportrait - Wahre Liebe (2020)
Two Gather In the Waiting Room (2020) (with Michael Begg)
Glücksbringer (2020) (with Wolfgang Matthes)
Mind Cinema (2021) (with Dallas Acid)
4 Hands (2022) (with Tim Story)
VÍK (2023) (with Stereo Hypnosis and Eraldo Bernocchi)
Roedelius / Hausswolff II (2023) (with Carl Michael Von Hausswolff)

German composer and one half of the legendary Cluster duo. Roedelius is one of the pioneers of electronic and ambient music. He was born in 1934 in East Germany and deserted the army, resulting in him almost being imprisoned. After that he managed to get it to the western side of the wall and his musical adventures began. Roedelius released a lot of solo works that are very interesting musically. The music of Roedelius is often very daring and, of course, absolutely unique. I cannot compare his work to any other musician. I often hear from people that what Roedelius does is very experimental in nature. I would say that this is true, indeed, and his music is experimental, but not to the extreme, and not a least bit alienating. In fact, it is very inviting and warm, without being sweet or new-agey. On some works the experiments deal with the sounds themselves, on others they deal more with melodies and structure. Experiments were always (the most) important part of Electronic Music evolution (or was it revolution?), and what we have here is a very personal approach to music, which can be easily appreciated in spite (or better thanks to) it's sheer uniqueness. Highly recommended. Stephen Iliffe wrote an excellent book on Roedelius. Read my review of this book HERE. Hans-Joachim currently resides in Austria.

See also: Cluster, Harmonia, Kluster, Qluster.


Rog (Croatia)

Brave Sir Robin (2018) (S)
Ea (2018) (S)
Bush & Thicket (2019)
Avalon (2019)
Delvers (2020)

Ambient and dungeon synth-related project from Croatia. On Avalon, you can hear relaxing, at times solemn music with a nice medieval and fantasy world touch. Not cheesy, contrary to expectations.


Roger 23 (Germany)

Room With A View Pt. 1 (2009) (S)
Elemental 7 (2011) (S)
Mensch 001 (2015)
Extended Play (2016) (EP)
Is Demanding For A Cultural Negotiation (2019) (EP)
222 (2020) (with Dman)
Bounds of A Moral Principle And Established Standard Behavior (2022)

Roger Reuter is a producer of varied forms of electronic-based music, mostly in club-related genres such and techno and deep house. I will try to list his releases that contain EM or EM-related (including ambient) material.


Roger, Henri (France)

Images... (1975)

Confusingly, this LP features the "Pôle" logo on the sleeve, while the artists' name is written in small letters. One might think this is another record by the Pôle guys (whose label released Images...) but it is in fact a solo album by Henri Roger who plays a Yamaha organ, a Korg synthesizer, Elka Rhapsody and guitar.


Roger, Roger (France)

Music For Fun (1968)
Gags A Gogo (1970)
Merry And Sad (1970)
Electronic Music / Synthesizer Effects (1975) (with Nino Nardini)
Musique Idiote (1975)
Chatta Mooga Choo Choo (1976)
Sounds Industrial (1977)
De La Musique & Des Secrets Pour Enchanter Vos Plantes (1978)
Animals' Christmas (1979)
Mooglight On Classics (1980)
Catastrophe (1980) (with Nino Nardini)
Informatic 2000 (1982) (with Nino Nardini)
Super Flash (1982) (with Nino Nardini)
Troubles In the World Vol. 2 (1983) (with Louis Delacour)
Interprete a la Maniere de... (1985)
L'arbre de la Foi (??) (with Edouard Wagner)

French electronic composer born in Rouen, France on 5th of August, 1911. He released a lot of  library LPs. On Animals' Christmas, Roger is helped by Nino Nardini. Roger died in 1995 at the age of 83.

See also: Leuter, Cecil, Davy, Roger, Moon Birds.


Rogergoon (France)

Years We Had (2020) (S)
Serious Fun (2022)

Sort of dramatic electronic compositions, sometimes ambient, sometimes more melodic / hymnal.


Rogers, Darren (USA)

The Alternate Realms (2007)
Interstellar Love (2016)
The Future Approaching (2017)

Ambient and deep Space Music.

See also: Ambiscend, Orion's Belt.


Rogers, Derek (USA)

Calculated Messes (2008)
Color Shield (2009)
Collaborative Cdr (2009) (with Interstates (Etc.))
Cosmic Overlap (2009)
Triox Gymnopedies I Lent et Douloureaux (2009)
Street Secrets (2009) (with Rambutan)
The Violet Sea (2009)
Dripping Snare / Dream Girl (2009)
Petit Chapeau (2009)
Tape Loop Sax Hiss (2009) (with Hashem Assadullahi)
Bliss (2010)
Fifteen-Second Pauses (2010)
Concealed Weapon (2010)
circum_navigate (2010) (S)
Minor Phase Patterns (2010) (with Sparkling Wide Pressure)
Absolute Immersion (2010)
Triagonals (2010)
Slowmover (2010)
Mt. Calm (2010)
Plectrum Silence (2010)
Active Participant (2010)
Half-Moonlight (2010)
Aluminum Mirrors (2010)
Requiem For Mark Linkous (2011) (S)
Tonal Murmurs / Forest Landscape (2011)
From the World We Hid (2011)
Populist Context (2011)
The Exhaustion of Emotion (2011)
Informal Meditations (2011)
Relative Quiet (2011)
Mist & Drift (2012) (S)
National Scrum (??) (S)
Everything That Mattered, At Once (2012)
Of Weight, Phantom Pain (2012)
Peripetia (2012)
Saturations (2012)
Hex Illumination (2012)
Institutio Amet (2012)
I Don't Wanna Miss A Thing (2012)
You Were Familiar I Remember (2012)
Born Into Systems (2012)
A Crack In Everything (2012)
Don't Stop Bereaving (2013)
Signifying Memory (2013)
This House Is A Block (2014)
Visual Echoes (2014)
Prevais (2014)
Alienist (2014) (S) (with Lee Noble)
Culprit (2014) (S) (with Lee Noble)
A Physical Ascension (2015)
Depth / Detail of Processing (2015)
Repretend, Parallax (2015) (with A.F. Jones)
Silence Is Being Substituted (2016)
Immersions (2020)

Prolific ambient drone composer from Los Angeles. He sometimes uses guitars, resulting in a somewhat grating, post-rock infused sound, but mostly resorts to synthesizers with music that ranges in mood from neutral to emotionally-charged.

See also: Circuit Rider UK


Rogers, Peter (UK)

At Hawthorn Time (2021) (S)

Ambient music with neo-classical roots.

See also: Wardown


Rogg, Olivier (Switzerland)

Variations sur GE/CH (1988)

Melodic, jazzy music played with digital instruments of the time. Hardly progressive most of the time, but may be mildly interesting.


Rogier (Netherlands)

From the Shadow To the Sun (2004)
Spiritual Diversity (2006)

Sort of Vangelis-like melodic / symphonic music on the border of EM and new age.


Rogue Element (UK)

Storm Passage (2000)
Premonition (2004)
Rare Tracks Volume 1 (2010) (recorded in 1994 - 1999)
Rare Tracks Volume 2 (2010) (recorded in 2003 - 2010)
Rare Tracks Volume 3 (2010)

British duo of Brendan Pollard and Jerome Ramsey strongly influenced by the Berlin School, especially Tangerine Dream.

See also: Pollard, Brendan, Ramsey, Jerome.


Rogue Hotline (Australia)

The Red Cabal: Volume I (2016) (S)

Horror synth / synthwave / EM project. Both rhythmic, discoid tracks and beatless, pulsing Carpenter-styled concoctions.


Rogue Spore (Ireland)

Escape From Asafoetida (2017)
Peppered Egg With Kalifate (2021) (S)
Data From Rat Strategies (2023)

A strange mixture of styles, from noisy and rather schizophrenic collages based on samples to Berlin School / sequencer style. The last track is called "Margarine Dream" and reads like a parody of a certain Berlin trio.


Röhnelt, Thomas (Germany)

Return of Hal (2002)
Insanity (2003)
Electronic Musik (2003)
20 (2003)
Monolith (2003)
The Answer of the Monolith (2005)
Ambience One (2005)
Stalker (2006)

Electronic Music, supposedly in Klaus Schulze style.

See also: Nelbrich


Rohrer, Samuel (Switzerlands)

Continual Decentering (2019)
Hungry Ghosts (2022)
Codes of Nature (2023)

Swiss jazz drummer who on Continual Decentering combines his drumming with electronics. The same can be said of Hungry Ghosts.


Roidinger, Adelhard (Austria)

Computer & Jazz Project I (1984)

Austrian jazz bassist. On this album he got heavily into electronics, utilizing a lot of Roland synthesizers, along with his usual acoustic bass. He is also helped by a percussionist and a drummer. This album serves jazz and EM in more or less equal doses, so it's definitely EM-related and avoids sounding cheesy most of the time, despite the release date.


Rok (Netherlands)

One (2002)
Improse (2002)
Glosters Meteor (2002)
Metal World (2002)
The Teller of Stories (2002)
Soundbytes For Computergames (2002)
How Much Is More Than One? (2002)
Fuel (2002)
Abstracts (2002)
Two Strikes (2002)
Man (2002)
Nomakebelieve (2002)
Exit To the Seventh Dimension (2002)
You (2002)
Touched (2002)
Ink (2002)
Gallery of the World (2002)
After the Fire (2002)
Life On A Wire (2002)
Music For Dance (2002)
Identities (2002)
Rebellion As A Rule For Business (2002)
Such Moments of Inner Galore (2002)
Push Up (2002)

Rob Knetsch's solo project. Minimal floating synthetics.

See also: Novo Sibirsk, Beudeker / Knetsch, Electrance, Yaffin, Knetsch.


Rok, Teddy (Finland)

Atonal Drums (2021)

An alias of Finnish drummer Teppo Mäkynen. Atonal Drums, as expected, is a jazzy, improvisational work based on acoustic and some electronic drum performances. There are also synths that get quite prominent and dominant in places, making this an enjoyable EM-related work in its own right.


Rolando, Tony (USA)

Old Cool Echoes (2021)
Breakin' Is A Memory (2022)
Shared System (2022)
Absent From the Void (2023)

Tony Rolando is a synthesist from Asheville, North Carolina. He prefers to work in an analog environment, creating rich, playful, sequence-full compositions.


Roldan, Alex (USA)

Body Image (2019) (S)
On Words (2023)

Washington-based artist with a nice, ethereal and melodic ambient synth style. Sometimes rhythmic.


Roll the Dice (Sweden)

Roll the Dice (2010)
In Dust (2011)
Live In Gothenburg (2011) (S)
Until Silence (2014)
Born To Ruin (2017)
Live At Atonal Berlin 2017 (2018)
Assimilarity (2020)

Swedish synth drone duo of Malcolm Pardon and Peder Mannerfelt. The self-titled debut is a limited edition vinyl album.

See also: Padron, Malcolm


Rollier (France)

Interaction of Colors (2022)

Rollier is techno-related artist David Beideau. On Interaction of Colors, the beats are out, the shimmering modular textures are in, resulting in an interesting Prog EM work that has touches of everything from Cluster to Eno's sampling on My Life In the Bush of Ghosts and more recent explorations by people like Daniel Lopatin and Keith Fullerton Whitman.


Rollins, James (USA)

Two Shift Alley (1998)


Rollkommando (Germany)

Rollkommando (1983)
At Home Silver (1984)
87 #1 (1987)
87 #2 (1987)
Rollkommando '87 (1988)
Frozen (1990)

Obscure. Rollkommando were a duo of Jörg Reimann and Holger Klupsch. They collaborated with Conrad Schnitzler at some point. Their music is pretty experimental but also playful.


Rollmottle (USA)

The Obsolete Man (2013)
Fear Ritual (2015)

Rollmottle is Los Angeles-based synthesist who mixes melodic EM with some IDM, minimal synth, deep house and synthwave influences. Fear Ritual moves further from EM in the direction of mainstream styles listed above. File under EM-related.


Rolrolrol (Netherlands)

Music (2023)

Quirky duo consisting of Mitchel Van Dinther and Niels Broos. Jazzy, complex, a bit like a warped instrumental version of YMO perhaps.


Roman Catholic Skulls (Indonesia)

Weathered (Skyscrapers Falling Onto Each Other) (2012)
Gospels (2014)

Ambient duo of Marcel Thee and Danif Pradana. Droning, sometimes noisy, often with a menacing tone and an abundance of samples.

See also: Strange Mountain


Roman Empire (Czech Republic)

CM úsmĕvů, CM slz (2010)

Ambient music mostly combining piano and synths, with a few rhythmic injections.


Roman, Jacques (France)

Melodie Boreale (1986)

Pulsar keyboardists' solo Electronic Music.

See also: Pulsar


Romance Relic (Finland)

Snow Leopard Watercolor (2020) (S)
One Feather For Each Season (2021)
Breakwater of A Veiled Heart (2022)

Ambient with unique elements, like choirs, varied samples, etc.


Romanelli, Roland (France)

April Orchestra Vol. 38 (1981) (with Yannick Top)
Connecting Flight (1982)
Sysmo Records Vol. 1 (1982) (with Yannick Top)
April Orchestra Vol. 49 (1982) (with Yannick Top)
April Orchestra Vol. 50 (1983) (with Yannick Top)
Astrolab 22 (1985) (soundtrack)
Cosmos (1987) (with Francis Lai)
Memoires (1987)
Dream Music (1988)
Sport (1990) (with Michael Dune)

Synthesist, member of Space and the driving force behind the group's sound. He released a couple of solo albums and some library LP's in collaboration with ex-Magma bassist Yannick Top. Presumably, not everything he's done is electronic, so the above discography is far from complete.

See also: Space, Savers, The, Mc Lane Explosion.


Romannis Mötte (USA)

Kozmische (2013)
Another Journey (2015)
The Frozen World (2016) (with Graceless)
Time Sequences (2016)

Cosmic synth music by Chad Davis who is known for his numerous projects in the noise / power electronics camp as well as playing guitar, bass and drums in doom metal band Hour of 13.

See also: Jenzeits, Anu.


Romansa (???)

Alabaster (2020) (S)
Pomegranate (2021) (S)

Droning, melodic, ethereal ambience.


Romantic Warrior (Germany)

Romantic Warrior (1981)
Himalaya (1986)
Planet (1988)

Early band with Pete Namlook and Peter Prochir on Planet. Other musicians (Stefan Kleinschmidt, Wolfgang Müller) are helping out.

See also: Namlook, Pete


Romantyth (USA)

Secrets From A Different Time (2020)
Oakeneld (??) (S)

Straightforward "dungeon synth" melodies with a touch of mystery and a slight EM feel.


Romboy, Marc (Germany)

Voyage de la Planète (2017)
Reconstructing Debussy (2017) (with Dortmunder Philharmoniker)

Previously known for his dance music-related productions / mixes, Marc Romboy suddenly released this Progressive EM work (Voyage...) that caresses the senses with its rich synth sound and fat sequencing.


Romerium (Netherlands)

Pharaoh's Immortality (2008)
Solar Sequences (2012)
Space Impressions (2015)
Sequences Passing By (2019) (with Thaneco)
Apollo (2020)
Exploring the Trappist-1 (2021) (with Thaneco)
Dark Force (2022) (with Thaneco)
Homage (2022) (EP) (with Thaneco)
Machine (2022) (with Thaneco)
The Magic Scarab (2023) (with Thaneco)

Rene Montfoort from ModularWhite. Berlin School, Space Music...

See also: White, ModularWhite.


Romo, Arturo (Mexico)

Member of experimental rock band Oxomaxoma. Arturo Romo also made music as a solo electronic artist. I don't know if and how much of it was released, though, apart from a tape done in collaboration with his friend from Oxomaxoma which consists of just chaotic and delirious noises (no relation to EM).



Invisible Though Not Impalpable (2016)
Material Progress (2018)
What Can the Feeling (2020) (S)

Interesting duo from Portland, Oregon (Carl Laukkanen and Sam Wenc). They play synths, autoharp and pedal steel guitar and have a repetitive but lulling sound. Something for fans of minimalism and Ambient, perhaps.


Ron Jon's Surf Shop (USA)

Sampler '18 (2018)
Sampler '19 (2019)
Goop Scoops (2020)

Connecticut-based duo of Aaron Snow and John Miller. Long tracks with sequences and guitars on Goop Scoops, somewhat Ashra-like.

See also: Snow, Aaron


Rona, Jeff (USA)

Projector (2017)

Original ambient material from this soundtrack composer. Represents a mixture of electronic and classical instrumentation.


Rondou, Ruud (Beglium)

Mundus Allegoricus (2014)

See also: Purfoze


Rone (France)

Room With A View (2020)
La nuit venue (2020) (S) (soundtrack)
Rone & Friends (2021)
Les Olimpiades (2021) (soundtrack)
L(oo)ping (2023)
D'Argent & De Sang (2024) (soundtrack)

Inventive music, ranging from instrumental hip-hop rhythms to techno-influenced and proggy electronics, some with a baroque twist. A project of Erwan Castex. I would definitely put this artist in the "to look out for" list.


Rongey, Kurt (USA)

Book In Hand (1991)
That Was Propaganda (1998)
With Form It Threatens Silence (2006)

Mainly keyboard-based prog rock but with a lot of electronic influences and some purely electronic tracks.

See also: Xen


Ronkin, Thomas (USA)

Within Distance (1997)
Symmetric (2001)
Precursors (2012) (recorded in 1984 - 1986)

Although Swiss-born, synthesist Thomas Ronkin has been residing in California since 1976 and that's where his musical career started. In the early years, he collaborated with the likes of Steve Roach, playing rhythmic, sequencer-based Electronic Music. Later he adopted a more personal style that featured a mixture of rhythmic berlinesque stuff and Ambient floaters that got quite dark at places.


Rønn, Christian (Denmark)

Panser (2012) (with Peter Peter)
Time Changed Maneuvers (2015)
Reveal (2017) (with Jenny Gräf Sheppard and Claus Poulsen)
Broken Air (2017)
Chlordis et Machina (2018) (with Ikue Mori)
Navn (2020)
Intoku Inversions (2021) (with Bob Bellerue)

Electronic artist which is rather unclassifiable. He includes elements of ambient electronics and microglitch / electroacoustics in his work. Good for fans of Experimental EM. He also makes downtempo music under the Ganga moniker.


Rønneberg, Petter (Norway)

Waves (1983) (S)
Anthem (??)
Klangwelt (1984) (S)
Mental Pictures (1984)
Night Flight (1985) (recorded in 1978 - 1983) (with Karin Asken)
Andromeda (1986)
Sounds (1986) (S)
Theos (1991)
Display (1991)

Norwegian synthesist. Night Flight is an extremely obscure and rare cassette with flowing EM influenced by Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream.

See also: Wahn


Rönnquist, Andreas (Sweden)

Paracusia (2021)

Drone Ambient.


Ronny (Mexico)

Puertas de Arena (??)
La Pasión Según un Fulano (1989)
La Zona del Silencio (1990)
El Arbol de la Noche Triste (1990)
Los Espejos de la Memoria (1992)
Edén Oración a la Tierra (1994)
Elogio a la Soledad (1996)

Nomada (1997)

Rare artist and La Zone is quite a rare release, too, housed in a sleeve with a surreal cover art.


Roodzant, Frank (Netherlands)

Live In Zwijndrecht / Electricity And Sound (1983)
Rafael (1990)
In Concert (1993)
Mix the Signals (2005)

Melodic, sequenced music. Frank Roozdant was born in 1949. During the 1960's, he played guitar but in the 70's he assembled an electronic studio and began composing Electronic Music. His first experiments in this field were with the synth band he formed in 1980, called Synriser. In 1982 he left the band and started composing and performing solo work. In 1986 Synriser was reformed but the name was soon changed to Gaia. That was his band with Marc van Veldhoven. In 1989 Gaia called it a day and at the start of the 1990's Frank went solo again. In 1997 Frank stopped playing EM and became member of a rock band, although in 2003 he once again returned to EM. See my review of his latest album Mix the Signals.

See also: Gaia, Synriser.


Rookas (Lithuania)

Static Motion (2018)
Static Motion II (2020)
Concrete Haze (2022)
Chrono Currents (2023) (with Undveld)
Blinding Flames (2023) (EP)

Droning ambient compositions.


Room 237 (USA)

Room 237 (1999) (recorded in 1992 - 1999)

A duo of Todd Gerber and Kevin D. Hartnell. Varied, moody, melodic.

See also: Umlaut, Hartnell, Kevin.


Rooms In Negative (Greece)

Lucky Boys (2019)

Rooms In Negative is Athens-based painter and musician Andreas Ragnar Kasapis. Looping ambient compositions, often with an experimental touch.


Roos, Kristen (Canada)

Universal Synthesizer Interface Volume One (2021)
Universal Synthesizer Interface Volume Two (2022)

Complex, sequencer-based music exploring old computer programs for music. I guest they use the elusive and vague "sequencer & tracker" label for this kind of stuff these days.


Roos, Walter (Germany)

Seven Pieces And Two Variations (2008)
Fluid (2009)
Buddhas Breeze (2010)
NGC 224 (2011)
Archaikum (2012)
Pictures From the Past (2012)
On Brink of Natural Catastrophes (2013)
Trips To the Planets (2013)
Deepflow (2013)
The 9th Dimension (2014)
W.O.S.P. - Midnight Tracks (2014)
Time (2015)
Tales From the Journey Through the Black Hole (2015)
Nights (2017) (S)

German painter and musician whose style is characterized by the use of string instruments and driving / melodic sequences.


Roots In Heaven (Germany)

Sang des Betes (2017) (S)
Petites Madeleines (2017)

Stark Electronic Music, similar to early (pre-Forst) Cluster. Purely analog stuff from this Berlin-based project.


Ropoporose (France)

Dark Star (2020)

I am not familiar with previous releases of this French indie rock duo (Pauline and Romain Benard). However, Dark Star, created as a sort of alternative sountrack to eponymous 1974 sci-fi movie (the original score is by the director John Carpenter) definitely has that early kraut / EM vibe to it, with synths galore, live drums and some guitar. Nice.


Ropsten (Italy)

And I Fell Asleep On A Chair, Downstairs In the Corner (2013) (recorded in 2011)
Eerie (2018)
Alamogordo (2023)

Italian post-rock / kraut-related band with heavy use of synths and often a "space rock wall of sound" kind of sound.


Rorquals (UK)

Remind Yourself To Breathe (2020) (EP)
Freedom In Isolation (2020) (EP)
Parallel Souls (2022) (EP)

Normally, this project of Sounthend On Sea-based Robert Mells focuses on processed guitar drone music. Not on Remind Yourself To Breathe, though. Here, he was inspired by Alessandro Cortini's videos showcasing the latter's live, real-time music production process and, consequently, what we have here is rhythmic (and a bit gritty) EM performed mostly on analog instruments with help from Ableton Live and processing.


Rorschach Garden, The (Germany)

Enigma (2022)

Started by Philipp Münch in 1988, The Rorschach Garden is an eclectic electronic pop formation. Enigma focuses on instrumental compositions (with only a few vocals) in a very Kraftwerk-like setting.


Rosaceae (Germany)

Nadia's Escape (2019)
Efia (2020)
Bakur (2020) (with Ladonna)
DNA (2021)

A project of Natascha P. Bakur features lush ambient synth music. Very nice stuff.


Rosado, Leonardo (Portugal)

For R (2010)
Dear And Unfamiliar (2011) (with Birds of Passage)
Mute Words (2011)
Opaque Glitter (2011)
Soaking Wet (2011) (S)
Studies On Solitude (2011) (S)
Washed Away Memories (2013)
Adrift (2014)
In the Dead of Night When Everything Is Asleep (2016) (with Aaron Martin)

Ambient from this Lisbon-based artist.


Rosales (Canada / UK)

Still, Tomorrow (2021)
Woven Songs (2022)
Against the Sky (2022)

Ambient duo of Brad Deschamps and Ian Hawgood.

See also: Anthéne, Deschamps, Brad, Bradley Sean Alexander, Hawgood, Ian.


Rosano, Marco (Italy)

Analog Bach - Baroque Synthesizer (2010)

Nice Wendy Carlos-styled album, with Bach's music performed on the Rhodes Chroma synthesizer. Lots of rich analog timbres here.

See also: BROtheRS


Rose Altar (UK??)

Catalonia (2019) (S)
Worn As A Memento (2020) (S)
Two Hands, Entwined In Grace (2020) (S)
Eternity Mirrored In A Seashell (2022)

Emotional, mysterious ambient tracks.


Rose, Brad E. (USA)

Future Lives (2015)
On the Crystal Seas (2022) (with Matt Lajoie)
Annular Silhouettes (2022)

Modular synth compositions, experimental but rather listenable.

See also: Charlatan


Rose, Jade (USA)

Jade Rose – The Sounds of Wonder Fair Volume 1 The Valley (2019)

Boston-based musician, sound designer and DIY instrument builder, originally from Kansas. She uses acoustic sources, but more often resorts to electronics, including modular synthesis. Nice, melodic, sensitive, ambient EM compositions.


Rose, John (USA)

Rainsongs (1987)
Travellers (1993) (with Tony Gerber)
Airwaves (1994) (with Tony Gerber)
Cosmogenesis (2001)
Evening Thoughts (??)
I Could See Them In the Distance (??)
Oceans of Contradiction (??)
Reflections (??)
Chemical Dreams (??)
Night Songs (??)
Meditations (??)
Zeitreisen (??)
The Natural World (??)

John Rose is an electronic pioneer from Kentucky and a member of Spacecraft. He mostly composes Berlin School music with diversions into other styles, such as piano-led Ambient. I've heard an outtake from one of his tracks from Cosmogenesis that sounded exactly like Tangerine Dream's Ricochet. While I absolutely LOVE that TD work and although this is a very well-done copy, it remains just that: a great copy of great music. Or maybe the rest of the album is different? In 2008, John released an album of piano music, titled Conversing With A Rainy Night.

See also: Spacecraft


Rose, Norman (USA)

Space Trails (2002)

Warm Space Music, some might say new-agey, from this Californian artist. His other albums are supposedly of no interest.


Rose, Steve (Canada)

Twin Earth: Collected Ambient Works (2009)
The Diminishing Day (2011)

Hailing from Quebec, Steve Rose has been working in a variety of musical styles since the 1980's. Twin Earth represents the ambient / experimental side of his music. Most of the pieces therein are flowing, relaxing and atmospheric.


Rosen Corporation, The (UK)

Adrift (2016)
Above Clouds (2017)
Dreamy... (2017)
1976 (2017)
Tarkovsky (2018)
Stargate Sequence (2018)
Pale Fire (2018)
Outback (2018)
Hades (2019)
Transference (2020)
Beyond Time & Space (2020)
Hades Vol. 2 (2020)
Above Cloud (2020)
Replicant (2020)
Neon Lovers (2020)
Hades - Ambient Atmospheres (2020)
Dream Journey Vol. 1 (2020)
Dream Journey Vol. 2 (2020)
Dream Journey Vol. 3 (2020)
Cybertique (2020)
Ambient Volume 1 (2020)
Für Immer und Ewig (2020)
The Orange Tower Vol. 1 (2020)
The Orange Tower Vol. 2 (2020)
The Orange Tower Vol. 3 (2020)
Mindstream Live Vol. 1 (2020)
Mindstream Live Vol. 2 (2020)
Mindstream Live Vol. 3 (2020)
Mindstream Live Vol. 4 (2020)
Tales From Earth (2020)
Hades Studio Session (2020) (EP)
Mindstream Live Vol. 5 (2021)
Mindstream Live Vol. 6 (2021)
Mindstream Live Vol. 7 (2021)
Salome (2021)
Deckards Dream (2021)
Transmigration (2021)
Transmigration Part 2 (2021) (EP)
Magonia (2021)
Shimmer (2021)
The Human Zoo (2021)
Der Märchenwald Vol. 1 (2021)
Der Märchenwald Vol. 2 (2021)
Transmigration Passport (2021)
Into the Underworld Vol. 1 (2021)
Into the Underworld Vol. 2 (2021)
Simulacra (2021)
Intersection of Thought (2021)
auric Sorcha (2021)
Brutalist (2021)
Amber Sky (2021)
Cyberos (2021)
Some Space To Reflect Vol. 1 (2021)
Laplace's Demon (2021)
Some Space To Reflect Vol. 2 (2021)
Alternate Dimensions Vol. 1 (2021)
Alternate Dimensions Vol. 2 (2021)
Alternate Dimensions Vol. 3 (2021)
Geometry (2021)
Wandering In Vast Space (2021)
Live Studio Session 14:08:21 (2021)
Live Stream 21:08:21 (2021)
Live Studio Session 18:08:21 (2021)
Live Studio Session 28:08:21 (2021)
Live Studio Session 11:09:21 (2021)
Metaphysical Realms Vol. 1 (2021)
Metaphysical Realms Vol. 2 (2021)
Metaphysical Realms Vol. 3 (2021)
Explorations Vol. 1 (2021)
Explorations Vol. 2 (2021)
Between Two Worlds (2021)
Live Studio Session 14.11.21 (2021)
Soundforms Live Vol. 1 (2021)
Soundforms Live Vol. 2 (2021)
Live Studio Sessions 15&16:11:21 (2021)
Morphic Resonance Live Vol. 1 (2021)
Morphic Resonance Live Vol. 2 (2021)
Live Stream 08.01.22 (2022)
Morphic Resonance Live Vol. 3 (2022)
Rama (2022)
Live Sessions 03 And 20.11.21 (2022) (recorded in 2021)
52 Trips Around the Sun (2022)
Live Studio Session 01.02.22 (2022) (EP)
Morphic Resonance Live Vol. 4 (2022)
Live Stream 05.03.22 (2022)
Live Stream 08.03.22 (2022)
Live Stream 23.03.22 (2022)
Live Sessions 28th And 31st March 22 (2022)
Ultra Vol. 1 (2022)
Ultra Vol. 2 (2022)
Ultra Livestream 06.05.22 (2022)
Livestream 30.04.22 (2022)
Aqua Space Vol. 1 (2022)
Aqua Space Vol. 2 (2022)
Aqua Space Vol. 3 (2022)
Live Stream 04.06.22 (2022)
Parallel Vol. 1 (2022)
Parallel Vol. 2 (2022)
July Sessions Vol. 1 (2022)
July Sessions Vol. 2 (2022)
Live Stream 30.07.22 (2022)
July Sessions Vol. 3 (2022)
Shifting Forms of Memory Vol. 1 (2022)
Shifting Forms of Memory Vol. 2 (2022)
Shifting Forms of Memory Vol. 3 (2022)
Shifting Forms of Memory Vol. 4 (2022)
July Sessions Vol. 4 (2022)
Live Studio Session 23.08.22 (2022)
Live Studio Session 27.08.22 (2022)
City (2022) (recorded in 2021)
Beyond the Veil of Consciousness (2022)
Abstraction (2022)
A Tree Falls Vol. 1 (2022)
A Tree Falls Vol. 2 (2023)
Vernissage Vol. 1 (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Vernissage Vol. 2 (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Abenddammerung Vol. 1 (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Abenddammerung Vol. 2 (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Abenddammerung Vol. 3 (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Awakenings Live (2023)
Live At the Kulturladen (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 01 (2023)
Morphic Resonance Anniversary 1 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 02 (2023)
A Tree Falls Vol. 3 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 03 (2023)
Haiku (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 04 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 05 (2023)
Live Stream 14.01.23 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 06 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 07 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 08 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 09 (2023)
Nostalgia (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 10 (2023)
Psychic Soundwaves 11 (2023)
Remnants of Being Vol. 1 (2023)
Remnants of Being Vol. 2 (2023)
Remnants of Being Vol. 3 (2023)
Remnants of Being Vol. 4 (2023)
Remnants of Being Vol. 5 (2023)
Remnants of Being Vol. 6 (2023)
Hidden Structure (2023)
The Shadow Vol. 1 (2023)
The Shadow Vol. 2 (2023)
The Shadow Vol. 3 (2023)
Naraka Vol. 1 (2023)
Naraka Vol. 2 (2023)
Hope Is A Broken Word (2024) (recorded in 2023)
Morphic Resonance 42 (2024) (recorded in 2023)
Midnight Music (2024) (recorded in 2023)
Morphic Resonance 43 (2024)

Berlin School artist. Often with a Vangelis' "Blade Runner" feel.

See also: Fred, S.A.


Rosen, Stephen (Canada)

The Music Room (1988) (S)

This is a privately pressed EP-length vinyl record with Canadian musician Stephen Rosen doing everything (mostly playing synths). Fittingly obscure and minimal.


Rosenau & Sanborn (USA)

Bluebird (2019)

Pastoral acoustic guitar / electronics duo from Wisconsin. The music is influenced by a summer the two spent near Durham, North Carolina, and there is something of a strange "Appalachian Cluster" vibe to the material.


Rosenberg, Nico (Chile)

Borderless (2019) (with Vinuela)
Paisajes Imaginarios (2022) (with Julia Gjertsen)

Semi-acoustic ambient compositions with a repetitive structure and nice piano / synth combinations.


Rosenboom, David (USA)

Collaboration In Performance (1978) (with Donald Buchla)
Future Travel (1981)
Daytime Viewing (2013) (recorded in 1979 - 1980) (with Jacqueline Humbert)

I must admit I was somewhat hesitant with including David Rosenboom in EEM, as even his more accessible works are not exactly something for progheads. Here's the story: David Rosemboom is an American academic composer, a pioneer in electroacoustic music, free improvisation, neurofeedback techniques and compositional algorithms. He also pioneered the use of computers in music. His early oeuvre includes such works as Brainwave Music (1975) that blended his fierce piano improvisations with electroacoustic techniques and brainwave research. He then released Collaboration In Performance together with Don Buchla which could well be the only instance that this great inventor and electronic instrument designer appears on record as a performer. Mention should also be made of Future Travel, dubbed David's "pop record" for its relatively accessible nature. And here's the sad part: even at his most accessible, David Rosenboom could be only enjoyed by fans of Experimental EM and maybe also minimalism and Morton Subotnick (who also used Buchla synthesizers extensively). So the main reason for inclusion is historic - these records feature some rare instruments, like the Buchla Touche, for instance, used on Future Travel. There's also that ever-so-slight prog influence creeping in on several tracks but that's about it. Don't expect anything too accessible or prog-related on these records. However, considering all pros and cons, I thought it was fair to mention at least some of David's electronic experiments here.


Rosenqvist, Dag (Sweden)

Vintermusik (2006) (with Rutger Zuydervelt)
Feberdröm (2007) (S) (with Rutger Zuydervelt)
Fields (2020)
Vråen Centrum (2021)
Transit / Sunrise (2021) (S) (with Domus)
Stadsbilder (2021) (with Jakob Lindhagen)
Lexika (2022)

Fields features melodic, propulsive electronic pieces and one "pop" song. Lexika is an imagined soundtrack to a sci-fi film in EM style. Interesting artist.

See also: Småland, From the Mouth of the Sun.


Rosenshoul, The (Australia)

Darkly I Listen (2017)

Brooding soundscapes. Sometimes melodically charged, with a feel of menace.

See also: Flowers For Bodysnatchers, ANIHILA.


Rosenthal, Sam (USA)

Round Trip (1984)
An Hour of Ambience (1984)
Statique Ballet (1984)
Before the Buildings Fell (1986)
Terrace of Memories (1992) (with Vidna Obmana)
The Passage (2011)
Journey To Aktehi (2017) (with Mark Seelig)
The Gesture of History (2019) (with Nick Shadow and Steve Roach)
Sunwashed Everning Fire (2020) (with Jarguna)

Sam Rosenthal is the driving force behind Black Tape For A Blue Girl. I haven't heard his music.

See also: Black Tape For A Blue Girl, Doppler Shift, As Lonely As Dave Bowman, Projekt Electronic Amerika.


Rosenzweig, Stuart (USA)

Our Own Universe (1976) (with Ken Moore)
Eccentric Projections (1981) (with Ken Moore)
Venus (1981) (with Ken Moore)


See also: Tangent


Rosevere, Lee (Canada)

Reason (2008)
Apollo 11 (2019)

Ambient composer with a deep, minimal sound.


Rosi, Roberto (Italy)

Curl (??)
Yo-Yoando (1989)

Varied electronic tracks here, from jazzy and vaguely ethnic to melodic synth ala Vangelis / Jarre and more experimental / noisy moments.


Rosi, Saverio (Italy)

Six Figures Getting Sick (2019)

Varied electronic tracks, mostly ambient and / or slightly noisy.


Rosing, Richard (USA)

Going Home (1988)

Small label cassette release out of California. Melodic, new-agey music with some quirks and slightly more adventurous / experimental touches (as on "Equatorial Windows").


Rösner, Matt (Australia)

Empty, Expanding, Collapsing (2023)

Dramatic, semi-acoustic Ambient from this Australian artist.


Ross Alexander (Germany)

In Light (2015)
Music For Other Spaces (2016)
Memorias Vol. 1 - Bugandan Sacred Places (2017)
Memorias Vol. 2 - High Atlas To The Sahara Desert (2019)

Ross Alexander Payne is a Berlin-based ambient artist. Music similar to the Lee Anthony Norris / Ishq school.


Ross, Atticus (USA)

Dispatches From Elsewhere (Music From the Jejune Institute) (2020) (with Leopold Ross and Claudia Sarne)
Dispatches From Elsewhere (Music From the Elsewhere Society) (2020) (with Leopold Ross and Claudia Sarne)
Soul (2020) (with Trent Reznor)

Varied electronic tracks, from wacky to darkish and jazzy. Often semi-acoustic, with lots of piano.


Ross, Eric (USA)

Electronic Etudes (1982)
Theremin Summit - Live At Berlin JazzFest (2011)
Music For Theremin (??)
Boulevard d'reconstructie (??)
Music From the Future (For Theremin And Ensemble) (2014)

Eric Ross is an American improviser, avant-garde and classical composer. His main instruments are guitar, synthesizers and, above all, theremin. This is also the instrumentation used on his Electronic Etudes LP. I am not sure about the style, but it could be too experimental for most EM fans. Side two is "Songs for Synthesized Soprano".


Ross, Iain (UK)

Everywhere & Always (2021)

Pretty strange release mixing pastoral, ethnic-sounding, new-agey synth compositions with noises and gritty, insdustrial, distorted guitar sound.


Ross, Kenneth Jay (USA)

Moon Lagoon (1987)

Rare, privately released cassette with melodic and ambient Electronic Music.


Rossbreiten, Kalmen (Germany)

Kalmen Rossbreiten (2015)
Provin[ien]z (2016)
Instrumentalmusik vom Ende der Welt (2021)


Rossi, Franck (France)

Le Reve d'Alcyon (1996)


Rossi, Gianni (USA)

Gutterballs (2009) (soundtrack)
Star Vehicle (2011) (soundtrack)

Actually Steve Moore of Zombi doing Giallo-influenced horror synth music which is a mixture of italo beats and Prog EM.

See also: Moore, Steve, Zombi.


Rostkowski, Łukasz (Poland)

Sleepoholic (2013)

Experimental / abstract hip-hop artist from Poland. This particular album veers towards ambient realms, still with some gently rhythmic material.


Rostovskaya, Olesya (Russia)

Weightlessness - Theremin And Electric Violin (2019) (with Asya Sorshneva)

Classical performer and theremin player. The above is an album of spacey theremin / electric violin improvisations. The duo manages to achieve a surprisingly full and warm sound, given the limited means. Nice if you like Space Music, early Kitaro ("In Remembrance of Alexey Leonov", in particular, reminds on a lost 1970's Kitaro synth meditation) and classical / EM hybrids. Nice.


Roswell Incident, The (Belgium)

The Crash (2010)
Hunted (2013)
Escape (2014)
Adrift (2015)
Trapped Part One (2019)
Departure From the Homeworld (2023)

Berlin School music by two brothers Jan and Koen Buyteart from Belgium.

See also: Ghosts In Mirrors


Roth (USA)

Umbra (2009)

Diverse music, from melodic to ambient and cosmic, from light to darker moods by this New Mexico-based artist.


Roth, Martin (Germany)

An Analog Guy In A Digital World (2020)
Mono No Aware (2022)

Martin Roth is a German techno / club artist, working under numerous guises since the 1990's. On An Analog Guy In A Digital World, he decided to mingle classical sounds and instruments with (mostly analog) electronics for a pretty melodic, repetitive and progressive sound. Nice sequencing on tracks like "Simplicité" and "Empty Streets". Mono No Aware continues in the same direction, although with a tad more minimal sound.


Rothbaum, David (USA)

The Joy of Painting (2005) (S)
Untitled (2006) (S) (with Bryan Eubanks)
Murder Bury Win (2020) (soundtrack) (with Jonathan Snipes)
Miniatures (2016 - 2020) (2021)

Modular synth artist with a varied, often playful and atmospheric style.


Rothe, Walter Christian (Belgium)

Solitude (1980)
Let the Night Last Forever (1984)
Alice (1986)
Zebra (1987)
Poland Requiem (1987)
Alice, the Concert (1987)
Nightmoves (1987)
Bevers (1990)
One Night In Paris (1993)
Visions of the Heart (1994) (with Toots Thielemans)
The Story of Alice (1995)
Two For Green - Bulgaria (1996)
Quiet Latitudes (1997) (with Tony Boast)
Two For Green - Africa (1998)
Ten To Midnight (1999)
Clockwork (??)
Urlaub Für den Geist (2009) (with Tony Boast)
Secrets (2019)

Walter Christian Rothe was born in 1957. Although originally from Germany, he spent much of his time in Belgium, working on various projects and collaborating with musicians, including Guy Drieghe, with whom he formed an electronic duo Pillion in 1978. Over the years, he's released a lot of solo works, mainly in Belgium. Walter started with acoustic instruments but in 1975 he acquired his first synthesizer. Influenced by the so-called "Berlin School" of Electronic Music, he set out to explore electronic soundscapes with analogue synthesizers, often going for the darker, more unstable sound. Before forming Pillion, Walter had already been doing solo concerts of Electronic Music for several years.

See also: Pillion


Rother, Anthony (Germany)

Sex With the Machines (1997)
Simulationszeitalter (2000)
Hacker (2002)
Elixir of Life (2003)
Magic Diner (2003)
Live Is Life Is Love (2003)
Popkiller (2004)
Art Is A Technology (2005)
Super Space Model (2006)
My Name Is Beuys Von Telekraft (2008)
Popkiller II (2010)
The Machine Room (2011)
Vom Urknall zur Machine (2011)
62 Minutes On Mars (2011)
Netzwerk der Zukunft (2014)
Verbalizer (2014)
We Are the Future (2019) (EP)

Anthony Rother was born in 1972 in Offenbach and started making "noises" in the late 1980's. Some of his music was released on FAX label. It's slightly more accessible than the stuff this label is mainly known for. Some people call his music "electro", some "techno" and they are right in a way.


Rother, Michael (Germany)

Flammende Herzen (1977)
Sterntaler (1978)
Katzenmusik (1979)
Fernwaerme (1982)
Lust (1983)
Sussherz Und Tiefenscharfe (1985)
Traumreisen (1987)
Radio (1993)
Esperanza (1996)
Chronicles I (1998)
Remember the Great Adventure (2004)
Solo (2019) (recorded in 1977 - ??)
Solo II (2020) (recorded in 1983 - 2020)
Dreaming (2020)
As Long As the Light (2022) (with Vittoria Maccabruni)

Michael Rother (born in 1950 in Hamburg) was the leader of Neu! and member of Harmonia in the mid 70's, together with Hans-Joachim Roedelius and Dieter Moebius. Also worthy of mention is his brief stint with an early incarnation of Kraftwerk. He was notable for his pioneering minimalist guitar work. Michael's solo albums are partly electronic and partly guitar-based. In general, these albums are much less experimental compared to what he did in various collaborations before starting his solo career. Some of his music could even quialify as "easy-listening". The first three albums were done in collaboration with Can drummer Jaki Liebezeit. They are rather minimalist and repetitive, retaining the melodic edge. There's not much in terms of electronics though, especially on Katzenmusik. However, these are nice melodic works, even a bit romantic. With Lust, Michael took a more electronic path. However, typical 1980's production and sonic qualities may lower the excitement rate for some.

See also: Harmonia


Rothermich, Edgar (Germany)

Blade Runner: Music From the Motion Picture - A 30th Anniversary Celebration (2012)

Re-created score from this German musician.


Rothkamm, Frank (Germany)

Just 3 Organs (2008)
Alt (2009) (recorded in 1989 - 2002)
Music For the Sheena People (2018)

Frank Holger Rothkamm is a conceptual sound / fluxus artist currently residing in Los Angeles. He can be sort of considered a disciple of Stockhausen, at least a lot of his output seems to be heavily influenced by this master of academic electronics. He is pretty diverse to say the least. Basically, you never know what his next album will be. He uses piano, digital synths, analog synths, computers, organs, field recordings, voices and what not to achieve varied results that range from "fake jazz" to classical, hard-core experimental stuff, musique concrete and even tech house. Most of his output is rather abstract and noisy, though, and will be enjoyed by fans of academic / avant-garde electronics and experimental music. I have included two works by him so far. Needless to say, Frank is far from being a proghead, at least the so far released output will have you thinking anything BUT prog EM. However, these two have some slight details and influences that might point in that direction. Or, it may be just "convergent evolution", so to speak. Just 3 Organs have him coaxing strange textures out of three vintage Yamaha Electone organs. I find these kinds of albums rather interesting, as the limitations really make the player use a lot of imagination and be more creative. It's a mixture of darker and cheesy textures overall, and often sounds like a lost 1960's EM album. Alt can be considered his "ambient" work, which is in fact a compilation of works from various years.


Rothon, D. (UK)

Nightscapes (2018)
Memories of Earth (2021)
Estuary English (2022) (with O Cherer)
Lonesome Echoes (2023) (S)

This nostalgic album (Nightscapes), loaded with mellotron flutes and strings, chirping drum machines, piano, guitars and warm synths is a hauntology-styled electronic trip to your childhood memories, hopes and fears... and the years that are gone forever. Highly evocative and nice.


Rotsen, Jim (Spain)

Over the Sea (??)
Beyond the Rhymes (??)

Melodic Electronic Music from this Spanish synthesist with influences from Vangelis and Jarre.


Rott, Adrian (???)

Grey Fashion (??)


Rotten, Andrew (Germany)

En Passant (2005)

Solo Electronic Music (under a pseudonym) from Pyramid Peak member Andreas Morsch.

See also: Pyramid Peak


Rottmayer, Emil (UK)

Descend (2018)
Detached (2019)
Deflection (2022) (recorded in 2019 - 2021)
Synthetic (2023)

Synthwave-related artist (real name - Michael Villar) who uses multiple sequences in his work, which gives his work a Prog EM touch (ala sequencing on Tangerine Dream's 1980's soundtrack work).


Rotvälta (???)

Utflykter I Den Svenska Skogen (2021)

Supposed (most probably, fake) soundtrack to a documentary about Swedish tourusm. Melodic synth themes on top of bird sounds.


Roubaix, Francois de (France)

Le Monde Electronique de Francois de Roubaix (2004) (recorded in 1972 - 1975)
Le Monde Electronique de Francois de Roubaix Vol. II (2006) (recorded in 1971 - 1975)
L'Antarctique & Autres Séances Électroniques (2009) (recorded in ??)
Courts Metrages (2011) (recorded in ??)
Cristaux Liquides (2013) (S) (recorded in ??)
Les Onix (2016) (recorded in 1972 - 1976)
Le Saut de l'Ange / R​.​A​.​S (2018) (recorded in 1971 and 1973)
Les Secrets de la Mer Rouge (2021) (recorded in 1967 and 1975) (soundtrack)

French soundtrack composer who loved to combine electronic and acoustic instruments in unusual ways. He created a unique sonic world that, although cheesy in places, is still pretty captivating. This collection includes his electronically-oriented works, some of them never released before. Francois de Roubaix died during a diving accident near the Canary Islands in 1975.


Roubaix, Yves de & Boeraeve, Jean-Claude (France)

Tipsy - the Plank's - Recreation Road - the Boss Music (??) (with others)

Library LP by various artists providing music in various styles. Yves de Roubaix and Jean-Claude Boeraeve's material consists of melodic synth music.


Rouge Brulé (France??)

Rouge Brulé (2023)

Interesting project. Using jazz / classical instrumentation and glanular synthesis, they create their music spontaneously, following the "on-the-fly" principle. The results are often hypnotic, rhythmic and sound like Art Zoyd trying to play Berlin School music. Nice stuff.


Rough And Wojtyla (UK / Poland)

R/W (2017)
Rough & Wojtyla featuring Richard Pinhas (2018)

Experimental synths / drums duo. Longs tracks.


Roulin, Francois Elie (France)

Disque Rouge (1989)
Initial Numbers (1993)
Spinning Skies (1998)
Parade (2005)
Musique Lente (2016) (with Matthieu Le Sénéchal)

Roulin was the only French artist to have been produced by Brian Eno. His music is very diverse but generally stays in the Ambient / symphonic camp.


Rounds Per Minute (Germany)

The Essen University Session (1996)

Rounds Per Minute (aka RPM) was a short-lived project of Frank Makowski, Lambert Ringlage and Stephen Parsick. It was basically a precursor to Ramp and played Berlin School music. The project was soon renamed but they did release at least this one tape.

See also: Makowski, Frank, Ramp, Tranquillity, Lambert, Parsick, Stephen.


Roupas, Vassilis (Greece)

Takeshi Fumimota - Adjuster (2023)

Ambient synth compositions from this Greek keyboardist and piano player.


Rousseau, Frédérick (France)

FR2 (1982) (with Francis Rimbert)
Music Land (1983) (S) (with Jean-Philippe Rykiel)
Earth - Live (1985)
Overview (1987)
Illustrator IV (1988)
Illustrator V (1990)
Mo (1993)
Spirit In the Woods (1995)
Abyss (1996)
Woods (1997)
La Foret (1997)
Le Sous Bois (1997)
Terres et Legendes Vol. 1 (2000) (soundtrack)
Terres et Legendes Vol. 2 (2000) (soundtrack)
Terres et Legendes Vol. 3 (2000) (soundtrack)
Terres et Legendes Vol. 4 (2000) (soundtrack)
Terres et Legendes Vol. 5 (2000) (soundtrack)
Travels (2002)
Recall (2003)
Out of the Night (??)
Tears (2005)

French synthesist and sound programmer. Having studied electronics, Frédérick Rousseau was invited to work for French national atomic program. However, after a while he quit and devoted himself to music activities. By 1980, he developed an interest in Electronic Music and started working in one of the largest studios in France as both arranger / programmer and instrument developer. In 1981, he was introduced to Jean-Michel Jarre who was looking for someone with an expertise of caliber high enough to manipulate his newly acquired digital sequencer. The two embarked on the China tour and later worked on the completion of Concerts In China album. Rousseau also helped with Les Chants Magnetiques, Zoolook and a few others. Around that time Frédérick also met Vangelis who was recording The Friends of Mr. Cairo with Jon Anderson. Frédérick lent a hand with several of Vangelis' subsequent productions (including the soundtrack to Blade Runner). I guess his friendship with Jarre and Vangelis pretty much lasts to this very day. Naturally, some of Frédérick's own music recalls Jarre's structures, with an extra 'Vangelis' touch. Some of it is pretty ambient in nature and is part of 'La Collection Oxygene' sampler. During the last several years, Frédérick started incorporating World Music structures and ethnic elements.


Rousseau, Pierre (France)

Music For Études N°18 - Spring Summer 2021 (2021) (EP) (soundtrack)
Twenty - Music For Études N°20 - Spring Summer 2022 (2023) (EP)

Analog, sequence-full EM.


Roussel, Coco (France)

In Time (1985) (with Kit Watkins)
Reaching Beyond (1992)

French drummer (now residing in the USA) who was originally playing drums in Heldon and joined Happy the Man several years later. One of his solo albums is a collaborative effort with his ex-Happy the Man cohort Kit Watkins, the other one was done in collaboration with Watkins as well, with the two exchanging MIDI data and creating a blend of digital synthesizers of the day and highly percussive electronics from Roussel.

See also: Heldon, Happy the Man.


Roussel, Johannes (France)

Passages (2000)
Illusions (2002)
Light (2004)
Landing At Night (2006)
Time (2012)

Johannes Roussel first came into prominence as one of the artists (those were the times). He has a melodic style, sometimes more ambient, sometimes informed by the EM classics of the 1970's.


Roussel, René (France)

Rubriques (1980)
Archipel (1993)

Nice warm synth sounds on this library LP (Rubriques).


Route (Denmark)

God Dreng (2016) (EP)

Mostly moody, cosmic synths with a slight deep techno / house influence. "0908" is a sequencer fest.


Route 8 (Hungary)

Rewind the Days of Youth (2020)

Soft melodic house album with three tracks being influenced by ambient electronics or Prog EM. File under EM-related.


Rove Monteaux (Czech Republic)

Marching Towards the End (2018)

Martial Ambient. A bit lacking in variety.


Rovvles (USA)

Jupiter Journey (2021)

Varied project from California. Ranges from minimal trancey / techno songs to sort of ambient EM but never flowing and / or relaxing.


Rowe, Tim (UK)

Night Runner (2016)



Rowen (USA)

Ashen Spirit (2018)

Synth duo drawing influences from minimal synth, black metal and ambient forms of musical expression.


Rownd, Mark (USA)

Desert Waves (1995)
Painting Twilight (1998)
Convergence (2002) (with Deborah Martin and Greg Klamt)

Ambient with orchestral elements from this musician out of Arizona, USA.


Roy of the Ravers (UK)

White Line Sunrise II (2018) (recorded in 1997 - 2017)
Green Irish Tweed Vol. 1 (2020)
Lost Angels (2022)

Club / techno-related project of Sam Buckley. The above collection mostly gathers pieces on which he experiments in ambient synth and abstract genres. Some rhythmic pieces as well. File under EM-related.


Roy, Olivier (France)

Pochette-Surprise (1979)

Rare LP with Electronic Music along the lines of Klaus Schulze.


Roy Orb D.MT. (USA)

Doctor of Metaphysical Healing (2011)
Arp Navigators (2012) (with Food Pyramid)
Offworld (2012) (with Soothsayer)

Blissful analog synth melodies.


Roya (Sweden)

Trax (2016) (EP)
Hive (2018)
Pulse (2020)
Bound (2020)

Swedish synth artist. Bound features electronic compositions created on the Buchla Music Easel. Varied, playful, experimental... Pretty nice overall.


Röyksopp (Norway)

The Understanding (2005)
Senior (2010)

Mainstream pop / "electronica" duo of Svein Berge and Torbjørn Brundtland. The Understanding is mostly a song-based album, but includes three (more?) instrumentals that range from melodic / tuneful to mechanic, Kraftwerk-like, with influences of electro. But the real reason for inclusion is "Alpha Male", which is so much influenced by Tangerine Dream's Force Majeure that it hurts. After a very "Cloudburst Flight"-like intro, in comes the rhythmic middle section and then the piece closes with a melodic mellotron-flute refrain. Nice. Senior is a diverse, mostly moody instrumental release with also some EM influences.


Rozas, Efraín (Peru)

I Enjoy the World (2017)

Minimal, percussive electronic compositions from this member of La Mecánica Popular, with lots of repetition and sort of mysterious / hypnotic. Pretty nice stuff.


Rozmann, Akos (Hungary)

Images of the Dream And Death (1986)
Bilder Inför Drömmen Och Döden (1991) (recorded in 1974 - 1990)
Impulsioni / De Två, Med Tre Instrument (1999) (recorded in 1973 - 1997)

Akos Rozmann is a Hungarian composer who moved to Sweden in 1974 to work in the now legendary EMS studios in Stockholm. His music has a clear academic bend but some of his material is supposed to be interesting for fans of electronic prog. Several of his early pieces were made with Buchla synthesizers.


Rroland (USA)

Reflections On A Past Life As Played On the Roland Synthesizer (2001)

The guy with a punk background playing around on his synthesizer. Only for fans of Experimental EM.


rRoxymore (France)

Face To Phase (2019)
Perpetual Now (2022) (EP)

A project of Berlin-based Hermione Frank. She has a background in UK bass, but on Face To Phase, she decided to make forays into melodic, repetitive synth music ("Home Is Where the Music Is"), experimental electro ("Passages", "Someone Else's Memory") or dark, atmospheric downtempo ("What's the Plan"). It is EM-related at best, but the potential is there. The Perpetual Now EP is also interesting: a mix of bass heavy club music and minimal synth repetition.


rt60fields (Belgium??)

Transient (2023)

Varied, ambient, playful modular synth compositions. Sometimes with sequencing.


Rua, Vitor (Portugal)

Electronic Music 1995 - 2010 (2020)
Electronic Music 1993 - 2018 (2022)
It's Full of Stars / Paisagens (2023) (recorded in 2020 and 2021)

Varied electronic tracks from this member of Telectu.

See also: Telectu


Rubba (UK)

Push Button (1979)
Movement (1982)

Rubba is most likely a pseudonym of library composer Karl Jenkins. These are electronic library releases. As always with such releases, caution is advised.


Ruben, Paul (Austria)

Halleluyah (2019) (S)
Giving Without Receiving Is Acting Like the Sun (2020)

Electronic pop artist. His instrumental material is EM and is rather nicely done and interesting. The vocals I found unnecessary, though.


Rubies, The (Japan / USA)

Sketch of Love (2018)

Warm and comforting ambient sounds from this duo.

See also: Rhucle


Rubinstein, Jason (USA)

Image (1996)
Cathedral (1998)

San Francisco-based keyboardist with an interest in prog rock and ambient forms. In 2014, he released New Metal From Old Boxes - a heavier, somewhat Crimsonian affair (no ambient tracks).


Rubycon (USA)

Rubycon (2000)
We're Their Were (2003)

A duo of Patrick Kurz and Doug Smith (with Chris Hopiard on We're Their Were) who create some sort of spacey Cluster / Harmonia type music. Sort of...

See also: Noeebo


Rude 66 (Netherlands)

Secret Treaties (2014)
From Reason To Ritual (2016)
Secret Treaties II: Echoes From A Dark Empire (2017)
Fragmented Living (2023)

A project of Ruud Lekx, who, starting from the early 1990's released numerous works in techno / acid vein. With Secret Treaties series of albums he explores more ambient realms. From Reason To Ritual is split in two distinct parts - the first one is disco / techno-ish vocoder overload. The second part is dark gritty techno that culminates with an ambient title track.


Rudens Lapas (Latvia)

Vakars (1992) (S)
Rudens (1993) (S)
Vienas Nakts Stāsts (1993) (S)
Vēstules Lietū. Kopdarbi (1994)
Klusums Un Peļķes (2012)

Introspective, autumnal side project of industrial band Claustrum. Early releases are reel-to-reel tapes ("magnitizdat").


Rudess, Jordan (USA)

January 5, 2000 (2000) (with Richard Lainhart)
Session 041903 (2003) (with Richard Lainhart)
Polaris (2004) (with Richard Lainhart)
Tarazed (2005) (with Richard Lainhart)
Intersonic (2017) (with Stephen Horelick)

Legendary Dream Theater keyboardist. Most of his EM works are only available as downloads at the moment but hopefully something gets released on CD someday. Apart from what's mentioned above, relevant works include Orion, Aldebaran and Tarazed - all of them live analogue jams with electronic musician Richard Lainhart. Notes 26/11/2017: Intersonic is a nice electronic work by Rudess together with ex-Electronic Art Ensemble member Stephen Horelick.


Rudich, Arik (Israel)

Sattalla (1981)
נעימת הנושא מתוך הסרט "נגוע ‎(1983) (S) (soundtrack)
Age of Love (1985) (with Yoram Taharlev)
Mantra (1987)
Tienanmen Square (1993)
Typhoon (1993)
Aquarius Twins (1996) (with Guy Sebbag)
Shma Israel: The Cantorial Project (1997)

Keyboard player  (1954 - 2019) who released a few electronic albums in symphonic and prog-influenced style.


Rudiman, Shawn (USA)

Autonomic Pilot (2019) (EP)
Flow State (2021)

Techno artist who shows ambient tendencies on the above EP. Of interest is the short number "Past the Edge". Pitty it's too short, though. Flow State is another interesting release - a companion to his earlier (2020) album Conduit, it is mostly ambient and flowing, with a few exceptions. Nice one.


Rudin, Andrew (USA)

Tragoedia (1968)

Avant-garde / classical composer who got seduced by the Moog synthesizer and released this embryonic work in an era when Morton Subotnick and Wendy Carlos' works were the cream of the cream of electronic expression. Mainly of historical interest and hardly Prog, although some parts and brief moments somehow hint in that direction.


Rudolf Abramov (Germany)

Krass Konstrast (2019)
Losing Perspective (2022)

Actually a duo based in Berlin, taking cues from both new wave / post-punk (yes, they use vocals as well) and krautrock / EM.


Rudź, Przemysław (Poland)

Summa Technologiae (2009)
Cosmological Tales (2010)
Self-Replicating Intelligent Spawn (2010)
Cerulean Legacy (2011)
Unexplored Secrets of REM Sleep (2011) (with Komendarek)
Pain/tings (2012)
Four Incarnations (2012) (with Krzysztof Duda)
Discreet Charm of An Imperfect Symmetry (2013)
Remote Sessions (2013) (with Vanderson)
The Stratomusica Suite (2014) (with Josef Skrzek)
Hołd (2014) (with Krzystof Duda and Robert Kanaan)
Back To the Labyrinth (2014)
At the Horizon's Edge (2015) (with Mikołaj Hertel)
Hypnotized (2015)
Music For Stargazing (2016)
Let Them Float (2016)
3C (2017)
(with Krzystof Duda and Robert Kanaan)
Master of Own Fate (2018)
Panta Rhei (2018) (with Tomasz Pauszek)
Nigdy Więcej Wojny (2019)
Panta Rhei 2 (2020) (with Tomasz Pauszek and Wiktor Niedzicki)
The Martian Anthology (2021)
Konstelacja MOA (2021)
Ze Skultetem i Kopernikiem przez XVI wiek (2023)
Daydreamer & Nightwalker (2023) (with Roman Odoj)onny
The City (2023)

This Polish artist creates a mixture of styles that displays everything from sequencer pulsations to melodic Jarre-like compositions and the chilled drift of Namlook.


Rue, Gryphon (USA)

Foliage of Caves (2020)
North of the Future (2021) (with Merche Blasco)
A Spirit Appears To A Pair of Lovers (2022)

Interesting EM from this New York-based artist. Focusing on analog synth and vintage organ sounds, it is full of lulling arpeggios, drones and cosmic touches, but also reflection, introspection and melancholy, as well as a touch of quirkiness.


Ruediger, Uwe (Germany)

Shape One (1992) (recorded in 1984)

Diverse music from this multi-instrumentalist and friend of Peter Frohmader. Ruediger played in Kanaan and some other bands. He then released this cassette with music ranging from jazzy fusion / zeuhl to new wave and experimental EM.

See also: Kanaan


Ruffing, Mathis (Germany)

Down To Univearth (2016) (EP)
Music For Airpods (2020) (EP)
Skybox (2022)

Electronic musician with a techno-influenced style. He also seems to be very influenced by EM, as the Ashra-like sequencer-based opener from the Down To Univearth EP shows. Another EM track is "Tetrachord".


Rüggeberg, Michael (Germany)

Der Westen Leuchtet (1982) (soundtrack)
Die Frau ohne Körper und der Projektionist (1984) (soundtrack)

Varied electronic soundtrack music, from rhythmic (and even danceable), to menacing and atmospheric.


Ruin (Canada)

Happy Drone Day (2008)

Drone Ambient from David Rast. Sometimes with slow rhythms.


Ruined Spirit (UK)

Black Metal's Redemptive Arc (2019)

Ambient duo of Jess Whelligan (cello) and Andrew Christopher Hillock (guitar and electronics).


Ruinen (Austria)

Verg​ä​nglichkeit (2023)

Doomy dungeon synth / EM hybrid, with droning synths and slow melodies, plus a touch of metal (more in the mood, not the actual sound of distorted / overdriven guitars).


Ruins (Italy)

Marea / Tide (1984)

New wave band formed by Alessandro Pizzin together with Piergiuseppe Ciranna. Marea / Tide is not related to the group's main output, as it was part of the so-called "Sound Image Series", which was discontinued after that one release. This music is dedicated to the works of Italian painter Luigi Viola. It consists mainly of shorter tracks in ambient electronic style.

See also: Pizzin, Alessandro


Ruins of Xibalba (Turkey)

Essence (2021) (S)
Göbeklitepe (2021)

Turkish artist currently residing in Sydney, Australia. Repetitive, at times dungeon synth-like ambient music with a sense of grandeur and ancient mystery.


Ruiz, Joxan (Spain)

Gaze (2012)

Ambient music, sometimes with subtle sequencing. Mixed by Ran Kirlian.


Ruiz, Miguel Angel (Spain)

Nebelfleck (1982)
Climatery (1986)
La Camara Gamma (1988)
El Niño Carburador (1989)
Han Llegado Los Robots! (1989) (with Hector Hernandez)
La Primera Aventura de Cekoni y Conike (1990) (with Francisco Lopez)
Vasarely (1991)
Encuentros En La Tercera Edad (1991)
Mantis Predictor (1993) (with Dieter Mauson)
Coaxial (1996)
Grosor (2005) (recorded in 1989 - 1990)
Ornament (2007)
Exclusion Zone (2009) (with Bardoseneticcube)
Festival de Vista Cansada (2013)
Fünf Kinematismen (2017)
Voces y Formas del mas Allá 1982 - 1983 (2018)

Spanish synthesist. Some of his works are released under pseudonyms Orfeon Gagarin and Exhaustor. Difficult to classify. Sort of spacey Experimental stuff with many influences.

See also: Orfeon Gagarin, Funeral Souvenir, Ventral Metaphor, Exhaustor, Ambulatorio Segreto, Tecnica Material, Dekatron II, Codachrom, Des Airlines, Michel, Efficient Refineries, Zytospace.


Rukkanor (Poland)

Requiem For K-141 KYRCK (2004)

Rukkanor is a martial industrial / neofolk project of Robert Marciniak. This album is dedicated to the memory of the crew of Russian nuclear submarine "Kursk" who died in the 2000 disaster. It's a mix of Dark Ambient styles with Martial Ambient dominating.


Rumforskning (Denmark)

Fremtiden (2005)
Livstegn (2006)
Himmelhväv (2007)

Ambient drones from Denmark (Danny Kreutzfeldt and Mads Weitling), released on the Dataobscura label.


Rummig, Marc Hans (USA)

Alien Hymns (2009)

Marc Hans Rummig has been playing music since the 1970's. The whole "Alien Hymns" album was inspired by the "Star Trek" TV series with Marc using corresponding titles for most of the tracks. "The Vulcan Space Shanty" opens with heavy and dark effects. The tension grows as symphonic synthesizers introduce a solemn melodic theme. A rhythm appears and we enter the territory of hard-rocking EM in the 1980's style. It's melodic, accessible and propulsive. "Stratos" is introduced with solemn and even bombastic organ playing. A drum rhythm appears, but the organ never recedes, being the main solo instrument on this dramatic and highly enjoyable number. Imagine a Bach toccata with an underlying electronic rhythm and a few (really a few) complimentary sounds and you get the picture. In other words, intense stuff. "Talos Lullabye" starts in a somewhat tribal mode, with nice effects, a few percussions and a fluety lead sound. A melancholic harpsichord theme is then introduced around which a rhythm is built. The main melody is played with a choir-like sound that brings classical influences to the fore. It's a nice, relaxed and moody piece of music. "Klingon Battlecruiser" begins with dramatic chords before a bombastic melodic theme is introduced. The sound on this one is bright and optimistic, with greater use of purely synthetic textures. "The Romulan March" is something of a return to the dramatic and a bit melancholic realms of "Talos Lullabye". The main melody is played with a flute-like preset; the rest consists of harpsichord bass, slow drums and a sitar like patch that goes hand in hand with the flute. There are also choir pads that compliment the picture nicely. A sawtooth synth sound replaces the flute after a while. "Walking With Tomita" (how's that for a title?) begins with a nice, dark and cosmic soundscape. After a while a really nice sequence appears joined by yet another one and another and another one... So many sequences at once... I am surprised as nothing up to this point came even close in style to this nice and flowing track. The only thing that reminds on Tomita-san is actually the whimsical fluety analog lead line and the melody itself, which has that special Japanese vibe to it. A nice and enjoyable tribute. "The Voyage Home Part 1" continues with analog sequences, much to my delight. However, the focus this time is a nice synthesizer lead. There's a rich symphonic quality to this relaxed rhythmic track that reminds a bit on Vangelis. "SR-71" is full of dark effects and radio voices before a propulsive and assertive theme is brought forth. The melodies are mostly played with brassy synths, backed by march-like rhythm and harpsichord. "The Voyage Home Part 2" begins with an ethereal, choir-laden section. It is then replaced by an optimistic melodic theme with an already familiar sound. "Leaving Vulcan" is basically a reprise of the opening section of the first track. Alien Hymns is certainly a nice album for those who like melodic, anthemic Electroniñ Music.


Rumore (Italy)

Del Mare (2016) (EP)
Della Natura (2019) (EP)

A mixture of atmospheric house tracks and pure liquid ambient floaters.


Rumpistol (Denmark)

In My Room (2019) (EP)
After the Flood (2020)
Going Inside (2023)

The 2020 release is a departure for this "electronica" (not this term again!) artist (Jens Berents Christiansen), active under this moniker since the early 2000's. Here, he works primarily with the piano, adding processed recorded sounds, a small classical ensemble and synthesizers. The work is obviously indebted to people like Nils Frahm, although has an individual touch for sure. Well worth a listen.


Rumpun Puisirama Titra (Malaysia)

Rumpun Puisirama Titra (1982)

Obscure prog rock outfit from Malaysia. Their keyboardist, Zalikamari, plays a nice array of synths and apparently there are some geniune electronic moments. File under EM-related until I get a chance to hear more from them.


Rumyantsev, Vadim (Russia)

Odd Times (2016)

Varied ambient soundscapes based on digital and analog sources.


Rúna (USA)

Rúna (2018) (S)

Melancholic ambience.

See also: Vindensång


Runau, Karl (Germany)

Osmose (1994)
Beyond Frequencies (1998)

German experimental musician working within the post-industrial paradigm. Osmose is very much informed by those trends, presenting harsh and noisy electronics. Nothing too progressive here. On Beyond Frequencies, a quirkier approach is heard, with analog synthies, cheesy rhythms and a few samples, all vaguely in an amusing and experimental Dusseldorf School mode.


Runawei (USA)

Abduction (2011)

A duo of Ken Camden and Alex Barnett, supposedly with a spacey, droney sound.

See also: Barnett, Alex, Camden, Ken.


Rundgren, Todd (USA)

Todd (1974)
Initiation (1975)
Runddans (2015) (with Emil Nikolaisen and Lindstrøm)

Well-known progrock / pop artist and the founder of Utopia. He has many albums but his experimental phase culminated with these two releases. Todd has some experimental electronic numbers interspersed with varied song material. On Initiation you'll find a long synthesizer suite, called "A Treatise On Cosmic Fire".


Rune, The (Ukraine)

Îãîíü è âîçäóõ (2006)
Îêðóæàþùåå íàñ (2007)
Ñëàâÿíîêåëüòèêà (2008)
Áåñêðàéíîñòü ìîåãî íåáà (2010) (with Belorechye)

Aka "Ðóíà". Diverse nature and pagan inspired Ambient from Kirill Batalov. Not really dark, more in melodic / easy-listening vein, sometimes with folk elements.


Runecaster (USA)

The Sleeping Sword (2020)
The Scarlet Kingdom (2020)
The Temple Revealed (2022)

Music between dungeon synth, melodic EM and video game soundtracks.


Runes Order (Italy)

The Dream Door (1992)
The Age of Corruption And Gold (1993)
No Future (1993)
Electronic Winter Landscape (1993)
La Seduzione del Silenzio (1994)
Quadridimensional Noisescapes (1994)
Dawn of the New Past (1994)
Winter (1994)
Velvet Sky (1995)
Murders (1995)
1991 - 1994 A Time For Hate (1995)
Room 39 (1995)
I Can See No Reason To Live... But Hate (1995)
The Land of Silence (1995)
Odisseum (1996)
2022 (1996)
Dark Millenium (1997)
The Will of Runes (1998) (recorded in 1994 - 1998)
Waiting Forever (1998)
Il Sonno del Sogno (2001)
The Art of Scare And Sorrow (2002)
Delirio 68-34-9 Live Magenta (2003)
The Hopeless Days (2004)
X Final Solution (2007)
Disco Nero (2010)
Fase XIV (2019)
Falsche Fragen (2023) (with Regen Graves)

A project of Claudio Dondo. Some of the music is Berlin School, some dark. Some works feature vocals (Daniele Magarelli). Velvet Sky is a cassette that was released on CD under the The Dark Side of Brain title.

See also: Order 1968, Atom Infant Incubator, Die Sonne Satan, Tunguska, N.O.M.


Runningonair (UK)

Out of Process (2009)
Running On Air (2016)
4 Track Tapes 85-86 (2020)
Conspiracy Theory (2021)
B.A.U. (2022)

Varied project of Joe Evans. 4 Track Tapes contains original recordings from the 1980's with drums added in the studio prior to the release. Some nice abstract and melodic (ala 1980's Tangerine Dream) EM here.


Ruò Tán (China)

Stone (2017)

Chinese: 若潭. Musician from Nanjing dedicated to various forms of experimental, tribal, ambient and noise musics. On Stone, you will find lots of drones, chants and ritual percussion. One for the fans of Tribal / Ritual Ambient. Dedicated to the Northern Asia shamanistic tradition.


Ruoho, Esa (Finland)

Spaces (2001)
Places (2008)
Riversmouth (2011) (S)
Parched Throat (2015)
Esa Ruoho (2016)
HLER (2018) (with Heikki Lindgren)

Finnish ambient artist.


Ruohomäki, Jukka (Finland)

DIMI 1 (1970) (S) (with Erkki Kurenniemi)
Time Ride (2006)
1974 (2017) (with Mircea Stan Quartet)

One of the pioneers of Finnish Electronic Music. Jukka is often quite experimental, having pioneered such styles as electroacoustic music and musique concrete in his native Finland. However, he is also progressive, and is not afraid to toss in a juicy sequence either, as in "Jockey Seq. C" - the opening track from Time Ride.


Rupp, B. (UK??)

B. Rupp (2019)
January Songs (2020)

Reflective ambience and some noisier stuff, sometimes with techno beats.


Ruptured World (UK)

Exoplanetary (2018)
Archeoplanetary (2019)
Interplanetary (2020)
Shore Rituals (2021)
Xenoplanetary (2023)

Sci-fi-inspired ambience. Not really Dark Space, more like a mixture of bright, mysterious & darker sounds with some narration. A project of Alistair Rennie.


Rural Tapes (Norway)

Rural Tapes (2021)
Inner Space Music (2022)

Rural Tapes is Arne Kjelsrud Mathisen. According to the author, he is influenced by 70`s krautrock, film music and classical music. Pastoral, krauty mixture of rock instrumentation and organ / synths. Mostly instrumental.


Ruscha V, E (USA)

Who Are You (2018)
Cosmic Harmonics (2021)
E Ruscha V And The Only Thingz, Too (2021)

Melodic, analog music with a strong Dusseldorf School feel.

See also: Secret Circuit, Tkil, Doctor Fluorescent, Parels, The.


Rusconi, Jean-Pierre (France)

Mesrine (1984) (soundtrack)

Predominantly orchestral soundtrack in a saccharine style, like "Dereck und der Alte" with a French touch or Kitaro conducted by Michel Legrand. The shorter tracks are electronic, albeit nothing special and hardly anything more than sketches. Then there's the longer synth-disco track "Le Testament", which sounds like Giorgio Moroder's "Chase". I mean it is so similar in everything (only the melody is slightly different of course)... You just can't do these things and get away with it. Overall, I would put this soundtrack in the EM-related category, and even then, only vaguely so.


Rush, Dasha (Russia)

Sleepstep. Sonar Poems For My Sleepless Friends (2015)
Contemplating (2023)

Originally a DJ in techno / club circles, Dasha Rush (born in Moscow, residing in Germany) has since explored purely ambient sounds and she definitely has a talent for it, as the above listed works attest.


Rush, Jon (???)

Jon Rush (??) (S)

EP-length cassette with a mixture of Electronic Music and jazzy stuff.


Rush Plus (USA)

Temporal Confusion (2017)

Varied ambient tracks from this Washington, DC-based project.


Rushton, Mitch (UK)

The Bridges of Time (1989)
Trans Siberian (1989)
Orion (1990)

Birmingham-based artist who ran the Alternate Media Tapes label and released several solo works on cassette.

See also: Dark Enigma, Quadraphase, Emmellar.


Rushus (Russia)

Stories (2008) (S)
Nine (2008)

Unclassifiable trio from Moscow, consisting of Evgeniy Tkachev, Ilya Lipkin and Vladimir Nikulin. They use guitars, keys and percussion and obviously come from the progressive rock school. However, their compositions are rather abstract and electronic, with prominent spacey synthesizer soundscapes combined with ubiquitous percussion and waling frippoid / spacey guitars. I get something of an "ambient Heldon" or "ambient Krimson" feel here. I wish that they didn't use the same heavy percussion on every track, though, which makes the music more samey and repetitive.


Rusich (Russia)

Ëþáèìûé êðàé ðîäíîé çåìëè (2006)

Bright Ambient inspired by Russian nature and paganism. For some reason, there's also a primitive "pagan metal" track included.


Ruskan, John (USA)

IN (1997)
The Secret Pattern of Things (2003)
Desert Dawn (2005)

Starting as a folk artist, John Ruskan came into prominence in the early 1980's, releasing a new wave album I Am A Model. He later re-emerged with a completely different, instrumental, relaxing ambient style (these releases are listed).


Russek, Antonio (Mexico)

Paisaje Circular (1984) (S)
Musica del Desierto (2001)
Austral - Antártico (2012) (S) (with Alejandro Arzumanian)
Obra Reunida (2015) (recorded in 1981 - 2014)

This music (Musica del Desierto) was composed as a soundtrack to "Museo del Desierto" exhibition. It's a mixture of field recordings (crickets, animals, voices, etc.) and ambient electronics. For fans of Steve Roach's desert ambience perhaps, or stuff like Jorge Reyes.


Russell, Chris (USA)

Home (2011)
Bloom (2012)
Portal (2013)
Memory Palace (2014) (with Eyes Cast Down)
Vague Traces (2014) (with Phillip Wilkerson)
Illuminoid (2014)
Labyrinth (2017)
Echo (2018)
Destiny (2020)
Dark Measures (2021) (with Phillip Wilkerson)

Ambient artist from La Salle, Illinois.


Russell, Stephen (UK)

Sundancer (1988)

Electronics in the Eno / Roach vein.


Russo (USA)

2 (2003) (S)
Wild Metals (2014) (S)
Blank Bloom (2022)

Ari Russo is a downtempo-oriented artist based in Brooklyn. On Blank Bloom, one can hear experimental guitar / electronic music that often sounds like Manuel Goettsching backed by Cluster, at other times with sort of a mixed Klaus Schulze / Ashra twist, reminding on their Friendship reunion phase (2000), but rather unique overall and with new elements.


Russo, Gus (USA)

Brain Damage (2017) (recorded in 1988) (with Clutch Reiser) (soundtrack)
Basket Case (2017) (recorded in 1982) (soundtrack)

Synth soundtrack music.


Russom, Gavilán Rayna (USA)

The Envoy (2019)
Secret Passage (2020)
Transverberation (2020)
Slabs Vol. I (2023)

NYC musician whose material seems to be influenced by Industrial pioneers such as Cosey Fanni Tutti (who appears on one track) and Chris Carter, and also by Prog EM (I get something of a Heldon feel in places).


Rustum, Seljuk (India)

Cardboard Castles (2022) (recorded in 2016 - 2021)

Arts practitioner and multi-instrumentalist musician from Kanur, Kerala, currently based in Cochin. He uses traditional Indian, as well as other acoustic instruments. His other passion is synthesizers and electronic gizmos. He combines the two worlds on his album Cardboard Castles - a work of World Music in a unique style: focusing on the traditions of his native India, it chooses to be experimental or lively and rhythmic / sequencer-based, rather than spacey and new-agey, although there is also that component, it's just not that prominent.


Ruth (France)

Polaroid/Roman/Photo (1985)
Far From Paradise (2012) (with Mushy)
Actrices (2018)

A group put together by Thierry Müller aka Ilitch.

See also: Ilitch, Müller, Thierry.


Rutherford, James (USA)

Think Music (2006)

Upbeat melodic music in a way similar to mid-late 1980's Tangerine Dream.


Ruumisto (Finland)

Sotakesä (2020) (recorded in 2017)
Sysimaat (2020) (recorded in 2018)
Saatto Ja Syntymä (2020) (recorded in 2019)
Nälkäjärvi (2021)

Ambient duo from Northern Finland, with touches of folk and metal.


Ruusuvuori (Finland)

Ympärillä (2020)

Jarno Ruusuvuori is a Finnish artist who makes techno music as Forehard. On Ympärillä, though, he ventures into progressive electronics heavily influenced by the Berlin School and 1990's "chillout". A nice trip!


RVMC (Germany / Serbia)

Atlanen (2019)
Terraces (2022)
Double Spaces (2022) (with Vagantpoesi)
Veranda (2023) (with Bralo)
Balconies (2023)

Ambient music by Christian Rütz and Vladimir Mihajlović. Looping, somewhat lo-fi sound.


RVO Soundhouse (Belgium / Netherlands)

Wheels (2022)

Krautrock-ish duo of Stanley Christiaensen and Thor Kissing. Motorik, guitars, lots of synths and some weirder moments / excursions into thumping techno beats and / or noises / collages. Pretty adventurous stuff.

See also: Polymelia


Rvshes (UK)

Eclipse (2023)

Although both members of Rvshes - James Parker and Dylan Brownsword - come from techno background, the music on Eclipse is completely stripped of any beats, representing darkish, melancholic and at times slightly noisy and glitchy soundscapes.


Ryabina (Russia)

Dedicated To P (2021) (S)

Yekaterinburg-based trio of musicians. Mostly techno, but one track ("Orkart") is a nice sequencer chugger. A one-track inclusion so far.

See also: Shine Grooves


Ryabtsev, Alexander (Russia)

Europe Fantasy Vol. 13 (2007)
Through Eternity (2008)
Give Me the Wings (2008)
Between Past And Future (2008)
Nostalgia (2008)

Sailor-turned-electronic musician from Novorossiysk. Melodic music, vaguely in the style of Jarre or Vangelis.


Ryals, Matthew (USA)

We Could Make the Ride Better For Everyone (2016)
Machine Memory (2018)
Voltage Scores (2021)
Impromptus In Isolation (2022)

Cleveland, Ohio-based artist with a minimal, melodic style. Some of the more atmospheric tracks ("Observing the Systems...") remind on the reflective / melancholic aspect of 1970's Klaus Schulze. On Machine Memory, a quirky "Cluster" feel can be noticed.


Rybicki, Marek (Poland)

Opowiadania (2004)

Esoteric Dark Ambient from member of Ucho.

See also: Ucho


Rybnikov, Alexey (Russia)

Музыка кино. Диск 2 (2005) (recorded in 1972 - 1989)
Музыка космоса (2006) (recorded in 1975 - 1980)

Russian: Алексей Рыбников. Film music composer who, apart from doing traditional (orchestral) scores, also experimented in the electronic genre. The above two discs contain some of his electronic material written for a few feature films, documentaries and animated shorts. There may be some others as well.


Ryckman, Philippe (Belgium)

Frozen Waters (2000)
Integrity (2003)

Synthesist working mostly within the ambient EM stylistic borders.

See also: Tonic Solfa


Rydell, Thomas (Sweden)

Lemurium (1990)
As Above So Below (1992)
Impulsive Music (2007) (recorded in 2000 - 2004)
Sirius Singularity (2012) (with Uwe Cremer)

A mixture of various influences from this Swedish composer, namely: classic-era Tangerine Dream, minimalism, Ambient, acoustic music.


Ryefield Society (France)

The Alternative Path of Abstraction (2021) (EP)

Melancholic ambient compositions.


Rygar (Netherlands)

The Album (2001)
Modulation (2012)
Sonorous (2020)

Michel van der Kuy's first solo album is essentially a collection of singles released since 1988 plus a couple of new tracks. Laserdance style.

See also: Laserdance, Machinery of Life, Area 51.


Rykiel, Jean-Philippe (France)

Waterfalls In Space (1979) (with Tim Blake)
Jean-Philippe Rykiel (1981)
Shambala (1981) (with Cyrille Verdeaux)
Music Land (1983) (S) (with
Frédérick Rousseau)
Under the Tree (2003)
Inner Spaces (2012)

Solo Electronic Music by this blind musician, synth player and Tim Blake collaborator. Melodic.


Rylander, Henrik (Sweden)

Från En Oberstämd Plats I Rummet (1998)

Experimental composer very much into unusual sound sources (such as no-input mixers) and sound installation. The 1998 album has a definite krautrock / early EM attitude, though. The disc was re-released on LP in 2017.


Ryles, Oliver (UK)

Inchoate (2014)

Varied ambient soundscape artist from Plymouth.


Ryn, Liam van (UK)

Serendipity (2018) (S)

Varied cinematic / experimental synths.


Rynda (Finland)

Rynda (2013)
Toka Levy (2016)
100v.! (2017)

Finnish trio consisting of a guy known as Andy (aka Rynda) playing drums, kapo (aka Kanttoripoika, an electronic artist making music in skweee style), as well as Ukko Perttilä. Their material is based on improvisation and on 100v.! they present long tracks broken in sections. The sound can be quite intense and loud or chaotic in places. However, they can be very sublime and beautiful as well, especially on slower parts that are full of fantastic sci-fi synth solos. Overall, there is a certain krautrock feel to the proceedings and I would recommend this album to fans of the more unorthodox forms of EM.


Ryong (South Korea??)

Ryong (2019)
Jingshan Solo (2019)

Moody ambience combining electronic choirs, pads, some acoustic instruments, etc.


Ryuzaki, Koji (Japan)

Aishu No Synthesizer Series (1982)


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