C.A.R. (Germany)

Beyond the Zero (2014)
Interlude (2017) (EP)
Look Behind You (2018)
Any Percent (2021)

Krautrock / fusion / EM band that often comes off as a mixture of the more pastoral Passport and Neu!

See also: Klingebiel, Johannes


C.H.A.O.S. (UK)

The Soundtrack From "The Camp" (1993)
The Improvised Sessions (1997)
The Improvised Sessions Vol.2 (1998)
The Excrement Sessions (1999)
Syndromeda In CHAOS (2000) (with Syndromeda)
Just In Tyne (2001)

C.H.A.O.S. stands for Creative Harmonics And Organic Soundscapes and consists of David Gurr (synths, samplers, sequencers & rhythm machines) and Ed Britten (guitar, bass & rhythm machines). The band was formed in 1993 and the music is very wild electronics with guitar, sort of like Megadeath meets Tangerine Dream!

See also: The Omega Syndicate, Architexture.


C.J. Mind & Man UFO (Russia)

Source (2009)

Ambient duo of Alexander Kharchenko and Andrei Lobatsevich in Steve Roach realms. They have previously been known as "eXperiment".


C.O.T.H. (USA)

C.O.T.H. (2023) (recorded in 2019) (S)

Shorter tracks with something of a medieval / dungeon synth vibe, but with some slight analog touches.


C.O.U.F.O.L. (Poland)

Essence (2013) (EP)
Hangar 18 (2013) (EP)
In the Search... (2014)
Ununpentium (2014) (EP)
Immensity (2015) (EP)
Galaxy NGC 4603 (2016)
SETI (2016)
Demo III (2016)
Demo IV (2016)
Klonowanie obcych form życia (2016)
Aeneas (2016)
Top Secret (2016)
The Gathering (2016)
Endless Matter (2016)
Demo V (2016)
Top Secret 2 (2016)
DI-55 (2016) (EP)
Zone X (2017)
Dimensional Turnulence (2017) (EP)
Galactic Transition (2017) (S)
Internal Pulsating (2017) (EP)
Case# 80103 (2018)
Mind Control (2018)
TRAPPIST-1 (2018)
Dulce (2018)

Dark Space.

See also: Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Fear And Aghast.


C.P.I. (Spain)

Alianza (2020)
Ambient Blackout (2023)

Barcelona-based duo. Mostly varied ambient material arranged in longer tracks broken in sections.


C&R (Spain)

KonectiKum (2018)
Space Below Space (2019)

C&R stands for Carles and Roxi, which is a duo of Carles Zapater and Patuka Flores. Diverse EM, from experimental and ambient to more rhythmic and sequencer-based.


C418 (Germany)

Minecraft - Volume Alpha (2011) (soundtrack)
Excursions (2018) (soundtrack)

Ambient soundtracks to videogames. C418 is a project of Daniel Rosenfeld.


Cabaret du Ciel (Italy)

Solarisation (1988)
Weather Colours (1991)
Raintears (1991)
Skies In the Mirror (1992)
Blue Form (2000)
The Breath of Infinity (2021)

A duo from Treviso, consisting of Andrea Desiderà and Luigi Morosin. Hardly comparable to other artists. Sort of a relaxing, moody ambient sound, with melodies, almost new-agey but not quite, more soundtrack-like really. The 2000 album released by Mellow Records is supposedly more Progrock-oriented.


Cabaret Futura (Germany)

Highland Cathedral / Cricket (1983) (S)

Electronic single released in the Netherlands. Music by German musicians - Uli Roever and Michael Korb, as well as someone who goes by his surname only ("Schön") on flip. The style is not known at the moment.


Cabargas Schultz, Jorge (Chile)

Robar a Ródin: Música Original de la Película (2021) (recorded in 2017) (soundtrack)
Isla Alien (2023)

Member and one of the founders of experimental electronic rock band Tobías Alcayota. Here it's mostly him and his synths and the soundtrack consists of mainly shorter tracks of varying moods, including some ambient, some reflective and some cosmic moments. Nice mellotron choirs on some of the tracks.


Cabiati, Francesco (Italy)

Mirage (1979)

A rare forgotten gem of Italian Electronic Music.


Cacciamani, Marco (Italy)

Step (1983)
Square (1983) (S)

The man behind Rat released this cassette under his own name. As expected, this is a mixture of weird, rhythmic, industrial excursions and manic repetition. One track is a live recording.

See also: Rat, N.O.S.


Cacciapaglia, Roberto (Italy)

Sonanze (1974)
Sei note in logica (1978)
The Ann Steel Album (1979)
Acufene (1981) (S)
Generazioni del cielo (1982)
Tra cielo e terra (1996)
Sonanze & Other Works (2000)
Arcana (2001)
Tempus Fugit (2003)
Incontri con l'anima (2005)
Alphabet (2014)
Invisible Rainbows (2023)

Sonanze is a mesmerizing and at times minimal work, pretty cosmic, experimental and unique. A true classic. After that, Roberto ventured into weirder realms which is not to say that he didn't produce worthwhile music of course.


Cacero Lazo (UK)

Regime of Calm (2019)
love in the time of lowercase (2021)

Varied ambient tracks - from noisy and somewhat industrial to melodic with nice synth leads to throbbing and vaguely techno-like. Somewhat lo-fi. A project of Jonah Hebron.


Cachalote (Spain)

Cachalote (2018)

Improvising duo of Enrique Borrajeros and Mario Zamora. Music in pure floating drone/ kosmische / kraut / early Berlin School vein, played on vintage analog instruments.


Cacophony (USA)

Experiment 13 (2001)

One of Daniel Byerly's pseudonyms. Supposedly, Dark Ambient music.

See also: Bertrom, Cabot Jr, DiBane, Lee, Synthuser.


Cactólogo (Portugal)

Vol. 1 (2017) (S)
Vol. II (2021)

Heavily sequenced compositions from João Álvaro.


Cadenced Haven (Bangladesh)

Peregrination (2010)
Life In Cosmic Highway (2011) (with Gert Emmens)
Mystic Dawn (2012) (with Gert Emmens)

Female artist from Bangladesh (real name - Laila Quaraishi) who is very much into flowing melodic composition and relaxed rhythms. Gert Emmens participates on some tracks. The review of Cadenced Haven' debut album Peregrination is available here.


Cadima, Samuel (Portugal)

Cascata (2017)

Synthesizer artist who takes his influence from German EM pioneers like Manuel Goettsching, Michael Hoenig, Klaus Schulze and Tangerine Dream.


Cadman, Stephen (UK)

Big Smith Stays In Bed (1981)

Rare cosmic Electronic Music by this obscure artist.


Cadmium Dunkel (Norway)

Anxiety (2004) (S)
Oceateum (2004)
Rå 04 eteremregni (2005) (S)
Zeitgeist Inferno (2005)
The Enerhaugen Concerts (2008)
Synthphonie No. 1: Turbo Rostrum Nebula (2011)
Cadmium Dunkel Remixed Again Vol. 2 (2012)

Explorative compositions from Roar Borge. Sometimes noisy, but mostly cosmic, psychedelic and fluid, a bit in the spirit of early krautrock sonic voyagers.


Caesarean Moons (Switzerland)

Thy Khyber Mass (2018)

A project of Lukas Rutzen. Based on heavy drumming and krauty synths, it is definitely Prog EM but is rather unique and wild overall.


Café Kaput (UK)

Maritime: Themes & Textures (2022)

Melodic, repetitive music from Cate (formerly Jon) Brooks.

See also: Brooks, Jon, Advisory Circle, The, King of Woolworths.


Cage, Enzo (Germany)

Red (2018) (recorded in 2006)

Munich-based ambient artist whose real name is Felix Schmidt. Both flowing and sequencer-based sound here.


Çağlar, Umut (Turkey)

Seeds of Eternity (2015)
Kicked From the Stars (2018) (with Graham Massey)

Istanbul-based improviser and experimental musician who on Seeds of Eternity serves up a mixture of ethnic music, analog electronics and improvisation. Nice World Music sound here.


Cahay, Kévin Paul (France??)

L'atalante (2021)

Modular synth artist. Ambient, a bit lo-fi sound.


Cailler, Pascal (France)

Evasion (1991) (S)

Melodic EM from this obscure artist.


Cain (Russia)

Child of Cold (1999)
Notforgiven (2001)

Melancholic Ambient.


Caithness (France)

The Ride To the Abyss (1998)
The Knell of Mourning (2001)
Crossing the Land of Bereavement (2003)
Apostasy & the Sorrowful Child (2009)

Ambient project from member of Dark Sanctuary. Melancholic and moody stuff, with chorals and bells, mostly in Medieval Ambient / Doom Ambient mould, with elements of Neo-Classical Ambient and Martial Ambient (the marching drums). "Apostasie - Prélude à l'abandon" (Apostasy & the Sorrowful Child) has chord progressions that remind on Klaus Schulze.


Calabi-Yau (Russia)

Compactified (2008)

Organic Ambient inspired by the string theory by a duo of Igor Sidorov-Moiseev and Grigoriy Abdulaev.


Calafate (Portugal)

Pinky Cloud (2021)

Varied experimental electronics from this project.


Calavera Love (Estonia)

...From What I Know (2019)
E m p r e s s (2020)

Sparkling, pulsing, rhythmic, flowing, melancholic ambience. Nice.


Caldera (USA)

A Moog Mass (1970)

One of those vintage obscurities, A Moog Mass features music composed and played by Robert Margouleff and Malcolm Cecil who would later become Tonto's Expanding Head Band. A vocoded speech is laid on top of their electronic score. There is another band with the name "Caldera" which is a Latin jazz ensemble and has nothing to do with EM.

See also: Tonto's Expanding Head Band, Cecil, Malcolm.


Calderum (Spain)

Calderum (2019)

Dungeon synth that uses wackier sound palette, sometimes closer to Wendy Carlos' classical adaptations even.


Caldini, Claudio (Argentina)

El Devenir de las Piedras (1989)

Varied analog music, from "Oxygene" / Schulzian meditative drift to quirkier, more rhythmic realms.


Caldwell, Brian (USA)

Harmonic Brainwave Synergy (1989)
Creativity Generator (1992)
Energy / Ecstasy (1995)
Inspiration Point (1998)
Creativity Generator Ultra (1999)

"Neurosonic" music composed for therapeutic purposes, inspired by the classics of the 70's. Harmonic Brainwave Synergy was rereleased in 1994 on CD as Harmonic Planet with different intro and outtro.


Caldwell, Gus (USA)

The First Four (2015) (recorded in 2013 - 2015)
Sigh Louder Scream Goodbye (2016)
Live In Richmond, VA (2017) (S) (with Zach Rowden)

Richmond-based ambient artist with a minimal, a tad gloomy sound.


Caldwell, Landon (USA)

Black Beauty (2017)
Sugar Times (2017) (with Mark Tester)
Global Drift (2019)
Unity (2020)
Bicycle Day (2021)
Deep Strand (2021)
Simultaneous Systems (2021) (with Flower Head Ensemble)
Companion Environ (2021) (with Flower Head Ensemble)
Linear Revolution (2021) (with Mac Blackout)
Unity, More Unity (2022) (with friends)

Ambient compositions informed by minimalism and kosmische EM from this Indianapolis-based musician.

See also: Caldwell/Tester


Caldwell/Tester (USA)

Two Reels (2017)
Sugar Times (2017) (S)
Little Flower (2020)
Live Times 2.2 (2020) (EP)
MUSAIC '22 (2023)

Playful, whimsical, analog EM from this Indianapolis-based duo (Cluster comes to mind, although this is pretty unique overall).

See also: Caldwell, Landon, Tester, Mark.


Calhoun, Jason (USA)

Practice (2019)
Rhizome 2/15/2020 & The Tomb 2/23/2020 92020)
Jedidah (2020)
Pieces of Death (2020) (with Foresteppe)
Introduction To An Apology (2021)
Ben C, This Is For You (2022)
Small Circle (2024)

Minimal, droning Ambient with elements of glitch and microsound. An artist out of Ithaca, New York.


Calibre (UK)

Planet Hearth (2019)

Long-standing deejay and drum and bass musician from Belfast (real name - Dominick Martin), currently residing in Germany. Ha has been around since the 1990's, but Planet Hearth is a nice diversion for him. On this album, he lets himself be inspired by different forms of ambient music mainly, but also by indie pop, dub techno (on a couple of tracks only) and some other trends (like classical and jazz). Nice music with great melodic sensibility.


Calidonia County (USA)

Telegraph Canyon (2013)
The Ghosted Years (2014)

Synthesizer-based ambient soundscapes from Chicago. Peaceful, serene, but a bit repetitive.


California Storm (USA)

A Silent Movement (2021)
Ancient Buildings (2024)

Shorter tracks of varying moods. Mostly analog and 1970's influenced.


Caligan Memorial (Canada??)

Caligan Memorial (2018)

Darkish modular synth drones.


Call Back the Giants (UK)

Call Back the Giants (2010)
The Rising (2011)
Café OTO 06/08/11 (2011)
Incidents of Travel (2012) (S)
The Marianne (2013)

Curious electronics with an experimental and cosmic flair from the duo of Tim Goss and Chloe Mutter.

See also: Goss, Tim


Callisto (UK)

Signal To the Stars (2004)
Nyx (2010)
Either Side of Reality (2023)

Melodic / rhythmic / sequencer music by David Wright and David Massey (The Kobalt Project). For Either Side of Reality, the lineup changed to Wright and Whitlan.

See also: Wright, David, Kobalt Project, The, Whitlan, Stephan.


Calm (Japan)

By Your Side (2018)

A project of Fukagawa Kiyotaka who has been composing downtempo music since the 1990's, a bit later venturing into deep house. By Your Side features a mixture of those two styles with easy, melodic and ambient synths a bit in the style of Tangerine Dream. Further investigation would not harm.


Calm! (UK)

Sunken Hum (2018)
Passing Places (2018)
Music For Fulfilment Centres (2021)

Ambient project of Dan Burwood. Minimal, droney, melodic, relaxing...


Calm, Carl (USA)

Dayglo Port (2008)
The Sag (2010)
A Party Tide (2011)

Solo music from member of experimental jam band Caboladies.


Calomne, Laurent (Belgium)

Monstres et chimeres (2005)

Melodic / colourful EM by this classical music teacher and composer.


Cam, Philippe (Beglium??)

Balance (2001)
Rotterdam (2019)

Repetitive pieces that sound like dance music completely stripped of beats with shades of Cluster and ambient soundscapes.


Camargo Mariano, César (Brazil)

Prisma (1985)

Brazilian jazz fusion keyboardist. This album expresses a strong EM influence in places. At least I am sure tracks like "Cidade Encantada", parts of the title track or "Nos Bailes da Vida" will be enjoyed by fans of the floating, melodic and romantic Vangelis. Further investigation is needed.


Cambou (France)

Naemia Vol. 3: Earth Is Mine (2011)

Michel Camboulives makes melodic, spacey Electronic Music with slight downtempo influences.


Camden (USA)

Life of Devotion (2010) (S)
Living Image (2011)

Solo synth compositions by Minneapolis-based Cole Weiland - a member of psych rock band Daughters of the Sun. Ambient, melodic, experimental...

See also: Gorman Weiland, Collin


Camden, Ken (USA)

Of Meisha (2007) (S) (with Mike Tamburo)
Lethargy & Repercussions (2010)
Space Mirror (2013)
Dream Memory (2015)

Guitarist and electronic musician whose sound can be described as a more out-there Fripp & Eno.

See also: Runawei


Came, John (UK)

Rhythmicon (1995)

Actually a pseudonym of David Barker and David Leonard (Komputer) with an album released on Mute records. A device called the Rhythmicon is supposedly used - a machine invented in the 1930's by Russian engineer Leon Theremin. It was sort of an early sequencer / drum machine that allowed to play a set sequence of notes. It seems that the device was hooked up to a guitar. However, the music is completely electronic. There was a rumor once, that under the fake name "John Came" hides the duo of Erasure (Vince Clarke and Andy Bell). However, this myth has since been debunked.

See also: Komputer


Camedor (Mexico)

En Ut / Alba (2017) (EP)
Portal (2019)

A project of José Orozco Mora. EM / krautrock.

See also: Orozco Mora, José


Camera (Germany)

Radiate! (2012)
Système Solaire (2013) (EP)
Remember I Was Carbon Dioxide (2014)
Phantom of Liberty (2016)
Camera / Richard Pinhas (2017) (S) (with Richard Pinhas)
Emotional Detox (2018)
Prosthuman (2021)

Berlin-based krautrock trio whose inclusion in EEM has been pending for some time, as I was indecisive about their relevance for the encyclopedia because of the guitar-oriented nature of their music. However, the electronics on Phantom of Liberty are so prominent that the group I think warranted an inclusion here. Fans of Dusseldorf School take note.

See also: Brockmann / Bargmann


Camera Obscura (Germany)

Camera Obscura (1984)

Spatial electronics comparable to Fripp / Eno with hints of Vangelis. Camera Obscura is Matthias Becker (EMAK) with Michael Peters helping out.

See also: Peters, Michael, Elektronische Musik Aus Köln.


Cameraoscura (Italy)

Quod est inferius (2019)

A mixture of dark soundscapes and dark analog synths. Sometimes with heavy rhythms and textures. A crossover industrial / ambient sound overall.


Cameron, John (UK)

Suspensions / Galaxy (1980) (with Trevor Bastow)
Explorer (1985)
Odyssey (1985) (with Alan Hawkshaw)

Library electronics with varied style.


Cameron, Tom (USA)

Music To Wash Dishes By (1982)
Seven Tone-Poems (1989)
Music Awaiting Choreography (1992)

Privately pressed electronic albums by this guy out of Chicago. The style is experimental and ambient, with lots of weird sounds.


Caminauta (Uruguay)

Extinct (2017) (EP)
Fragments (2018)

A project of Cami Gadea. She is from Uruguay, but currently resides in Sweden. Her music is ambient, mixing electronic sounds with piano and strings,


Caminiti, Evan (USA)

Night Dust (2012)
Dreamless Sleep (2012)
Meridian (2015)
Toxic City Music (2017)
Refraction (2019)
Varispeed Hydra (2020)
Autoscopy (2021) (S) (soundtrack)

New-York-based Evan Caminiti is primarily an electric guitar player. He is a drone / shoegaze musician (and member of Barn Owl, as well as a few other projects) who, starting from 2012's Night Dust, began showing a shift to a different style, more influenced by krautrock pioneers. With Meridian, even his instrumentation changed to an electronic setup, with all sounds being sourced from a modular synth. The style is experimetal with elements of glitch music, but also progressive, especially during the spacier moments. Let's hope he continues in that direction. Note: the above discography is incomplete and only includes EM-related releases.

See also: Painted Caves


Camino, Cam (Australia)

To Build A Starship (2022)

Actually a pseudonym of Cameron Murphy from Western Australia. Melodic, ambient, hymnal, sometimes with vocals and / or acoustic guitar strumming.


Camisasca, Juri (Italy)

La finestra dentro (1974)

Roberto "Juri" Camisasca, although formally a singer-songwriter, released this progressive / avant-garde work, on which Franco Battiato plays VCS 3 synth. Mixture of voice / singing (often processed), folk and electronics.

See also: Telaio Magnetico


Camizole (France)

Camizole 1975 (2015)
Camizole + Lard Free (2018) (recorded in 1978) (with Lard Free)

Electronic duo of Bernard Filipetti and Dominique Grimaud (Video-Aventures) with a floating sound. They approached Klaus Schulze who was supposed to release music by this project on his planned EM label. However, the idea of a label was not implemented until 1978 when IC was founded, and the electronic soundscapes of the French duo were left unreleased until the late 1970's when a Camizole album finally appeared, although it was made by a different, expanded line-up and the music had transformed into jazz-rock / RIO by then.

See also: Video-Aventures, Grimaud, Dominique.


Camp of Wolves (Canada)

These Woodland Cinders (2019)
Granite Creek (2021)
The Lost Island (2021)
Green Timbers (2021)
Keats (The Lost Tapes) (2021)
Dragoon (2022)
A Whisper of Broken Things (2022)
Planetar (2023)

Varied ambient compositions. Flowing, melancholic, sometimes with soft sequencing.


Campau, Don (USA)

Flutter (2009) (with Aku Tardiff)

Long-standing sound experimentator and founder of Tapegerm. Too many styles are covered in his work, I'll try to list the EM-related ones.


Campbell, Dallas (USA)

All Hallows' (2016) (with Ogre)
Beyond the Infinite (2016) (with Ogre)
Chihuahuan (2016)
The Seven Sisters And the Serpent (2018)
All Hallows' II (2019) (with Ogre)
EIV (2019) (S)

Analog, Berlin-School-influenced music from this synthesist.


Campbell, Don (USA)

Lightning On the Moon (1985)

Donald G. Campbell is a Boulder, Colorado-based new age musician. Yeah, that's right, new age. However, and quite amazingly, if you listen to the first side of the above cassette, you will hear minimal, repetitive Electronic Music, like a very basic and minimalist version of 1980's Schulze or Edgar Froese. Overall, quite hypnotic and charming, and not new age at all, even if a bit repetitive. I don't know if it's typical of this guy's oeuvre or if there is more interesting stuff from him, so for now file under EM-related and wait till I investigate more.


Campbell, J. (Australia)

A Death At the Steelworks (2017)
The Corporation Baths (2017) (S)
Heirloom (2018)
Birthstone (2018)
The Cormorant (2021)

Varied, highly visual music ranging from noisier moments to reflective and melodically intense. Sounds like someone trying to find its own place in a grey, post-apocalyptic city.

See also: Stitched Vision, Collector.


Campbell, Lomond (UK)

LŪP (2020)
Under This Hunger Moon We Fell (2022)

Indie rock / pop musician and instrument builder. LŪP explores the possibility of a 12-second looper machine he built. It ranges from slowly changing acoustic instrument loops to sequencer explorations.


Campbell, Neil (UK)

Sol Powr (2002)
Lost Predelic Moonshine Music (2004)
Six Scores (2017) (with Richard Youngs)
The State We're In (2021) (with Nick Edwards)

Drone Ambient from this renowned experimental musician.


Campbell Payne, A. (USA)

Plein Air (2018)
Trails + Stations (2022)

Ambient artist. Highly repetitive music, sometimes based on sequencing.


Campbell, Richard (USA)

Sonitus vita (1989)


Campbell, Scott (USA)

Stillness (2019)

Engineer and ambient composer from New Orleans. Mostly flowing, but also sequencer-based ala "American School" (Paul Ellis, Rich, Roach et al).


Campbell, Terry (Canada??)

Synth (2007)

A blend of ambient synthesizers and live percussion.


Can Nicolas Winter (???)

Can Never Go Wrong With Love (2022)

Ambient compositions with a mixture of acoustic (mostly piano) and electronic sounds. Melodic, sometimes gently rhythmic. Often nostalgic and / or melancholic, with cosmic overtones. Sometimes a bit Schulze-like. Nice stuff.


Can Ràbia (Spain)

Can Ràbia (2021)

Barcelona-based duo of Ramon Garcia and Ivo Valdivielso. Purely Dusseldorf School sound, with motorik, vocoder galore and lots of melodic synths.


Canaan Balsam (UK)

Cruise Utopia (2021)
Eternity Lies Within Or Nowhere (2023)

Scottish artist from Edinburgh. The music ranges from pure ambient drift to collage-like pieces with lots of field recordings and brief neo-classical or noisy bursts.


Canada Effervescent (France)

Crystalline (2017)
Ridin' America (2017)

The label states that Automne Éternel, released as a split with Recou Futur and therefore not included in the above discography, was originally an obscure early cassette release on Valley of the Sun Publishing. The music was supposedly done by one Denis Tremblay, a "hypnotist, theorist and painter". The label also states that Denis Tremblay started already in the 1970's but stopped doing music altogether in 1990 to concentrate on painting. The thing is that there is no mention of the name "Canada Effervescent" or "Denis Tremblay" in Valley of the Sun catalogue whatsoever, and the author of the music seems to be a Frenchman living in Brest, working also under various other monikers and pseudonyms. This speaks in favor of the theory that all of the above is rather another one of those modern hoaxes. Anyway, the music is new-agey, but repetitive and with a strong Prog EM vibe, like the atmospheric moments of early Kitaro sometimes, without the oriental motifs. File under Electronic New Age.

See also: Tremblay, Denis, Crystal Thumbtac, Holoroverpark.


Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Canada)

Star Begotten (1977)

Not sure about this one. The music was done by a "studio group" that included no less than 7 musicians. The style is unknown too, but it seems to be a soundtrack to a radio play of sorts or something like that. Appears to be synth dominated.


Canadian Electronic Ensemble, The (Canada)

Canadian Electronic Ensemble (1977)
Transcription (1978) (with James Campbell and John York)
Canadian Electronic Ensemble (1981)
Live (1998)

Live electronic group formed in 1971. The list of players / performers includes Michael Dobinson, David Jaeger, Larry Lake, Jim Montgomery, Paul Stillwell and Laura Wilcox. The music they create is on the experimental side of the EM spectrum.

See also: Kameel Farah, John, Bolton, Rose.


Canadian Rifles (Portugal)

Eastern Nurseries (2019) (S)
Of Course I Still Love You / Geranium (2019) (S)
Atoll (2019)
Live At Mayhem (2020)
The Snipe & The Clam (2021) (with Burning Pyre)
Sky-Wide, Fading (2023) (with Aires)

Ambient project of Rui P. Andrade.

See also: Andrade, Rui P., HRNS.


Canarios, Los (Spain)

Ciclos (1973)

Adaptation of Vivaldi's "Four Seasons" mixed with original material. A classic by Teddy Bautista, one of the pioneers of Electronic Music in Spain. Ciclos is their only electronic / progressive work, though. Other three albums are just plain pop / rock music.

See also: Bautista, Teddy


Canavarro, Nuno (Portugal)

Plux Quba (1988)
Mr. Wollogallu (1991) (with Carlos Maria Trindade)

Member of pop rock band Delfins and synth-pop outfit Street Kids, Nuno Canavarro released an interesting solo album in 1988, with music that combined ambient soundscapes with what sounded like a precursor to the glitch scene that would emerge during the following decade.


Cancut, Lewis (Australia)

Animate / Inanimate (2021)

Mixture of field recordings and electronic structures, both abstract and vaguely melodic.


Candescent (USA)

Polaric Field (2012) (S)

Minimal, sparkling, spacey synth textures from a Roland SH-2 driven by random processes.


Cane Swords (USA)

Big Warmup In the Mouth of Enternity (2011)
Transmogrification (2014)
Temple Swords (2014)

A duo of Ohio-based synthesists composing varied electronic tracks, from experimental to floating and cosmic.

See also: Black Unicorn


Canilla (Norway)

You Always Wanted More In Life, But Now You Don't Have the Appetite (2021)

Norwegian composer Camilla Vatne Barratt-Due. Good one for fans of Experimental EM. Voices, noises, collages, drones, bubbling synths, etc.


Canis Minor (USA)

Humans Are An Ant Farm (1999)
Algomeysa Transit (2000)

Cosmic electronics with an "Ash Ra Tempel" feel from this New York-based group consisting of Thom Karcher and Joe Silver. Thom plays the Chapman Stick and Joe takes care of keyboards.


Cannes (Belgium)

Anthem (2015) (S)
Immemorial (2016) (S)
Vermillion (2016)
Girls of Sorrow (2017) (with Pillars)
Cannes (2017)



Cannon, Patryk (Poland)

Family Movies Waves And Friends (2018)
The Birds Valley (2019)

Polish electronic artist and ex-member of several punk / hardcore bands. On Family Movies..., he mixes glitchy / vaguely club-oriented electronics with some ambient material some of which ("Marzenia", "Machines In Rain") is very influenced by Blade Runner. Overall, an artist with a very individual style. The Birds Valley is full-on EM.


Cannon, Ron (France)

Blue Light Murder (2014)
Midnight Movies (2015)
Passage (2018)
S.L.A.S.H.E.R. (2020)

French artist very much influenced by obscure and not-so-obscure 1980's synth soundtracks.

See also: Nightcomers, The


Canopus Resonance (USA)

Red Shift (2021)

Varied ambient electronics from this duo based in New York (Gianni Intili and Ed Clark Cornell). Abstract, meandering melodies...


Canopy of Stars (UK)

Waves (2018)
Dream Sequence (2019)
Sailors of the Sky (2020)
Darkness And Light (2022)

Ambient music "inspired by the coast and the stars", as the author puts it. A project of Christian Wheeldon with a warm synth sound. Waves is dedicated to Pete Namlook.


Canova, Alessandro (Italy)

Counting the Eyes (2020) (S)

Minimal, repetitive compositions created on just a Roland MC-303 groovebox / synth.


Canovas, Javi (Spain)

Impasse (2005)
Light Echoes (2006)
Strange Visions (2007)
Red Metal (2007)
Nights of Brightness (2008)
Eigenspaces (2008)
In This Moment, In This Place (2009)
Behind the Shadows (2010)
Aureal (2011)
Gravitational Waves (2011) (EP)
Transfiguration (2012)
Psychedelic Voyage (2012)
Desert Dawn (2013)
Two Roads (2013) (with Brendan Pollard, Adrian Dolente and Michael Daniel)
Cracks In the Air (2013)
Hidden Path (2014)
Axiom (2014)
Subterranea (2019)
Mens Demersa (2020) (recorded in 2018)
Quondam (2020)
Eunomia (2020)
Dead End (2020)
Exile (2020)
Monochrome Time (2020)
Neuromodulator (2020)
The Following Rain (2020)
Oscillations (2020)
Pathway (2020)
One More Day One Day Less (2020)
Twelve Improvisations For Piano Solo (2020)
Slow Light (2020)

Berlin School music by this artist from the Canary Islands, Spain. Impasse starts with the track "Sun Radiation". After a lengthy introduction a heavy-handed bass sequence comes to the fore together with mysterious mellotron choir. This is pure, 100% Berlin School. The sequence mutates, wrapped in some wild effects. Very straight-forward and in-your-face stuff. A solo plays on top of the sequences while the sound gets more intense and out-there. This is the kind of hyperactive Berlin School EM that you could hear on Tangerine Dream's "Monolight" perhaps. It's pretty useless to describe every nuance and every change of sound in detail as it would take too much space with very few in terms of useful information. Let's just say that the music does not stay still for a second. This is intense, mean and clean Electronic Music with all the right elements and the speed indicator cranked up to the top notch. "North of Circle" starts with some sounds of the deeper variety. Prominent mellotron choir completes the picture of what overall is pretty classic-formula Berlin School track. This time it doesn't take long before the sequences take over as we prepare for another roller-coaster of a track. The track sounds very much like classic-period Tangerine Dream - from structure to the sounds. It's an excellent and well-crafted EM number, with multiple sequences, some background atmospheres and effects. I must note that the sequencing on this track is simply stunning - Chris Franke would have been proud to call this his own. In fact, the sequences are so prominent here - this track is sequencer fan's paradise! What a trip! On to "Zenith". Dark and aggressive sounds are what we get for a couple of minutes. After that, a hyperactive sequence of the bleak variety appears making things even more raw, gritty and dirty if you get my drift. Actually, the only ingredients of this track are the sequences, sparse mellotron choir / strings, occasional solos and some background pads. Nevertheless, it works. Impasse is a recommended work for all fans of the analogue / Berlin School style and of course the sequencer, which you'll find aplenty here. Track 2 is my favourite. See also my review of Javi's second album, Light Echoes. Subsequent albums are reviewed, too (see reviews).

See also: 23Fish, Audiometria.


Canticle (Netherlands)

Seven Steps To Complete the Ascension To Drink the Blood of Christ (2021)

Occult Black Ambient or blackened Ritual Ambient (depending on your perspective) from Maurice de Jong.


Cantu-Ledesma, Jefre (USA)

Limpid As the Solitudes (2018) (with Félicia Atkinson)
Tracing Back the Radiance (2019)
You Can See Your Own Way Out (2021) (with Ilyas Ahmed)
Un hiver en plein été (2021) (with Félicia Atkinson)
Poverty (2023)

Multi-instrumentalist. Tracing Back... will be enjoyed by fans of Ambient. You Can See Your Own Way Out is another interesting release - just listen to the wonderful, blissful Bladerunner-esque etude "Dark From Daybreak".

See also: Raum


Canva6 (Italy)

Ten Minutes To Midnight (2022)

A project of Marco Farina. Deceptively simple, this music is based on nice, clear melodies, analog sounds and sort of a feeling of a travelogue or a night in the city.


Canzoneri, Paolino (Italy)

Multiverso (2010)
Elettro-do (2014)
Cryogenic Dispersal (2016) (with Maurizio Bianchi)
Il cielo incupisce (2022)
Spazi di vita impersonale (2023)
Gioie campestri (2023)

Italian electronic musician. Elettro-do features music with a solo Moebius feel.

See also: Urbis Nulla


Cape Willoughby Road (Belarus)

Beatrice (2018)

Warm ambient sounds from Evgeny Vrublewski. Long tracks.


Capellato, Tommaso (Italy)

Pioneered (2021)

Italian jazz drummer based in Los Angeles. On Pioneered he is supported by a cast of musicians who play a variety of instruments. The music is a mixture of Capellato's drums / percussion playing, jazzy keyboards, some acoustic instruments and some genuine EM moments (in the spacey, Pink Floyd's "Any Colour You Like" style).


Capitaine Cookie (France)

MRS 0251 Battle of the Chemtrails (2011)
Natural Champion (2017)

Marseille-based group that is rather schizophrenic to say the least. They seem to make crazy mash-ups of styles and moods, from experimental rock and pop with autotuned vocals and stuff to krautrock, psychedelic rock and Electronic Music. The closing track on ACTION!DIAMANTS is very satisfying, with nice sequencing and a hypnotic mood.


Capital Punishment (USA)

Roadkill (1982)

Basically a NY-based high-school no wave band that included young Ben Stiller on drums. They released this LP privately and the music is chaotic and experimental no wave for the most part. Amateurish, but not bad for a bunch of teenagers. There are also a couple of nice instrumental electronic tracks that might appeal to fans of the slightly more aggressive side of progressive EM (I am thinking Heldon here).


Cappellato, Tommaso (Italy)

Aforemention (2016)
Butterflying (2019)

A drummer who on these later releases combines drums / percussion with electronics in a somewhat jazzy context. His earlier releases I known nothing about at the moment.


Caproni, Jerome (France)

Romane (2017) (EP)

Although known as a techno artist / deejay, Jerome Caproni opens this 12-incher with the intimate title track - an ambient number with reflective synth leads. A one-track inclusion so far.


Captain KRB (UK)

Slow Toast (2021)

Varied electronics, mostly warm and slightly cheesy.


Captain Spaceman (USA)

I Can Feel Myself Feeding Back (??)

See also: Hydzik, Evan


Captain Sunshine (UK)

Tomorrows Never Known (2013)
The Ocean Inside (2016)

Varied atmospheric and rhythmic / melodic EM with an analogue flair and some downtempo beats from Jon Tye.

See also: Seahawks, Ocean Moon.


Captain's Lair (Argentina)

Weird Travels (2022) (S)
A Treasure In the Twisted Island (2022) (S)
Underwater Madness (2023) (S)

Repetitive "pirate adventure" music with dungeon synth and ambient influences. A project of Louis Glimmen.


Captured Imagination (USA)

Impinging Upon the Morontial (2002)

Very diverse electronic compositions from Aaron P Eppelstrom, from Ambient to melodic / uplifting and symphonic, progrock-influenced.


Caraballo, Oscar (Venezuela)

Themes Between Two Times (1991)
Melodic Dreams (1995)
Yesterday Is Tomorrow (1999)

Electronic musician from Venezuela who now resides in California. I haven’t heard his music, but it should be on the mellower melodic side. Yesterday Is Tomorrow contains synthesizer interpretations of Yes songs.


Carbinax (UK)

Above & Beyond (2019)
Gone To Ground (2020)
Immuniverse (2021)

Chris McKeown (aka 2ndmouse) is a Belfast-based artist whose music is rhythmic / melodic, with influences from synthwave and electro-pop. There is a notable Kraftwerk influence on Immuniverse.


Carbon Based Lifeforms (Sweden)

Twentythree (2011)
VLA (2016) (recorded in 2011)
Derelicts (2017)
Stochastic (2021)
Seeker (2023)

Göteborg-based psybient / downtempo duo (Daniel Segerstad and Johannes Hedberg). They are pretty well-known, even outside the EM and "electronica" circles. VLA (from Very Large Array) is a massive, 1-hour droning ambient track.


Carbon Entity (USA)

Within the Cosmic Void (2019)

Ambient / Space Music from Gunter Platz out of Portland. Nice cosmic feel.


Carbon In Prose (USA)

Cataclysmic System Binding Loss (2022)

Unlikely mixture of noisy textures and cosmic synth / EM sound. A project of Cameron MacNair.


Carboneids (Denmark)

A Journey To Planet Elektra (1998)
...And Dark Nights (2004) (recorded in 1999 - 2001)
Synthsyg (2005)
...And Dark Nights II (2007) (recorded in 1999 - 2001)
To the Twilight Vol. 1 (2012) (EP)

A band led by Bjorn Jeppesen aka Nattefrost and Claus Holm Lynglund. They describe their music as "electronic future music with vintage synths and vocoders". The sound is sometimes a bit similar to Kraftwerk.

See also: Nattefrost, Jeppesen, Bjørn, Zone 99.


Carbotta, Jannis (Germany)

A Magic Spin (2023)

Varied rhythmic / melodic EM from this artist based in Cologne.


Carcass Identity (Belgium / Venezuela)

Carcass Identity (2018) (EP)
Carcass Identity (2021)

The spirit of the late Moebius is alive in these strange and wacky rhythmic compositions of these two gentlemen - Ernesto Gonzales and Matthieu Levet, both based in Bruxelles.

See also: Bear Bones, Lay Low


Cardamis, Spiro (Greece)

Voyage 89 (1990)
Statements (1990)
Of Mystic Places And Troubadours (1991)
Soothing To the Savage Beast (1994)

Greek piano and keyboard player, born in Athens, residing in the US. Varied, mostly rather relaxing, a bit new-agey, with medieval touches, often like a cross between Vangelis and Oldfield, plus some Enya vibes.


Cardinal, Matthew (Canada)

Music From Digging In the Dirt (2020) (S) (soundtrack)
Asterisms (2020)

Moody ambient soundtrack to a documentary from this Edmonton-based artist.


Care Center (USA)

Check. (2022)
Practice Tape 9.22.22 (2022)

Drone-oriented duo from Chicago.


Carel, Sylvain (France)

Look Over the Nile (1982)
Caravansary (2012)
Time And Tide (2012)
Aroma (2013)
Heritage (2015)
Salammbô (2016)
Semiramis (2017)
Talisman (2018)
Sunrise On Panipat (2020)
Atlantide (2021)
Secrets of the Red Sea (2022)

Sylvain Carel (not Carrel). The 1982 LP is an obscure album with floating and melodic Electronic Music. The "comeback" release from 2012 is a fusion of electronics and World Music.


Cares (Canada)

Who Else Are You (2016)
Regular Unconscious (2018)
Control Isn't Real (2019)
Nerve Day (2021)

The 2021 album from Toronto-based James Beardmore aka Cares mixes ambient synth compositions and harsher, glitchy textures, often ala "deconstructed club music".


Carey, Tony (USA)

No Human (1982)
Yellow Power (1982)
Explorer (1982)
Heaven (1982)

These are disco-like electronic albums with rock flair from ex Rainbow keyboard player Tony Carey (also known for his Planet P Project). I listed him under "USA" although these albums were produced, performed and engineered in Germany by Peter Hauke. The latter released these works in 1982 without Carey's consent.


Carga Aérea (Portugal)

Ocorrência em Aberto (2017)
Transumância (2019)

Drone Ambient with some cosmic synth sections.


Cargill Esq., Alexander R. (UK)

Bromham (2024)

Bucolic EM from Alex Cargill. Inspired by the places many of his relatives and family members have roots in, the album Bromham is sort of a travelogue achieved mostly through analog synths, drum machines, mellotron flutes, electric and acoustic guitars as well as toy organ and a few other hardware and software instruments and effects.


Cargill, Rory (UK)

Pan-Dimensional Festival (1984)
One Day At the Radio Telescope (1984)
Majick Mantra Muzik (1985)
The Rosetta Stone (1986)

See also: Invisible Band!, The


Cargo (Poland)

Armageddon (1996)

Melodic music.


Carlo Maria (Italy)

Subject To Drift (2016)
Kenk! (2017) (EP)
Denouement (2020) (EP)
Inverno (2023) (EP)

Carlo Maria Amadio is an electronic composer who studied at the "G.B. Martini" Conservatory in Bologna and recorded in the EMS studios of Stockholm. Subject To Drift is a study in repetition made with a Roland TB303, Roland TR606 and computer processing. It will be enjoyed by fans of the sequencer and minimalism. Kenk! is a mxied bag of styles. Denouement has two or three ambient pieces and the rest is techno. Inverno is completely ambient / EM.

See also: Punctum


Carlos, Wendy (USA)

Switched On Bach (1968)
The Well-Tempered Synthesizer (1969)
Switched On Bach II (1971)
A Clockwork Orange (1972) (soundtrack)
Sonic Seasonings (1972)
By Request (1972)
Switched On Brandenburgs Vol.1 (1979)
Switched On Brandenburgs Vol.2 (1979)
The Shining (1980) (soundtrack)
Tron (1982) (soundtrack)
Digital Moonscapes (1984)
Beauty In the Beast (1986)
Land of the Midnight Sun (1986)
Secrets of Synthesis (1987)
Switched On Bach 2000 (1992)
Tales of Heaven And Hell (1998)
Switched On Boxed Set (1999)
Rediscovering the Lost Scores (2005) (recorded in 1972 - 1998)

Walter Carlos (later Wendy) propelled the moog synthesizer to the public with her revolutionary Switched On Bach which became the best-selling classical record of all times. After that many moog records popped up, almost every label had to have one. In the mid Seventies, Carlos disappeared from the scene and after he reappeared it was clear why he had been away. He was now woman, due to the gender reassignment operation he took. After that she produced many notable works such as Digital Moonscapes and Beauty In the Beast. Carlos composed scores for movies like Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange and The Shining, among others.


Carlsen, Ed (Italy)

The Journey Tapes (2016)
Elusive Frames (2017)
Morning Hour (2019)
Grains of Gold (2021)

Italian-born Danish artist (real name: Edoardo Pucci) who combines piano and electronics. Melodic, rhythmic, cinematic, minimal...


Carlson, Matt (USA)

Stereo Face (2009)
Particle Language (2011)
Gecko Dream Levels (2011)
Late But Serious (2011)
All Moments (2012)
The Phantom Words of Explicit Memory / I Can't Find My Body (2013) (with Jason E. Anderson)
Certainty (2013)
A Conscious Decision / Death of a Solipsist (2015) (S)
Akash (2016) (with Michael Stirling and Doug Theriault)
The View From Nowhere (2016)
Bowling Alone (2022)

Portland-based synthesist who works in the analog domain, mostly with large modular synths. From experimental to mesmerizing / cosmic, with a bit of noise and sort of a Schnitzler aesthetic.

See also: Golden Retriever


Carlsson, Fredrik (Sweden)

Voices (2019) (S)

Unlikely mixture of minimal synth, synthwave / italo and ambient EM.


Carmes, Audrey (France)

Quelque chose s'est dissipé (2023)

Paris-based artist who likes to combine her poetry with analog synthesis. A lot of her material is completely instrumental, though, and always in EM style.


Carmina Funebria (Spain)

The Oblique Sacrifice (2018)
Ecce Mors (2020)
Resonances In the Golden Room (2020)

Death Ambient.


Carmody, Mark (Canada)

Tuesday Wednesday (1987) (soundtrack)

Moody soundtrack to a New Brunswick feature film.


Carn Dûm (UK)

Dreams (1984)

A trio of Chris Jones (ex-Sea of Wires), Jonathan Spybey and Melanie Jones. The style is unknown at the moment.

See also: Jones, Chris


Carnaval de Los Poseídos (Argentina)

El Silencio del Mar (2010) (S)

Experimental electronic duo of Analia Soledad Bazán and Leonardo Piaggio. The whole reminds me a bit on 1960's electronic music, with theremin-like wails, obscure soundscapes and "Forbidden Planet"-like effects. The two musicians seem to be also involved in the Aureola Electrika project, although that one is much noisier and more experimental.


Carnedd Aur (UK)

Moths (2020)
Beetles (2021)

Nice EM from Welsh artist Simon Proffitt. Full of sparkling sequences, pads and rhythms, this is really dynamic stuff.


Carneiro, Nando (Brazil)

Violão (1983)
Mantra Brasil (1985)

Multi-instrumentalist and acoustic guitar player born in 1953 in Belo Horizonte. If you know Egberto Gismonti's 1980's "Vangelis-in-a-box meets Zappa in synclavier mode on the sambadrome" sound and can't get enough of it, Carneiro's two albums (apart from his acoustic guitar playing which is pretty nice) has Gismonti's synths in spades. File under EM-related.


Carney, Jeff (USA)

A Trip Through the Universe (1987)
Imperfect Space Journeys (1988)
Live Electronic Music (1989)
Eepie Allum (1990)

Synthesist active in the 1980's and with a preference for analog instruments.

See also: Code Zero, Eepie Allum Schlugdha.


Carøe, Johan (Denmark)

Zenmetal (2019)
Lovesongs (2020)
Repair Techniques (2021) (with Sofie Birch)
Wyla (2021)
Stretching Pools (2022) (with Gabo Barranco)

Rather minimal, reflective synth pieces from this Copenhagen-based artist.


Caroil (Lithuania)

Vega (2020)

Lithuanian synthesist using hardware analog and digital synthesizers to create intense, highly rhythmic and energetic compositions in New Berlin School style (with touches of EBM). Nice stuff with obvious respect for influences & traditions and sequencers galore!


Carolan, Peter (Australia)

Windswept (1994)

Varied general melodic / rhythmic music from member of Gondwanaland. Sometimes new-agey, sometimes rhythmic ala 1990's Tangerine Dream or influenced by World Music.

See also: Gondwanaland


Caroline K (UK)

Now Wait For Last Year (1987)

Co-founder of Nocturnal Emissions (born in 1957, died in Italy, 2008). Interestingly, this solo album features an ambient side (one long track) and a more melodic side with music that for some reason reminds me on 1980's Mark Shreeve even, at least pieces like "Tracking with Close-Ups" do have that vibe to my ears. Not exactly Prog EM but definitely has that influence. File under EM-related.

See also: Nocturnal Emissions


Carozzi, Massimo (Italy)

Night Shift (2019)

Audiovisual artist and experimental composer from Bologna. After a two-part series dedicated to field recordings, he released Night Shift - an album that will appeal to fans of the more cerebral end of the EM spectrum (i.e. Heldon et al). The opening sequencer-fest is a good example of that sound. Jazz, especially free jazz, seems to be another major influence, as does avant-garde music.


Carpenter, Charles (USA)

A Cypher In Holes (1993)
Frog a la peche (1994)
Splat (1996)
Preludes For Piano (1999)
Nocturne For Broadhill (2001)

A Cypher In Holes features highly energetic electronics with touches of progrock & a lot of percussion.


Carpenter, John (USA)

Dark Star (1974) (soundtrack)
Assault On Precinct 13 (1976) (soundtrack)
Halloween (1978) (soundtrack)
The Fog (1980) (soundtrack)
Escape From New York (1981) (soundtrack)
Die Klapperschlange (1981) (soundtrack)
Halloween II (1981) (soundtrack)
Halloween III (1982) (soundtrack)
Big Trouble In Little China (1986) (soundtrack)
Prince of Darkness (1987) (soundtrack)
They Live (1988) (soundtrack)
Christine (1989) (soundtrack)
Body Bags (1993) (soundtrack)
Lost Themes (2015)
Lost Themes II (2016)
Anthology (Movie Themes 1974 - 1998) (2018)
Halloween (2018) (soundtrack) (with Cody Carpenter and Daniel Davies)
Lost Themes III Alive After Death (2021)
Halloween Kills (2021) (soundtrack) (with Cody Carpenter and Daniel Davies)
Firestarter (2022) (soundtrack) (with Cody Carpenter and Daniel Davies)
Halloween Ends (2023) (soundtrack) (with Cody Carpenter and Daniel Davies)

John Carpenter was born in 1948 in New York, USA. When he was a child he saw movies like "It Came From Outer Space" (1953) and "Forbidden Planet" (1956) and decided that he wanted to be a film director. During the 70's he developed a unique style of electronic soundtrack music that incorporated repetitive minimalist analogue synthesizer phrases and mucho sequences. He wrote soundtracks for most of his films but on the bulk of the scores he collaborated with other synthesists. These were Dan Wyman (the 1970's) and Alan Howarth (the 1980's).


Carr, Jonathan James (USA)

Well Tempered Ignorance (2012)
Lose Your Composer (2019)

Seattle-based artist who uses his analog synths to create some beautiful and floating as well as experimental sounds.


Carr, Wayne (Canada)

The Taurus Incident (1970)

Based on the presentation given in the MacMillan Planetarium in Vancouver, this rare LP includes a spoken lecture about the Crab Nebula with background (electronic) music by Wayne Carr.


Carraig Aonair (UK)

Carraig Aonair 2 (1983)

Welsh folk band. Their first LP from 1977 featured traditional Celtic tunes. The follow-up (listed) combines this sound with synthesizer arrangements and a Pink Floyd touch.


Carré, William (France)

Eclipse 2000 (1982) (S)

Rare small press from France. Two hymnal, melodic, cosmic tracks from this synthesist. Some Jarre vibes here.


Carrière, Christian (Canada)

Field of Containment (2017)

Amazingly, this rough, but melodic and somewhat Cluster-like release uses only no-input mixer as source, with touches of Wurlitzer.


Carrigan, Bryan (USA)

Windows (2012)
Inspired (2014)
Fall Into Winter (2015)

This electronic musician based in Los Angeles mainly composes stuff in downtempo style. However, he also did some purely ambient music that I'll try to list here.


Carroll, Michael (USA)

Soundscapes (2008)
Electronic (2012)
Cool+Groovy (2012)
Littlerocker Jams (2014)
Mid-Cenruty Muse (2014)
Tomorrow Today (2017)

Multi-instrumentalist from Arizona who is pretty diverse. He does everything from collages and field recordings to guitar rock and Ambient.


Carson, Taylor (USA)

Hyperborea (2023)

Melodic Electronic Music based on analog instruments and sounds. Very much along the lines of early Jarre (circa Oxygene, complete with chirpy MiniPops rhythms), vintage library music, classic Kitaro and the Berlin School.


Carst (Russia)

The Horizontal Gates (2015)
Cosmic Irracionalism (2015)

Dark soundscapes mainly in Black Space vein.


Carsten, Per (Denmark)

Solo (2014)

Danish flutist and saxophonist known in the jazz circles. After suffering with cancer he had to quit playing his instruments and started exploring the possibilities of the EWI. Solo is the result of that. It is basically an instrumental smooth jazz recorded made with a drummer. However, the (rather short) track "Relaxing the Mind" is very reminiscent of Blade Runner ("Blade Runner Blues" and "Love Theme" come to mind especifically). Ok, that's just one track, but as we are talking Blade Runner here, for me that's enough to automatically include an artist in the EEM.


Cartas de Japón (Argentina)

Rucalen (2023)
Santa Clara (2024)

Cartas de Japón is Argentinean synthesist Pablo Bilbao who is also known as Pabellón Sintético and who is the founder of Cyclical Dreams label. Crisp, melodic, sequence-full EM influenced by the classics of the 1970's and especially 1980's. Pretty nice stuff.

See also: Pabellón Sintético


Carter, Chris (UK)

The Space Between (1980)
Mondo Beat (1985)
Disobedient (1998)
Small Moon (1999)
Caged (2000) (with Ian Boddy)
Miscellany (2018) (recorded in 1973 - 1999)
CCCL Volume One (2018)
Archival Recordings 1973 - 1977 (2019)

A member of Throbbing Gristle and a pioneer of industrial music, Chris Carter initially worked as a designer of visual / light shows for bands like Hawkwind and Yes. By the start of the 1970's, however, he turned to music and began giving solo performances with self-built synthesizers and keyboards (accompanied by his light shows of course). In the mid 1970's, Throbbing Gristle was formed together with Genesis P-Orridge, John Lacey and Cosey Fanni Tutti (legendary female musician, philosopher, artist, stripper and God knows what else). The Space Between is Chris' first solo LP and it gathers pieces recorded during the 1977 - 1980 period. Suprisingly, the music is rather easy-listening, compared to the crude experiments of Throbbing Gristle of the time. It features a lot of bright synth sounds and some sequences. At times it almost sounds like Jean-Michel Jarre! This album also presages the birth of synth-pop. One track has vocals and there are tracks that sound somewhat darker than the rest.

See also: CTI, Throbbing Gristle, Chris And Cosey.


Carter, Jeremiah M. (USA)

The Repetition of Purity (2017)
Iris (2017) (S)
Parade of Lilacs (2018)
Their Arms Surrounded Me Like Chains Made of Velvet (2019)
An Intermezzo: Four Fragments of A Future Piece (2019) (S)
Sings Like An Arrow (2019) (S)
Live At Wunderkammer (2020) (S)
Rejoice! (2020)
Townsend (2020) (with Kelby Clark)
Live At Wunderkammer, Glattpark Zürich March 14, 2019 (2020)
Wayfaring Stranger (2021) (with Kelby Clark and Sarah Viviana Valdez)
Speak, You Also (2022)
Vessels (2023)

Aka J. Carter. Varied ambient artist from Nashville. From Schulzian melancholic synth drift to neo-classical organ / piano-based compositions, collages and even a touch of Talk Talk.


Carter, Kim (UK)

The Proposal (2007)
Meditations (2008)
The Secret Place (2016)

Intense, melodic Electronic Music.


Carty, Robert (USA)

Soulscape (1990)
Atmospheres (1991)
Natural Wonder (1992)
Skyhearts (1994)
Earth Ground (1995)
High Meditations (1996)
Sky Reaching (1996)
Horizon’s Call (1996)
Spanish Spaces (1997)
Silent Dreams (1997)
Deep Spirit (1997)
Flowing (1997)
Life Rhythms (1997)
Spectrums (1997)
The Magical Life (1997)
Cleansing Fire (1997)
Earth Voice (1998)
Timeless (1998)
Light Dreaming (1998)
Essence (1998)
Darklight (1998)
Waterspirit (1998)
The Living (1998)
Source (1999)
Cloud Pull (1999)
Himalayan Dreams (1999)
Energy (1999)
Gaia Interludes (1999)
Moving Spaces (1999)
Microspirals (1999)
My Earth Touches Me (1999)
Plateaus of Ether (1999)
Breathing Peace (1999)
Gateway (1999)
Serotonin Ashram (2000)
The Inexplicable (2000)
Midnight Rainbows (2001)
Deep Sky (2001)
Dreaming Earth Water Memories (2002)
Climatic Infusion (2002) (with Brannan Lane)
Sonic Magic (2002)
Tonalities (2003)
Ethereal Deserts (2003)
Mount Meru (2004) (with Gerard Geary)
Oceanic Space (2005)
Dreamswirl (2005) (with Brannan Lane)
Suntales (2006)
The Endless Vista (2007) (with Sylken)
Starlight Volume 1 (2008)
Starlight Volume 2 (2009)
Starlight Volume 3 (2010)
Paradise Earth (2011)
In Neptune's Wake (2013)

Relaxing and melodic music. Pleasant to listen to, especially at night or after a hard working day, but not always interesting musically. Robert Carty debuted in 1990 with Soulscape that had some melodic and poppish rhythmic tracks. However, on later works he turned to a more contemplative style of music. Robert is a diverse artist so check out something by him.


Carwylm (USA)

Wegléast (2018)
Fyrlen (2019)

Melodic, a bit dungeon synth-like music with a Celtic atmosphere.


Carya Amara (UK)

Vestigial Digital (2001)
Tales of the Unattractive (2002) (recorded in 1980 - 1991)
Extinction Frequency (2002) (recorded in 1992 - 1996)
The Late Carya Amara (2011)
Sensitivity (2015)

Carya Amara is a project of Kevin Busby who has been experimenting with Electronic Music for some years now, keeping a low profile, with only a few releases to his credit, some of them archival. He is not always related to progressive EM, although he seems to always push the boundaries. His music can be either abstract and experimental or rhythmic / melodic. Sensitivity was recorded at the legendary EMS studio in Stockholm with a Buchla modular synth.

See also: Abominations of Yondo, Audio Space Research.


Casagemas (Mexico)

Barlovento (2021)
Casa de las Gemas (2022)

Rogelio Serrano with abstract, ambient, vaguely melodic electronic compositions. Sometimes playful and groovy ala Cluster. Nice EM overall.

See also: Equinoxious


Casares, Pablo (Spain)

Orma (2021)

Electroacoustic music and ambient electronics.


Casays, Francois (France)

Fondation (2000)


Case, Brian (USA)

Tense Nature (2016)
Spirit Design (2017)
Plays Paradise Artificial (2018)
Parallel Voices (2020)
Practice Tape (2021)
Tropics (2022)

Guitarist of The 90 Day Men and member of a few other groups. Abstract, repetitive electronics.


Cashion, William (USA)

Postcard Music (2020)

Ambient electronic compositions from Baltimore-based Cashion, bassist of synth-pop / indie rock band Future Islands and member of a few other collectives. Melodic, with some acoustic instruments. Some of it reminds a bit on L'apocalypse des animaux. Nice and relaxing music inspired by nature and seas.


Cashmore, Michael (UK)

The Night Has Rushed In (2021)

Pioneering industrial /neofolk musician (active since the 1980's) and a semi-permanent member of Current 93. The Night Has Rushed In is a mixed bag, featuring some collaborations with other artists in acoustic / rock style, as well as electronic material, which ranges from rhythmic / driving industrial to melodic and ambient EM. Best tracks: "Journey Through Consciousness To the Hidden Throne" and "Ashes Fly As Spiraling Swallows Return Home Into Night Skies".


Casia (Germany)

Feuer Wasser Sturm (2020)
Spinnerei (2020)
Aqua Magica (2020) (S)
Extrakt (2021)
Ligatures (2022)

One of the projects of Stephan Spreer. This one features moody ambient compositions. Sometimes noisy.

See also: Antlers Mulm


Casimir (???)

Sea, Air, You (2023) (S)

Ambient artist on Janushoved with a hazy sound typical of that label.


Casiotomb (???)

Exkursion in das Hügelgrablabyrinth (2020)
Altnyc88 O.s.t. (2020)
The Golden Knight (2023)

Sort of chiptune-ish but also horror synth-like.


Casiowaves (Spain)

Alitalic Bold (2017)
The DX Demos (2019) (EP)

Melodic, flashy music between synthwave and melodic EM (TD's Logos, Poland, 1980's soundtrack work). A project of Joan Malé. Pretty nice and rich synth sound here.


Cask (UK)

Cask (2014)

Gentle ambient drones from Chris Gowers, Alex Smalley, Simon Bainton and Katie English.

See also: Smalley, Alex, Pausal, Olan Mill.


Casket (USA)

Dark Frequencies (2005)

Clinical Ambient / Death. Some listeners have compared this music to the works of Lustmord. Before Dark Frequencies, Casket had an album out in 2003, called The Autopsy Session. It was basically a noise album with a lengthy tutorial on the autopsy of humans, filled to the brim with various grating, metallic / processed sounds.


Casket of Dreams (USA)

Dragons of Autumn Twilight (1998)
Solas (2020)

Rhythmic, melodic, dramatic, cinematic electronics with touches of dungeon synth.


Caspro (USA)

Making Waves (2020)
Pastel (2024) (recorded in 2022)

Mike Caspro is a chillwave / balearic (whatever that is) artist. He combines chilled, laid-back synths and relaxed rhythms. Not progressive most of the time. There are some EM touches here and there, but that's it.


Cass. (Germany)

Orange Blossoms & Odd Paws (2012) (S)
Loops & Farewell Sketches (2013)
Live (2014)
Hiding Place (2014)
Schleißen 4 (2015) (with Potter Natalizia Zen)
Magical Magical (2015)
The Sound of Glades (2016) (with Wolf Müller)
Postclub Prism (2018)
Masala Kiss (2019) (with Gianni Brezzo)
Ambient Music For A Young Girl (2021)

Organic, semi-acoustic, lulling Ambient from Niklas Rehme-Schlüter (b. 1991).


Casse (Netherlands)

Synthirst (1983)
Synthemes (1983)
Too Far Away Places (1983)
Breakpoint (1983)
New Phase / New Face (1984)
The Sapphire (1984)
The Lotus Eater (1984)
The Fellowship of the Ring (1985)
The Two Towers (1986)
The Return of the King (1987)
Heartlands (1988)
Nightride (1989)
Trancesister (1991)
Lord of the Hawks (1993)
The Observations of Mr. Whatt (1996)

Casse is the same musician that would later become known as Kazz. These early cassette tapes are very rare and some of them were never officially released (the "Tolkien" trilogy of 1985 - 1987 albums was re-released on CD). They mostly consist of improvised Electronic Music, but there are some vocals here and there, and some other styles, too. For instance, Lord of the Hawks features space rock in the style of Hawkwind.

See also: Kazz


Cassiel (UK)

Listen / Move (1997)

Very diverse music by this Scottish project dedicated to live performance and composing scores for contemporary dance. Sometimes avant-garde, sometimes quite accessible. Cassiel is Nick Rothwell who, during the late Eighties, played with Glyn Lloyd-Jones for a short spell.


Cassilda And Carcosa (USA)

Tubes, Transformers, Transistors And Tape (2021)

Mostly rhythmic, electro-like music, ending with an ambient synth piece "Cloudwaves", which is the reason for inclusion.


Cassini Division (Argentina)

Campo 0 (2019)
Eta Carinae (2020)

Moody and experimental mixture of classical and EM from Miguel Sosa, currently residing in Belgium. There are some earlier albums that I have yet to explore.


Cast of Thousands, The (Australia)

The Flying Fruit Fly Circus (1986)

Electronic Music composed to accompany the acrobatic performances of said circus. The musicians behind the score are Dal Barbaré and Nigel Westlake (a classical composer). Michael Askill plays percussions.


Casta (Guatemala)

Lazaro (2021)

Casta is Andres Castaño. Rhythmic music, often in deep / smooth house vein, but sometimes also progressive (as on the opening track from Lazaro).


Castana (Norway)

Olvenion (2016)

Nice Ambient / Space Music.

See also: Warpness, Elrox, Xuxu.


Castle, Jeff Scott (USA)

Autumn Sky Passage (2010)

Ambient and Space Music with something of a new-agey flair.


Castle Zagyx (Spain)

The Frozen Moor of Your Memories (2020) (EP)
Cavaliers of the Western Heartlands (2020)
Doors To the Battlefields of Ertbe (2021)
Compendium 2020 (2021)
Oath of the Dark Chivalry (2023)

Cinematic project from the north of Spain. It contains elements of dungeon synth, Ambient, general melodic / atmospheric EM and more. The music on The Frozen Moor of Your Memories is inspired by the polar regions and some literary works (H. P. Lovecraft, J. W. Campbell's "Who Goes There?", etc.)


Castlerock (USA??)

Honmaru (2021)
Ninomaru (2022)

Dungeon synth inspired by Japan. The music is loaded with mellotron sounds.


Castro, Dolores (Spain)

Fifth Dimension (2005)

Melodic Electronic Music from this female musician with influences from Jarre, Vangelis and Oldfield.


Castrup, Hans (Germany)

Kalizen (2024)

German painter and experimental musician active since the early 1980's, also as one half of Poison Dwarfs. He often uses quite piercing textures and loud sounds / sections, so most of his output will be a tough listen for average EM fans. However, there's none of that on Kalizen. Here, Castrup decided to go the ambient route, focusing on the sublime and the quietly menacing, creating a set of excellent, immersive Noise Ambient compositions.


Casual Strangers (USA)

Pink Panther (2016)

Austin-based unclassifiable space rock / psychedelic band. Pink Panther is their second release, which shows a strong electronic element. Most tracks here are pure EM in a wacky and unusual style.


Casually Here (UK)

Kept (2015)
Possible Worlds (2022)

Post-club / IDM electronics from Nic Nell. Also some Ambient stuff.


Caswell, Sage (USA)

Sleep Quarters (2015) (S)
Hoop Earring (2016)
Nite Lite (2016)
Evil Twin (2019)

Ambient. Other releases (not listed) lean towards house music.


Cat Kin Cool (Portugal)

Simplon (2023)

A project of Portuguese drummer Pedro Vasconcelos. He loves synthies and electronics and combines them with his drumming for a strange sound that mixes many influences, from experimental electronic rock to sequencer-based EM, sampling, ethnic music, Latin rhythms and more. Interesting stuff.


Catafalco (Chile)

Catafalco (2015) (S)
That Which Is In the Afterworld (2015) (S)
Ma Yakmennu Fe Al A'alam Al Akhar (2016)
Qliphotic Transmissions (2018) (with Emme Ya)
Orlok (2023)

Part of the tracks here have black metal-style vocals / incantations, part is strange instrumental, mixing Ancient Egyptian atmosphere and cosmic synths.


Catalan Coast (Germany)

Catalan Coast (2016)

Minimal ambient synth compositions. Sometimes with a Brian Eno feel.


Catalin (Romania)

Pray For Time (1995)
First Breath (1999)

On AD label and if you know them, you already guess the style here. It's dangerously close to new age. Actually I've never heard the music, but I've heard enough from other people to completely lose my interest. I can recommend it, of course, that is, if you like this kind of sentimental Hollywood-styled stuff. But hardcore synthetic heads - better stay away from it.


Catalina, Ltd. (USA)

The End of Music (2023)

Californian "dreampunk" / ambient project.


Catena, Paolo (Italy)

Quadrimusicali (2012)
Quadrimusicali 2 (2013)
Quadrimusicali 3 (2014)
Quadrimusicali 4 (2014)
Quadrimusicali 5 (2014)
Quadrimusicali 6 (2015)
Quadrimusicali 7 (2015)
Quadrimusicali 8 (2015)
Quadrimusicali 9 (2015)
Quadrimusicali 10 (2015)
Quadrimusicali 11 (2016)
Quadrimusicali 12 (2016)
Quadrimusicali 13 - 14 (2016)
Skyward - Quadrimusicali 15 (2017)
Quadrimusicali 16 (2017)
Quadrimusicali 17 (2017)
Quadrimusicali 18 (2017)
Quadrimusicali 19 (2018)
Quadrimusicali 20 (2018)
Quadrimusicali 21 (2018)
Quadrimusicali 22 (2019)
Quadrimusicali 23 (2019)
Quadrimusicali 24 (2020)
Quadrimusicali 25 (2020)
Quadrimusicali 26 (2020)
Quadrimusicali 27 (2021)
F5 (QM 28) (2021)
Quadrimusicali 29 (2021)
Quadrimusicali 30 (2021)
Quadrimusicali (Two Pictures And Other Tracks) (2023)
Quadrimusicali (Meeting of the True Art) (2024)

Paul Chain with a series of experiments in Electronic Music and krautrock-related sound released under his real name.

See also: Chain, Paul, Lola Sprint & The Cat.


Catfish (Germany)

Transactor (1981)

Little-known LP of German Electronic Music played by H. Huppert (keys, vocoder, drum programming) and L. Viragh (keys, percussion synthesizer, drum programming, guitars).


Catharsis (France)

Cachemire (1975) (S)

French psychedelic / progressive rock band. Led by keyboardist Roland Bocquet, their music was always heavy on the keyboards and instead of having lyrics, they only had wordless vocalizations in their tracks, so essentially it's all instrumental. However, this single here goes further than that. Released under Catharsis name, it features a short track by Charles Eddi and a longer piece by Bocquet. I don't know what they were thinking, because it's all oriental synths and percussion, resulting in a kind of pioneering World Music sound. Further investigation is needed.

See also: Bocquet, Roland


Cathedra (UK)

Excerpta (1994)
Valediction (1995) (S)
In Perpetuum (1995)
Until the End of the World (1996)
Orpheus (1997)
Actus animi (1997)
Time Was Away 1992 - 1997 (2018)

Ritual / Tribal Ambient project of Mark Crumby (born in the UK, currently residing in Austria).


Cathedrals of Sound (USA)

Ipomoea violacea (2013)
Ayawaska (2013)
Ayawaska Sans Voice (2013) (EP)

Intense soundscapes from Chuck Daar, between Ambient and Space Music, with dark shades.

See also: Daar, Chuck, Hexagram, Vapor State, A.V.P., Architectures, Return To Titan, Sky People, The.


Cathexis (USA)

Exempli gratia (1997)

George Sarah and Dean De Benedictis. Apparently, the music is too techno for classic EM fan's taste.

See also: Benedictis, Dean De, Surface 10.


Cathode Ghosts (UK)

Sentenced To Prism: Archive 2003 - 2007 (2021)
In​-​Flight Entertainment: Archive Vol 2: 1999 - 2004 (2021)
The Information Society (2022)
Timeslip (2022)
Sketchbook (2023)

Rhythmic, melodic, energetic EM.


Cathuria (France)

позив (2016) (S)

Ritualistic, blackened Dark Ambient.

See also: Sona Nyl, El Prêtro Maniaco, Evolva.


Cats Hats Gowns (France)

10000 (2009)
Abrash (2009) (S)
#225 - For Argentina (2012) (S)
Could I Be A Bee? (2012) (wiith Nelly Vowel)
Badisad Obistroz (2014)
Winter (2017)

Neo-kraut / electronic band. Sometimes similar to solo Moebius.


Cattedrale (Italy)

LP I: Il fallimento dell'uomo (2023)

Dramatic, cinematic electronic compositions. More or less in the style that today is called "power ambient". Cattedrale consists of Lucio Leonardi and Alfredo Merfi.


Catterfly (Sweden)

Metamorphoses (2022)

Influenced by people like Ralph Lundsten and Björn J:son Lindh, Emma Sörensen aka Catterfly creates mystical Electronic Music with a female touch and some acoustic instrumentation alongside electronics.


Caught In the Wake Forever (UK)

My Family Goes On Without Me (2014)
The Places Where I Worship You (2015)
Under Blankets (2017)
Version & Delineation (2018) (S) (with Glacis)
Waypoints (2019)

Scottish ambient artist Fraser McGowan. Not sure about his other albums as they may be more in a post-rock mould.


Caul (USA)

Epiphany / Fortunate (1994)
Whole (1994)
The Golden Section (1994)
Crucible (1996)
The Sound of Faith (1996)
Reliquary (1997)
Light From Many Lamps (1998)
Hidden (2001)
Muein (2002)
A Golden Epiphany (2002)
Swan (2003) (recorded in 1996 - 2001)
Inside the Hollow Realm (2004) (with Numina)
Sleep - Night - Death (2008) (with Kirchenkampf)
Kairos (2009)
Poustinia (2009) (EP)
Under A Thousand Miles of Stars (2010) (EP)
Heaven's In the Ground (2011) (EP)
Green Is the Night And Out of Madness Woven (2012) (EP)
Let the Stars Assume the Whole of Night (2012)
Liminality (2012)
Liminal (2013)
The Long Dust (2013)

Dark Ambient by Brett Smith.

See also: Smith, Brett, Tertium Non Data.


Caulfield, Chrissie (UK)

From the Carboniferous (2017)

Dark and noisy drones and brighter synthesizer soundscapes.


Caustic Reverie (USA)

Mute (2008)
Stochastic Resonance (2008)
Absent (2008)

Dark Ambient / drones from Florida. Caustic Reverie is Bryn Schurman.


Caution!Horses (UK)

Impressionism (2005)
According To Your Cloth (2017)
The Way Back Forward (2021)

A project of Andrew Odia. Interesting stuff for sure. Often reminding on Klaus Schulze circa 1987 - 1991 in its use of chaotic sequencing and (often) digital synth patches, it adds a quirky techno / "leftfield" touch. Recommended.


Cauto (Spain)

Sueño (2018)

Catalan dub artist (real name - Pau Encinas) who on Sueño resorts to ambient sound most of the time, painting beautiful, dream-like electronic landscapes. Sometimes the sound gets darker or dominated by dubby moods.


Cavern (France)

Starhawk 70 (2021) (S)
Monofuture (2021)
Renegade (2022)
The Breach (2022) (with Wydraddear)
Full Chrome Road (2022) (S)
Full Chrome Road (Extended Race) (2023)
Phantom (2023)

Nice EM based on the sounds of multiple synthesizers, mostly analog. Rhythmic, melodic, with sequences and touches of synthwave. Very 1970's influenced sound overall.


Cavern of Anti-Matter (UK)

Blood-Music (2013)
Total Availability And the Private Future (2014) (S)
Interlude Music (2014)
Other Voices 06 (2015) (S)
Void Versions (2016) (S)
Void Beats / Invocation Trex (2016)
I'm the Unknown (2016) (S)
Blood-Drums (2017)
Hormone Lemonade (2018)
In Fabric (2020) (soundtrack)
Temp Music (2021) (S)

A band consisting of Holger Zapf, Joe Dilworth and Tim Gane (the latter two are ex-members of Stereolab). They seem to use a lot of analog synthesizers and love to weave complex and playful sequencer patterns.


Cavern of Moss (Sweden)

Rituals of the Gelatinous (2021)
A Glow In Fetid Wax (2023)

Repetitive, a bit dungeon synth-like music with sort of a horror / alien / psychedelic atmosphere.


Caverna (Spain)

Spectral Lair (2020)
Cage of Swords (2020) (S)
Forgotten Pass To Ered Nuin (2021)

Basically dungeon synth or related, but often using textures more typical of EM. Also not that dark, but rather uplifting and very melodic.


Caverns of the Yogi (???)

Caverns of the Yogi (2023)

Described as "meditative dungeon synth". Pretty weird stuff, indeed, closer to ambient EM than any "dungeon synth" in the classic sense.


Cazenave, Guillermo (Argentina)

Zodiac Music - Pisces (1984)
Voz y Música para Relaxar (1984)
Melodías para Meditación (1986)
Los Ovnis (1986) (with Luis José Grifol)
Zodiac Music - Aquarius (1987)
From Mars To Atlantis (1988)
Atlántida (1988)
Sueños (1989) (S)
El Grial / Macbeth (1989)
Viajes (1990)
Al Arbol: Musica Cabalistica (1990)
Concierto para la Tierra (1990)
New Age (1991)
Ying-Yang (1991)
Musica para una Nueva Era (1992)
Biomusica (1992)
Soles (1992)
Spanish Impromptu (1994) (with Steven Halpern)
The Meadows of Englewood (1995) (with Anthony Phillips)
Aqui (1996)
Tower (1996) (with friends)
Hrajeme S Hami (1997)
Contando Lejanos Tiempos (1998) (recorded in ??)
Domaine de l'Abbé (1998)
Vivo Vien (1999) (recorded in 1986 - 1996)
Liah's Saga (2000)
N2/4 (??) 
Demos Le (2000) (recorded in 1972 - 1998)
Un Espacio Mas (2001) (recorded in ??)
Dos Espacios Mas (2002)
Era Buena (2002)
Duplex (2004) (with friends)
Two Suns (2004) (with Jeremy Morris)
The Meditation Project Two: Second System Syndrome (2006)
Pack (2008)
Ser (2008)
GuitaRa (2009)
Colores (??)
Metamusica (??)
Nature (??)
The Earth (??)
Aquarian Music (??)
Tudo New Age Vol. 1 (??)

Guillermo Cazenave is a multi-intrumentalist who started composing "cosmic" music in the 1970's after moving to New York. His current output is somewhat comparable to Zinkl.



Cosmic Call (2018)

Unique in both instrumentation and approach, Cosmic Call is experimental synth music inspired by pioneering electronic works and sci-fi soundtracks of the 1960's and 1970's.


CCCVVV (Belgium)

Curriculum vitae (2021)

Male / female duo from Brussels. Varied, quirky, minimal synth-like, with some vocals and spoken sections.


CC:Dome (USA)

Dome (1999) (EP)
Dream Furious (2000) (EP)
Universe (2001) (with Crown Invisible)

Waves of melodic synths and rhythms from Garrett Parks. On Cursor Club label.

See also: Crown Invisible, Fibilini, Giovanni.


Ccircle~, Isobel (USA)

Fluttercage (2014)
The House In Harbour Park (2015)

Dark soundscapes from April Larson under a pseudonym.

See also: Larson, April


Ce Raid Solitaire (France)

Transperce (2019) (EP)

Sort of a minimal synth-related sound here, but with some Prog EM flair.


Cecchitelli, Demetrio (Italy)

Relief (2020)
Nuance (2021)
Blank Choreography (2021)
Dwell (2021)
A New Dawn (2022) (with Toni Dimitrov)
The Wolf's Lair (2022)
Sein (2022) (with Blanket Swimming)
Infinite Gesture (2023)
Combination (2023) (with Andrea Marinelli)
Vertice (2023)
Fiction / Memory Plasticity (2023)

Droning Ambient artist.


Cecil, Malcolm (UK)

Radiance (1981)

Born in London in 1937, Malcolm Cecil (died in 2021) was one half of TONTO’s Expanding Head Band. Classic EM.

See also: TONTO’s Expanding Head Band.


Ceely, Robert (USA)

Instrumental And Electronic Music (1975)

Late Boston-based avant-garde electroacoustic / electronic composer (passed away in January 2015). On this record Ceely is helped by Buell Neidlinger & Donald Palma (double bass) and Fred Sherry (cello). The album has two acoustic and three electronic tracks.


Ceephax (UK)

Cro Magnox (2013)
Camelot Arcade (2018)
Box Steady (2021)
Baddow Moods (2023)

Occupying more or less the same sonic terrain as Disasterpeace, Cro Magnox sees Andy Jenkinson aka Ceephax mixing chiptune and progressive EM, adding some dance influences. The other two listed works (the project exists at least since 2000) are less relevant, with only brief EM-related momentsm, and are more focused on acid lines and dance beats.


CEL (Germany)

CEL (2020)
Gegenwelt (2023)

Rhythmic, erratic, abstract, repetitive electronic compositions from Felix Kubin (synths) and Hubert Zemler (drums).

See also: Kubin, Felix


Cel (UK)

Fugitive Angle (2006)

Low-fi Drone Ambient.


Celebrate Music Synthesizer Group, The (USA)

The Celebrate Music Synthesizer Group (2013)

Electronic Music by Cameron Stallones (Sun Araw), M. Geddes Gengras, Butchy Fuego and Tony Lowe.

See also: Gengras, M. Geddes


Celephäis (Netherlands)

Grey Dawn, Quaint Gardens (2017)

Murky, ambient, a bit experimental analog synth tracks from Ian Martin and Jeroen Holthuis.

See also: Martin, Ian


Celer (USA)

White Prism (2004)
Ariill (2005)
Belsslsssll (2005)
Ceylon (2006)
Continents (2006)
Descender (2006)
Melodia (2006)
Sampling Pond (2006)
Sunlir / Scols (2006)
Tingshas (2006)
Ammonia (2007)
Canopy (2007) (S)
Cantus libres (2007)
Dilue (2007)
Elias (2007) (S)
Neon (2007)
Para (2007)
Red Seals (2007)
Sadha (2007)
Sieline (2007)
Untitled (Frozen Loop) (2007) (S)
Voodoo Crowds (2007) (EP)
Cursory Asperces (2008)
Discourses of the Withered (2008)
I Love You So Much I Can't Even Title This (2008)
Mesoscaphe (2008) (with Mathieu Ruhlmann)
Nacreous Clouds (2008)
The Everything And the Nothing (2008)
Tropical (2008)
Breeze of Roses (2009)
Brittle (2009)
Capri (2009)
Close Proximity And the Unhindered Care-All (2009)
Compositions For Cassette (2009)
Engaged Touches (2009)
Fountain Glider (2009)
Four Pieces / One (2009) (S)
Four Pieces / Two (2009) (S)
Four Pieces / Three (2009) (S)
Four Pieces / Four (2009) (S)
In Escaping Lakes (2009)
Levitation And Breaking Points (2009)
Mane Blooms (2009) (S)
Poulaine (2009)
All At Once Is What Eternity Is (2010) (S)
Dwell In Posibility (2010)
Dying Star (2010)
Generiñ City (2010) (with Yui Onodera)
Hell Detoured (2010) (S)
Panoramic Dreams Bathed In Seldomness (2010)
Pockets of Wheat (2010) (recorded in 2007)
Rags of Contentment (2010)
The Die That's Caste (2010) (EP)
Weavings of A Rapid Disenchantment (2010) (S)
Honey Moon (2010)
Salvaged Violets (2010)
Ever, Irreplaceable Beauty (2011)
Menggayakan (2011)
Relief And Altruism (2011)
Tightrope (2012)
Dearest Ices (2012)
Perfectly Beneath Us (2012)
I, Anatomy (2012)
Hei / Sou (2012) (S) (with Machinefabriek)
In the Finger-Painted Fields of the Eyes (2012)
Emotion (2012)
Evaporate And Wonder (2012)
Lightness And Irresponsibility (2012)
Epicentral Examples of the More Or Less (2012)
Redness And Perplexity (2012)
Bliksem (2012)
Radish (2013)
Vain Shapes And Intricate Parapets (2013) (with Hakobune)
Diving Into the Plasma Pools (2013)
Viewpoint (2013)
Weak Ends (2013)
Nichibotsu (2013)
Climbing Formation (2013)
Voyeur (2014)
Zigzag (2014)
Sky Limits (2014)
Jima (2015)
How Could You Believe Me When I Said I Loved You When You Know I've Been A Liar All My Life (2015)
Compendium (2015) (with Machinefabriek)
Live At Ftarri, 3. 29. 14 (2015)
Akagi (2016)
Inside the Head of Gods (2016)
Two Days And One Night (2016)
Tempelhof (2016)
Background Curtain (2016) (with Dirk Serries)
Callisto (2016)
Alcoves (2017)
Another Blue Day (2017)
In the End You'll Just Disappear (2017)
Landmarks (2018) (with Forest Management)
Something Cathartic (2018)
Shima (2018) (recorded in 2016)
I Wish You Could (2018)
Shima (2018)
Vamps (2019)
Xièxie (2019)
Future Predictions (2020)
Wait For A Little Longer (2021)
Being Below (2021) (S)
Menggayakan (2021)
It Would Have, But It Wasn't (2021)
Malaria (2021)
In Light of Blues (2021)
Coral Sea (2021)
Ceylon (2021)
Sunspots (2021)
Wasted In the Waiting (2023) (recorded in 2017 - 2020)

Celer was a duo of husband and wife Will Long and Danielle Baquet-Long, which released a lot of Deep Ambient works that often strayed into Drone Ambient, musique concrete and even neo-classical structures. Their production ended in July, 2009 after Danielle's untimely death from heart failure. Some posthumous releases followed and Will Long seems to have revived the project, now being the only author or the music. Beautiful stuff that I can't help but recommend to all fans of Ambient.

See also: Rangefinder, Mogador, Chubby Wolf.


Celestial Ceiling (Iceland??)

Daughters of Atlas (2009)
The Discovery of Life On Mars (2010)

Rather indescribable music - smooth, ethereal and cosmic but with underlying soft rhythms and a mixture of celestial synths and guitar that somehow brings to mind Ashra at times, but also some classic Space Music artists.


Celestial Crypt (USA)

Long Nights (2015)
Cryptic Songs (2015)

Dungeon synth in the vein of early Mortiis, with some acoustic guitar, providing a bit of variety.


Celestial Kingdom (Russia??)

Visions of Eternal Winter (2022)

Melancholic ambient compositions in "winter synth" mould.


Celestial Latitude (Germany)

Flights (2015)

This duo from Germany creates spacey music that mixes guitar and interstellar electronics, like Ash Ra Temel and Klaus Schulze with the deepest Hawkwind vibes.


Celestial Mechanics (UK)

Triton Recon (2018)
Black Hole Dynamics (2019)
In Extremis (2022)

Another EM-related project from James Penrose, this one sees him mixing the ambient techno sound with slight EM influences. This will not be for EM purists for sure.

See also: 4-D Traveller, Universal Frequency, Planetary Technicians, Piero, Gianni.


Celestial Odysseys (USA)

Galactic Odyssey (1983)

Space Music.

See also: Upper Astral


Celestial Trax (UK)

Serpent Power (2019)

Hypnotic ambient soundworlds from Joni Judén, currently residing in Finland.


Celestino (USA)

Protector's Tea (2011)
Kindling (2013)
Beyond Enemy (2016)
How To Cut A Thought (2018)

Drone Ambient and some sporadic brighter ambient material. A project of Gabriel Celestino Higgins from Portland.


Cellistica (UK)

First Flight (2020)

A duo of Hannah Chappell (cello) and Mark Jenkins (electronics).

See also: Jenkins, Mark


Cellophane Garden (USA)

Relation To the Infinite (2019)

A project of Arkansas-based multi-instrumentalist Kevin Blagg. He has a krautrock mindset and mostly plays guitar, augmented by synths and drum machines. On Relation To the Infinite, there are some moments of pure EM bliss, like on the ambient "Phase of Water", the 'Roach-meets ethereal pop' sound of "Long-tide", the 'Space Music-meets-Ashra' track "Reverse Ground" or the magnificent "Stabilized" that uses a sequence that sounds straight out of Schulze's Trancefer. The rest is more guitar-based but still a pleasant listen.


Cellular Station (Sweden)

Constant Shadow of Failure (2023)

Between minimalism, post-rock and ambient EM.


Cellular Structure (UK)

This Must Be Space! (1996)
Becoming Aware of Planets (1998)
Nebula Time (1999)
Solar Axis (2001)

Electronic Music with lots of sequences from ex-members of space rock bands Krel and Spacehead.


Celluloid (USA)

Mercury (1982)
Neptune (1983)
Jupiter (??)

Celluloid was an obscure one-man project of Charles (Chuck) Minuto with music made exclusively with a mellotron. Very interesting but sooo hard to find..


Cellutron And the Invisible (USA)

Reflecting On the First Watch We Uncover Treasure Buried For the Blind (1978)

Experimental electronics, abstract noise. Probably like Conrad Schnitzler or early Cluster. Recorded in Vermont at the Green Mountain studios by Robert S. Greely. 


Celuque, Carlo (Brazil)

Cyber Love (2013)

Synthesist and electronic composer from Salvador. He composes music in classic EM style with some new age influences.


Cenkier, Oskar (Poland)

Prequel (2017)
Bastion (2018)
Koncert w Lipnicy Murowanej (2020)
Miła (2022)

Pianist from Krakow who, apart from piano, uses a lot of other instruments, including synths. Long, mult-part tracks that will be enjoyed by fans of Mike Oldfield, although Oskar's style is quite different (focusing more on the piano).


Cenote Glow (USA)

Anza-Borrego (2012) (S)
Palmetto Rose (2013) (S)
Musa Paradisiaca (2014)
Island of Enchantment (2016) (S)

Warm ambient sounds from Franklin Teagle (Afterlife).

See also: Afterlife


Centaure (France)

L'erreur (1981)

Obscure band with Serge Folie on keyboards and Didier Paquette on drums, plus bass and guitar. So, a standard prog rock fare, it seems. However, I have some reasons to believe the music to be EM-related. The first side is soundtrack music.

See also: Folie, Serge, Paquette, Didier.


Centeio, Alexandre (Portugal)

Movanta (2022)

Pretty nice tranquil EM with slowly moving sequences, relaxing melodies, nice choice of electronic sounds and background field recordings. Alexandre Centeio is a multi-instrumentalist and synthesist from the city of Porto, Portugal.

See also: Ear Travelling Program, Murmurous Playground, The, Stellarays.


Centi85 (???)

Purple City (2022) (S)

Nice, relaxed music between synthwave and melodic EM.


Central Europe Performance (Germany)

Breakfast In the Ruins (1989)
Tour 90 (??)

Later incarnation of You together with Harald Grosskopf.

See also: You, Grosskopf, Harald.


Central Industrial (USA)

Tuned To A Dead Channel (2013)
Flaring Blue In A Timeless Space (2016)

Brooding, post-apocalyptic / cyberpunk / dystopian ambience with slow, echoing rhythms.


Central Office of Information, The (UK)

The Central Office of Information (2019)
Treedom (2020)
Declassified (2021) (S)
Private Issue Synthetic Music 2010 - 2020 (2021)
Shadow Work (2022)

Strange, somewhat bucolic, with some acoustic instrumentation, but also loaded with synths and sometimes mellotrons. Somewhat related to the hauntology genre.


Centrala (Poland)

Księga przemian (1997)


Centre Électronique Muusa (Estonia)

Centre Électronique Muusa (2016)
An Evening With Muusa (2017)
Centre Électronique Muusa ja Ganj Wald (2017) (with Ganj Wald)
Live At I-Fi Soundsystem Experimenteerib (2018) (recorded in 2016)

Electronic duo from Tallinn with a quirky, analog style. Allusions to 1960's and 1970's Electronic Music are abundant (from Jean-Jacques Perrey to Cluster) but overall it's rather unique and nice stuff.


Centric Jones (USA)

Phase Rotator Retard (2002)
Foreign Tea (2009)
The Antikythera Method (2012)

Another project of Chris Fournier (Fonya). Same style as Fonya on the first album, with vocals on two cuts.

See also: Fonya, Project Moonbeam.


Centrozoon (Germany)

Blast (2000)
Sun Lounge Debris (2001)
The Divine Beast (2001)
Centrophil (2002) (S)
The Cult of: Bibbiboo (2002)
The Scent of Crash And Burn (2003)
Never Trust the Way You Are (2005)
Angel Liquor (2006)
Lovefield (2007)
Never Trust the Things They Do (2007)
The Room of Plenty (2014) (recorded in 2011)

Ambient music by Markus Reuter and Bernhard Wöstheinrich. Blast was released on DiN label. I have The Cult of: Bibbiboo which is pretty interesting. Actually, I don't even know what to make of this music. I hear echoes of Fripp & Eno from time to time. But the whole reminds me more of an old project released on IC label back in early 90's: Art Forland. It has the same abstract Ambient feel, sometimes using similar sounds, but with Reuter's guitar layered on top. It's neither avant-garde, nor usual Ambient stuff, it's something in between, but closer to the latter. I should mention that a fair amount of experimentation is involved as well. The title-track is a true jaw-dropper as it sounds like a thorough gabber workout, with frenetic distorted beat hammering itself on top of background ambient atmospheres. If you want something different, and I mean really different, try this.

See also: Reuter, Markus, Show of Exaggeration, The Redundant Rocker, Wöstheinrich, Bernhard, Reber, Tobias.


Century's End (UK)

Gemini Dawn (1992)
Solaris (1993)
Search (1994)

If you like Jean-Michel Jarre and Tangerine Dream, then this is for you. Rippling sequences, hypnotic atmospheres and "Dr. Who" ambiences - it's all there with a few extras. Diverse EM that clearly shows its influences. Century's End was a project of Greg Moffitt from Northern Ireland.


Ceramic Hello (Canada)

The Absence of A Canary (1981)

A minimal synth outfit of Brett Wickens (from Spoons) that for its first and only LP recruited Roger Humphreys to compose bridging short instrumentals between Brett's longer tracks that are half-vocal (John Foxx style) and half instrumental.


Ceramic TL (Canada)

Sign of the Cross Every Mile to the Border (2016)
Perfect Lung (2017) (with Ipek Gorgun)

Experimental electronics between glitch, noise, drone and Progressive EM.

See also: Egyptrixx, Act!


Cerberus (USA)

Advent Gaurd (1982)

Cerberus is synthesist Ron Slabe under a pseudonym.

See also: Slabe, Ron


Cerebral Hemorrhage (USA)

Other Worlds (1981)
Sticks And Stars (1983)
Back In 1984 (1984)
D (1985)

For fans of early Cluster and "Forbidden Planet" soundtrack.


Ceremonial Abyss (USA)

Summer Harvest (2019)
Continuity (2021)
Tape Study For Four Variants (2022)
23 (2023) (S)

Denver, Colorado-based artist who started in acid vein. However, Continuity is an EM work chock full of repetitive sequences and synth melodies.


Ceremony For Luna (USA)

Impulse (2016) (S)

Slow synthetic pulses and dark ambiences. Music influenced by 1980's horror scores from Madyson Boe Meskimen.


Ceremony of Innocence (international)

Ceremony of Innocence (2008)

A "supergroup" featuring Mark Jenkins, David Vorhaus, Arthur Brown and Alquimia.

See also: Jenkins, Mark, White Noise, Vorhaus, Dave, Brown, Arthur, Alquimia.


Cerezo, Joan (Spain)

Kievska 23 (2005)
Kasper (2005) (S)
Holodomor 1932 - 1933 (2007)

Catalan synthesist with a rich, melodic, symphonic style, obviously indebted to Vangelis and a few other melodic EM pioneers.


Cericola, Loris (Italy)

Distances (2019)
Magnetic Paintings (2021)
Memory Hole (2023)

Ambient musician, guitarist, synthesist, member of a couple of groups. Distances makes great use of analog synths to create an intense ambient work.

See also: Vacuum  Templi


Cernota, Johannes (Germany)

Air Sculpture (1992)

Johannes Cernota is a composer, concert pianist and painter. Atmospheric, dark and repetitive music. He has a couple of other (non-electronic, I think) albums released.


Cernunnos Woods (USA)

Tears of the Weeping Willow (1994)
Lost Woods (1994)
Awaken the Empire of Dark Wood (1995)
Immrama (1996)
Forest Anthology (2016)

Dark Ambient, probably in Ritual vein.


Cerrone (France)

Supernature (1977)

This famous disco producer can hardly be considered EM, and just before you start wondering as to what the heck he is doing in EEM, I suggest that you re-listen to "In the Smoke" from Supernature. Ok, including an artist because of one track might seem like a dubious choice but some might think otherwise, so there you go, the Cerrone entry. :-)


Certain Creatures (USA)

Sparkle / Bosch (2013) (S)
Vipassana (2015)
Pleasure Principle (2016) (S)
Nasadiya Sukta (2018)

New York-based artist Oliver Chapoy who on Nasadiya Sukta crafted a moody electronic style basd on downtempo rhythms and synthesizers, a bit reminding on Klaus Schulze's work with Pete Namlook on The Dark Side of the Moon series.


Cerulean (UK)

This Level, Earth (1999)
Ectoplasm (2002)

Cerulean is Tim Darbyshire (Head Space Technology) and Dave Barker (Asana) working together, so if you know these artists, you already can guess the style represented here. Very energetic rhythmic Electronic Music in New Berlin School vein with lots of sequences and cool synthetic drive. Very good, actually.

See also: Head Space Technology, Asana, Lightform.


Cerullo, Victor (Italy)

Ludus (1998)
Loneflyer (2000)
Visions - A Homage To Andrei Tarkovski (2002)

Jarre / Vangelis inspired electronics. Very melodic, sometimes more atmospheric. What I’ve heard so far was good and nevertheless not very convincing for me, but then it’s probably just me, I’m sure many people will like this music. Visions, released on Electroshock label, is completely different in style to his previous albums and contains very subtle and beautiful ambient electronics.


Cervetti, Sergio (Uruguay)

The Hay Wain (1987)
Wind Devil & Co. (2013)

Sergio Cervetti was born in 1940 in Uruguay and now lives & works in the USA. He is mainly a classical / orchestral composer but The Hay Wain and Wind Devil & Co. feature Electronic Music.


Cétieu (Poland)

Ceiling Stories (2014)
Into the Light (2015) (S)

Tekla Mrozowicka from Gdynia is a versatile artist who mostly works in the domain of Ambient and its subgenres. Apart from the above listed works, there are also a lot of download-only releases. The cassette Ceiling Stories features moody and a bit melancholic, droning ambient compositions, while on Into the Light there is a shift towards piano-based sound which approximates the territory of Classic Ambient. She also works as "técieu" in a noisier mould.


Cévennes (France)

Vers quelques attracteurs étranges (2021)
Récit des cascades (2023)

A project of Toulouse-based Didier Delrieu who uses Buchla and other analog synthesizers to compose EM in typical French style (Richard Pinhas, Didider Bocquet, Philippe Guerre etc.)


Cex (USA)

Cave Paintings (2019)
Bats (2022)

Varied, mostly IDM-oriented project of Rjyan Kidwell based in Baltimore, Maryland. Cave Paintings focuses of ambient compositions, though.


CFCF (Canada)

Continent (2009)
The River (2010) (EP)
Cometrue (2011) (S)
Exercises (2012)
Outside (2013)
Music For Objects (2013)
Radiance And Submission (2015)
Head Up (2015) (EP)
The Colours of Life (2015)
On Vacation (2016)
Cascades (2017) (with Jean-Michel Blais)
Liquid Colours (2019)
Memoryland (2021)

CFCF is Montreal-based Michael Silver who makes music mostly within the 1980's - early 1990's "balearic" idiom, which means chilly, relaxing, easy-listening rhythmic music. I was hesitant to include him in EEM. However, some of his material shows a strong EM influence. Of special interest is Exercises, which contains a lot of piano meets synth music that is very EM at its core. The rest seems to be hit-and-miss.


Chabot, Jacques (Canada)

Musique pour un monde trop fragmente (2001)
Mad Music (2007)

Canadian synthesist born in 1966 in Quebec. He composes Electronic Music since the 80's. In 2003 he signed to David Girard's Inorchestral label. His album from 2007 is quite experimental in style.


Chaikin, Nikita (Russia)

Severe (2018)

Short atmospheric tracks initially written as a soundtrack. Between electroacoustic and ambient electronics.


Chain, Paul (Italy)

Opera 4th (1987)
Violet Art of Improvisation (1989)
Opera Decima - The World of the End (1990)

Dies irae (1994)
Emisphere (1997)

Cosmic Wind (1999)
Master of All Times (2001)
Relative Tapes (2002) (recorded in 1980 - 1994)
Electronic Music For Videoart (2009)
Is Dead - Volume One (2021)
1980 > 1983 Between Black And Violet (2021)

Italian guitarist, hard rock / metal musician and experimentator whose real name is Paolo Catena. Opera 4th is split between doomy ambient electronics and his more typical doom metal sound. Opera Decima drifts further in the direction of minimal gloomy atmospherics. The same can be said about Dies Irae which contains quite dark and doomy electronics. Cosmic Wind is intense EM / space rock influenced by Klaus Schulze and Hawkwind, while Master of All Times takes things to stranger realms, adding rocking drums on top of the hallucinogenic atmospheres. He has many more albums, most of which have nothing to do with EM and contain hard improvisational blues / metal music or doom metal.

See also: Catena, Paolo, Lola Sprint & The Cat.


Chair of Rigel (Italy)

Carpenter (2013)

Cinematic synth music from this Palermo-based project, inspired mostly by horror scores.


Chalice, Ivy (UK??)

Dracula 1897 Part 5 (2023) (S)
Nachtmahr (2023)

Occult-based synth music with some female whispers. Melodic and melancholic, as opposed to dark and oppressive. Often with a 1980's Tangerine Dream soundtrack feel. Pretty neat stuff.


Chalk, Andrew (UK)

Crescent (1986)
Harvest (1988)
Tahta Tarla (1993) (recorded in 1987 - 1988) (with Giancarlo Toniutti)
East of the Sun (1994)
Sumac (1997) (with Jonathan Coleclough)
Yang-Tul (1999) (with Ralf Wehowshy and Eric Lanzilotta)
Over the Edges (1999)
Minya (2000) (with Jonathan Coleclough and Colin Potter)
The Days After (2003) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
This Growing Clearing (2004) (with Brendan Walls)
Fall In the Wake of A Flawless Landscape (2004)
Shadows From the Album Skies (2004)
Senshu (2005) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
The River That Flows Into the Sands (2005)
Vega (2005)
Blue Eyes of the March (2006)
Goldfall (2006)
The River That Flows Into the Sands II (2006)
The Days After (2007) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
Time of Hayfield (2007)
The Shadows Go Their Own Way (2009) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
Pine (??)
In Faxfleet Clouds Uplifted Autumn Grave Passage To Kind Nature (2009) (S) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
Nakhodka (2009)
The Cable House (2009)
Violin By Night (2011)
Forty-Nine Views In Rapsodies' Wave Serene (2012)
Flower of Six (2013) (S)
Wild Flowers (2013) (with Tom James Scott)
Painted Screens (2014)
A Paper Doll's Whisper of Spring (2014) (with Vikki Jackman and Jean-Nöel Rebilly)
Ghosts of Nakhodka (2014)
The Circle of Days (2014)
Vega (2014)
Bright Rivers Run / Shimmer In the Sun (2015) (S)
A Light At the Edge of the World (2015)
Calluna (2015) (with Tom James Scott)
The Shadows Go Their Own Way (2015) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
Higan / Kanashiki Haibun (2016)
Everyone Goes Home When the Sun Sets (2016)
Yama To Nashi (2018) (with Daisuke Suzuki)
The Painter's Family (2018) (with Francis Plagne)
The Circle of Days 2 (2018)
The Circle of Days 3 (2018)
The Circle of Days 4 (2019)
Paradise Lost (2019)
Night of the Experimental Film IV (2020) (recorded in 2018) (with Timo van Luijk)
Incidental Music (2020) (recorded in 2008 - 2016)
The Circle of Days 5 (2022)
Light of the World (2022)
Dreams (2022)
Fall In the Wake of A Flawless Landscape (2022)
The End Times (2022)
Drifting (2023) (S) (with Daisuke Suzuki)

Andrew Chalk has been active on the ambient scene since 1985. He has collaborated with a lot of likeminded musicians over the years. His own works lean towards Drone Ambient, pretty dark and hypnotic. Andrew Chalk is also known for his participation in Ora.

See also: Ora, Mirror, Marsfield, Circaea, Elodie, Isolde.


Challoner, Peter (UK)

Music For Cloud Watching (2002)
Music In Ambient Motion (2003)
Music In Suspended Animation (2004)
The Other Side of Time (2004)
Abstract Ambient Form (2005)
Interpolation (2007)
Beneath the Ice Flow (2007)
Lunar Tide (2008)
Deconstructing Silence (2009)
Indefinate Duration (2010)
Ambient Archive (2010) (recorded in 2002 - 2010)
Optimum (2012)
More Than Can Be Heard (2012)
Landscapes_Inception (2013)
Livescape_2 Alternating Frequencies (2014)
Live At Awakenings 26.04.14 (2014)
Optimum (2015)
Livescapes_3 Sono Luminarium (2015)
Livescapes_4 Live At City Arts Nottingham (2015)
Convergence (2017)
Livescapes_5 Church of Ambient Sound (2017)
Subsequence (2018)
Livescapes_6 Single Point Source (2019)

Ambient synthesist with two albums released on British Council of Nine Records. He is also known doing more rhythmical and melodic music under 'Dieter Ettlinger' and 'Asymmetric' pseudonyms.

See also: Ettlinger, Dieter, Asymmetric, Spiraleye, Infinity Curve.


Chalmers, Jorja (UK)

Human Again (2019)
Midnight Train (2021)

London-based saxophonist and member of Bryan Ferry's live band. Amazingly, there is surprisingly little sax on Human Again. Neither it is heavy on the vocals. There's one thing that shines on that record, though - the synths! Really, the whole sounds more like an epic electronic soundtrack, with sequences, mournful pads and a touch of ethereal voice. Nice. I hope she continues in the EM direction. Update: Midnight Train is another nice EM-related work. Recommended.


Chalmin, David (France)

La terre invisible (2019)
Innocence (2022)

Varied composer and singer-songwriter from Paris who loves electronics and uses synths (including modulars) extensively, combining them with his voice and a few acoustic instruments like piano and guitar. Actually, his music is more EM than pop. The long track "Surrender" from Innocence is a fantastic relaxed and moody sequencer trip.


Cham (Japan)

Land (2018)

Semi-acoustic Ambient.


Chamberlain, Robert (USA)

Mutable Sign (2023)
Dive 1: Refraction (2023) (with Sumner James, Volcano Lazerbeam and Saroon)

North Carolina-based artist. Ambient music - shimmering and a bit lo-fi.


Chambers, Gary (USA)

Myth, Magic & Mystery (1989)

Florida-based synthesist. Relaxing, melodic, playful... Sometimes repetitive ala Klaus Schulze from the same period.


Chambers, Norm (USA)

Sensory Margin (2014)
Cede (2015)
Idea Region (2018)
Graphic Means (2018) (soundtrack)
Air Example (2019)
Facets (2020)
Spectrum Garden (2021)
Seaside Resonance (2021)
Mirage Colony (2022)
Palms / La Mer Horizons (2022) (S)

Norm Chambers is also known as Panabrite.

See also: Panabrite, Müller, Jürgen, Spiral Index, Soft Mirage Water Bureau.


Champion, Simon (Austria??)

Campfires And Dreamtime (1992)


Chan, Charlie (Australia)

Female keyboadist (real name - Charlie Sook Kim Chan) whose music is on the World Music / ethnic side of things. She has many albums but I am not sure how much "EM" there is in her material. Charlie Chan composed a lot of music for TV and film soundtracks.


chance|to|tliwosc (Spain??)

Corriger la fortune a 4 mains (2020)

Experimental project that is based on improvisation using drums and synthesizers. Often like an electronic version of free jazz.


Chandeliers (USA)

The Thrush (2008)
Unheard Intensities / Time Drive (2012) (S)
Founding Fathers (2012)
Lemur (2013) (S)
Law of Fives (2017)

Chicago-based band that mixes funk, disco, balearic and a dash of kraut, all done on synthesizers. They are only very marginally progressive, most of the time opting for a mainstream rhythmic pop sound, with Founding Fathers being the more interesting of the two, i.e. containing more atmospheric and purely EM moments. File under EM-related. There is a third album called Dirty Moves, supposedly containing short, rhythmic, collage-like tracks.


Chandeliers (USA)

Artifacts (2015)

Completely different project to the previous one. This is one-man ambient venture from Deitroit. Deep sound.


Chandler, Geoffrey (USA)

Starscapes (1980)

Cosmic Electronic Music.


Chandler, James Jr. (USA)

Thionite (1987)


Chanfrault, François-Eudes (France)

Computer Assisted Sunset (2005) (soundtrack)
À l'intérieur (2008) (soundtrack)

Late French musician (1974 - 2016) who used to rely on his laptop and guitar to compose his music. He was a soundtrack composer, combining classical instrumentation and nice, moody ambient electronics in his scores.


Chang, Gary (USA)

Firewalker (1986) (soundtrack)

Electronic soundtrack to a film starring Chuck Norris and Loun Gosset. There is also a very nice electronic track by this composer (born in 1953 in Minneapolis) on the 1987 "Soul of the Machine" sampler from Windham Hill label. This track seems to be unique to this release and is done in pure Tangerine Dream soundtrack style circa 1986 - 1987. After his early synth-based phase, Gary Chang seems to have moved completely to traditional (i.e. orchestral) scores.


Changing Images (Germany)

Return of the Magician (1987)
Between (1989)
The Castle (1991)
Virtuality (1991)
The Art of Dreaming (1997)
S.E.T.I. (1999)

German duo of Martin Kornberger and Volker Kuhn. They have produced several cassettes since 1982. The music is probably a blend of symphonic electronics and Berlin School sound.

See also: Kornberger, Martin


Channel E3 (Italy)

Soggetti volanti non identificati (2023) (with Collettivo Caspar)

Italian synthesist with a focus on modular systems. Soggetti... is a spoken word record, but the background music is pure analog / experimental EM. I wish there was a version without the spoken word parts.


Channel U (Japan)

Shadow Motion (2017)

A project of Yusuke Yamamoto. Gamelan sounds combined with ambient electronics.


Channelers (USA)

They Are Cloaked In Stars And Rivers (2015)
Essex (2016)
Space Makes Clearing (2016)
Faces of Love (2017)
Slow Leaf Spell (2017)
Entrance To the Next (2018)
For Being (2019)
The Depth of Rest (2019)
Isles Beyond (2020)
Another Entrance (2021)
Messages From One Deeper Within (2021)
Time, Space And Thought (2022)
Generation / Harvest (2023)

Floating ambient synths with acoustic touches from Sean Conrad.

See also: Ashan, gkfoes vjgoaf.


Channeling (USA)

Channeling (2016)
Bluffs (2017) (S)

Andrew Osterhoudt's ambient drone project. Intense, melodic, at times a bit noisy.

See also: Osterhoudt, Andrew


Chanter (USA??)

The Exconjuratory In Ruins (2015) (S)
The Trade (2018)

Ambient synth, both flowing and pulsing ala Carpenter. Some experimental tracks as well.


Chantereau, Marc (France)

Operation Hypnosis (1980) (with Pierre Alain Dahan)
Synthesis 1 (1980) (with Pierre Alain Dahan)
Synthesis 2 (1980) (with Pierre Alain Dahan)

Electronic library music by these musicians of Arpadys and Voyage fame.


Chanterelle (USA)

Earthly Delights (2021)

Sort of comfy synth-like but with a strong EM element. Tracks like "Pursuit" have a genuine Berlin School vibe. Nice.


Chantler, John (Australia??)

The Place Between Here And (2000)
Just Like Music (2001) (S)
Monoke (2003)
Locked In Hands (2004)
Three Sides of Sadness (2006)
U (2008) (with Tujiko Noriko and Lawrence English)
The Luminous Ground (2011)
Automatic Music (2011)
Even Clean Hands Damage the Work (2014)
Autmatic Music, Volume II (2014)
Still Light, Outside (2015)
Which Way To Leave? (2016)
Endless Sky (2017) (with Johannes Lund)
Front And Above (2017) (with Steve Noble and Seymour Wright)
Tomorrow Is Too Late (2019)
Andersabo (2020) (with Johannes Lund)

Electronic and electro-acoustic artist who lived and worked in Australia, Japan, Sweden and the UK. He is also an organ player. Later works are modular synth workouts (some recorded in Stockholm's EMS studio) that will appeal to fans of the experimental end of the EM spectrum.


Chaos As Shelter (Israel)

Next Year In New Jerusalem (1999)
Devil's Brothers (2000)
In the Shelter of Chaos (2000)
Midnight Prayer / Illusion (2001)
One (2001)
In Absentia (2002)
Locust Wind (2002)
Maelstrom (2002)
Dead Air Broadcasts (2003)
Ingathering of Exiles (2003) (with Tidal and Igor Krutogolov)
Live In New Jerusalem (2003)
The Geometry of Soul (2003)
Lapis (2004)
Mirror (2004)
Dawn Syndrome (2005)
Heavenly Letter (2005)
Waves (2005)

Dark Ambient from Vadim Gusis, often bordering on electroacoustic music.


Chapelle, Rupert Randall (USA)

Ozone Music (1978)
Jobs For America (1982) (with Arthur Harrison)
Know Control (1989) (with Arthur Harrison) 

In the late 70's Chapelle used to give live synthesizer shows that unfortunately didn't have much success. He mainly played music not unlike stuff heard at the concerts of Tangerine Dream and Klaus Schulze back then. Ozone Music is reportedly in Synergy / TD / KS vein. Chapelle uses ARP 2600, ARP Odyssey, ARP string synth, Octave Cat and custom made Arthur Harrison Sequencer.


Chaplin, Christopher (UK)

Seven Echoes (2010) (with Kava)
King of Hearts (2012) (with Hans-Joachim Roedelius)
Triptych In Blue (2017) (with Hans-Joachim Roedelius and Andy Heath)

BJARMI (2019) (with Stereo Hypnosis)
Patriarchs (2022)

British avant-garde composer. On Patriarchs, he effectively combines chamber music and electronics. The work is pretty monumental and at times scary. Amazingly, some of the material has a slight Robert Fripp or Heldon vibe to it.


Chapman, Duncan (UK)

Cove (2019)

Ambient compositions with lots of field recordings. "Mountain Views" has a bit of the cosmic Klaus Schulze melancholy in it.


Chapman, Grant (USA)

Indentations (2023)

New York-based percussionist and electronic musicians. Indentations is a work of sample-based music, which is abstract and collage-like, but also cerebral and emotionally charged at the same time. Lots of choir-like sounds / voice samples here.


Chapman-Fox, Gordon (UK)

The Nine Travellers (2023)

See also: Warrington-Runcorn New Town Development Plan


Char-El (USA)

Worlds Without End (1996)
Heaven And Earth (2000)
Resurrection (2009)

Melodic and emotional music by Charles Thaxton from the USA (sadly, passed away in 2019). A mix of space electronics and progressive / new age.

See also: Voyager


Charbonneau/Amato (Canada)

Synth Works, Vol. 1 (2018)
Synth Works, Vol. 2 (2022)

A duo of Montreal-based composers Mathieu Charbonneau and Pietro Amato. Dusseldorf School sound here. One of the tracks off Synth Works, Vol. 1 is titled "Forst". Nuff said.


Charcoal Ed (USA)

Charcoal Ed (1999)
The Iconoclast (2000)
Trinary (2002)

Charcoal Ed is the musical project of Reid Wilson, from Arizona. Diverse electronic compositions, but mostly in Berlin School vein.


Charlatan (USA)

Destinations (2009) (S)
Equinox (2009) (S)
Hamptons (2009) (S)
Masquerades (2009)
Exercises (2010) (S)
Romances (2010)
Automatics (2010) (S)
Holograms (2010) (S)
Triangles (2011)
Meridians (2011)
Voyagers (2011)
Charlatan Meets The North Sea (2012) (recorded in 2001) (with The North Sea)
Isolatarium (2013)
Night Circus (2013)
Local Agent (2014)
Dead Drop (2014)
The Glass Borders (2021)
Suncast Renditions (2023)

Ambient artist Brad Rose with a few cassette releases to his credit.

See also: Rose, Brad E.


Charles A.D. (Japan)

熱い海 (2017) (EP)
Inception (2019)

A project of Hiroyuki Tanaka between synth soundscapes and deep house beats.


Charles, Michael (USA)

Hide From the Night / Deadline (??) (S) (with The Boztones)

Split single (released circa 1984 - 1985, I think) with the B side occupied by a rhythmic, melodic electronic composition made by Michael Garrison under a pseudonym. Only for MG completists.

See also: Garrison, Michael


Charlesworth, Bob (UK)

Music For the Third Ear (1993)
Zen Radio Workshop (2008)

Ambient electronics from this rather obscure synthesist (real name - Mark Tovey).


Charlotte, Bob (Spain)

Acceptance (2022)

Barcelona-based ambient artist whose real name is Angel F. Monroy. His work focuses on modular synth sound sculpting.


Charlotte Isabelle (France)

Bad Rocks (2020) (EP)

French techno duo. On Bad Rocks, they opt for an ambient sound.


Charlton, Steve (UK)

Haven (1992)
A Far Sunrise (1993) (recorded in 1986 - 1992)

On Electronical Dreams. The style is most likely a blend of melodic / rhythmic and ambient elements.


Charlz-010 (Australia)

Red Blue Green (1978) (S)

Mojo from Rainbow Generator and Michael Flynn. The above release is a little 7" record released in 1978. 

See also: Mojo, Rainbow Generator, Krozier And the Generator, Voodoo Chile, Digital Dreaming.


Charnel Oubliette (USA)

I (2018) (S)
Black Moon Seance Rehearsal (2019)
II (2020)
Carving Stone For the Dead (2021)

Dungeon synth-related sound here, focusing on slow dirges and sometimes pulsing / repetitive synths.


Chasms (USA)

Silicone Islands (2011) (S)
Octahedrite (2011) (S)
The Science of Consciousness (2012)
Alien Big Cats (2012)

Synthesizer based Ambient. Droning sound with variations, melodic parts etc. A project of Cory Kirkendall.


Chassagnard, Jérôme (France)

Music For A Starlit Night (2017)
Wind (2019) (EP)
Tempus Fugit (2022) (recorded in 2014 - 2022)

IDM artist from France. On Music For A Starlit Night, he decided to focus on his classical and ambient influences. As a result, the music on this atypical album is a mixture of floating electronic compositions and rhythmic stuff, reminding on Tangerine Dream's Dream Mixes series (an example of this style: "Thunder Bird"). Tempus Fugit is a collection of ambient electronic pieces recorded over a span of several years.


Chat Noir (Italy)

Hyperuranion (2019)

Improvising jazz band that started as a completely acoustic collective. However, as they progressed, they started adding more electronics to their sound, and Hyperuranion is probably a culmination of the fusion of their jazz roots and electronic influences. File under EM-related.


Château Flight (France)

Les vampires OST (2006)
La folie studio (2024)

Deep house duo of Gilbert Cohen and Nicolas Chaix. On Les Vampires OST they largely drop house rhythms in favor of a Progressive Electronic sound influenced by krautrock and pioneering electronic artists (the Ashra / Manuel Goettsching references are especially strong here). The work is their imagined soundtrack to an early 20th Century movie.

See also: Cohen, Gilbert, I:Cube.


Château Sologne (France)

Sputnik 2 (2017) (S)

Moody Electronic Music recorded by this trio of musicians (Cyril Martin, Olivier Azemar and Renaud De Saint Vaast) using an impressive array of synths and effects. Hypnotic, with a focus on slow rhythms, melodic arpeggios and carefully selected analog sounds.


Chatton, Brian (UK)

Vapour Trails (1980)
Streetside (1983)
Spellbound (1989)

Famous keyboardist who played with Yes, Flaming Youth, Snafu, John Miles & more. Vapour Trails and Streetside are library albums.


Chatwin, Ben (UK)

The Sleeper Awakes (2015)
Heat & Entropy (2016)
Staccato Signals (2018)
Drone Signals (2018)
The Hum (2020)
Verdigris (2024)

Scottish artist who previously recorded guitar-based, semi-acoustic drone / post-rock / experimental / whatever music as Talvihorros. On Heat & Entropy there is an extensive use of electronics, mixed with acoustic instruments like marimbas, strings, etc. Slowly building, climatic tracks at the intersection of post-rock and Prog EM / Ambient.


Chaucerian Myth (USA)

The Canterbury Tales (2016)
The Book of Margery Kempe (2017)
The Faerie Queene (2019)
Chaucerian Legends: The Epic Of Beileag In Three Parts (2020)
St. George And The Dragon (2022) (S)

The Canterbury Tales is a massive, 4-cassette set from this dungeon synth project. The cycle seems to be composed of tracks recorded over a period of time, with some of them featuring digital (or general MIDI) imitations of classical instruments (typical of the genre), while others seem to be performed on analog synthesizers, which makes the album different and briefly interesting, with its weird Wendy Carlos touch. However, given the length and the general lack of variety, this album makes me go yawn.


Chaurasia, Hariprasad (India)

Eternity (1985)

Classical flutist from India. On the above album, his flute playing is combined with a synth / drum machine backing, resulting in a nice World Music-like hybrid. Some believe that on synths here is none other than Charanjit Singh, although his name is not in the credits.


Chavira, Ryan (USA)

Waves For Daze (2015)
Glow Rider (2017)

Tucson-based ambient soundscape artist.


Cheapmachines (UK)

Drone Works #8 (2005) (S)
Fugue Cycle (2007)
Transit (2007) (S)
Displacement (2008)
Axiom (2008) (S)
Crooked Settlement (2010) (S)
Cast (2010) (S)

Cheapmachines is an alias of Philip Julian, a noise artist sometimes making forays into droning ambience. These releases will be listed.


Cheekbone (Japan)

Through the Tree (2013) (S)
Tsuka No Ma (2018)

Melodic, feather-light Ambient.


Cheer, Alec (UK)

Night Kaleidoscope Soundtrack (2017) (soundtrack)

Scottish artist and member of space rockers Pyramidion. Synth soundtrack taking cues from Carpenter, Goblin, Fabio Frizzi and Pye Corner Audio. He may have other interesting, EM-related works. Further investigation is needed.


Chef Menteur (USA)

East of the Sun & West of the Moon (2012)

Varied space rock / psychedelic rock band from New Orleans. There are many influences and sometimes they also seem to make forays into electronic sound. Case in point is the long "Ganymede" off this album above, with droning cosmic synths and layered frippertronics. File under EM-related. Further investigation is needed.


Cheiron (Germany)

Klangberge (1995)
Phantasma (1996)

Cheiron is Dirk Radtke. Very versatile music, but often in the classical style. Sometimes with ethnic instruments, i.e. flutes, etc.

See also: Radtke, Dirk


Chekalin, Mikhail (Russia)

Meditative Music For the Decomposed Electro Organ I (1982)
Meditative Music For the Decomposed Electro Organ II (1982)
Meditative Music For the Decomposed Electro Organ III (1983)
Vocalise In Rapide (1985)
Practical Music Making I (1985) (recorded in 1982 - 1985)
Between Spring And Autumn By Stealth (1986)
Practical Music Making II (1987) (recorded in 1984 - 1987)
Border States (1988)
Post Pop - Non Pop (1988) (recorded in 1984 - 1987)
Introduction Into Intuition (1989)
Concerto Grosso No.1 (1989)
Concerto Grosso No.2 (1989)
Russian Mystery (1989)
The Symphony Phonogram (1989) (recorded in 1981 - 1989)
Green Symphony / The Ritual of Night For Voices (1991) (recorded in 1988 and 1984)
Film Music I (1991)
Double Album With the Symphony In New Age Style I (1992)
Double Album With the Symphony In New Age Style II (1992)
Album With A Symphony (1992)
Night Pulsation (1993)
Porcelain God (1994)
Nonconformist (1995)
Ad Marginum (1996) (recorded in 1990 - 1996)
Analog Magic (1997) (recorded in 1979 - 1989)
Avoid the Desire For Cutting And Piercing Objects (1998)
Romantic Vampires (1999)
Concerto Grosso No.1 / Dissonata / Pagan Vocalise (2000) (recorded in 1989, 1990 and 1992)
Concerto Grosso No.2 Bonus Tracks (2001)
Probability Symphony In the Style of Jazz In Five Parts For Four Players (2001)
Last Seasons / Black Square (2001) (recorded in 1998 and 1996)
Saturn. Izdelije #... (2002)
FortePIANO (2002)
Языческая сюита (2004) (recorded in 1990 - 1991)
Poruganie Patsifika (2007)
Untimely (2007)
Paradigm Transition (2007) (recorded in 1996)
Catharsis (2010)
The Return of the Inferno (2011) (with Ulli A. Rützel)
Living With the Inferno (2012) (with Ulli A. Rützel)
Incantation Songs (2012) (recorded in 1999)
Double Album Vol. 1: A New Age Symphony (2013) (recorded in 1987 - 1992)
Double Album Vol. 2: Identifications (2013) (recorded ?? - 1993)

MonoOpera (2014)
PostAmbientSymphony (2014) (recorded in 1990 - 2014)
Symphony #13 (2014)
Requiem For Unofficial Moscow Artist / PostSymphony No. 12 (2014)
Piano No Concerto / Potest / Anthems of Idiots Moderns (2015) (with Alexander Eisenstadt)

Mahavox Symphony (2015)
Historic Edition Vol. 1: A Well Prepared Electric Organ (2016) (recorded in ??)
Historic Edition Vol. 2: Background-Underground (2016) (recorded in 1979 - 1982)
Historic Edition Vol. 3: Free Piano (2016) (recorded in 1979 - 1982)
Historic Edition Vol. 4: Just Bits And Pieces (2016) (recorded in 1976 - 1984)
Historic Edition Vol. 5: Open Piano / Psychedelic Nokturne (2016) (recorded in 1973 - ??)
Historic Edition Vol. 6: Tercium Organum / Disturbances... Ambience With Bells (2016) (recorded in 1976 - 1983)
Post-Realism Vol. 2 (2016) (recorded in 2008)
Are We Here, Are We Long Gone? (2016)
Ôorte Piano (2016) (recorded in 2002)
Reflections (2016) (recorded in 1990)
Post-Realism (2016) (recorded in 1989, 2008 and 2011)
The PostElectric Symphony (2016) (recorded in 2007)
In Concert I (2016) (recorded in 1993) (with Alexander Eisenstadt)
In Concert II (2016) (recorded in 1993) (with Alexander Eisenstadt)
Post-Realism Vol. II (2016) (recorded in 2008)
Dissonata (2016) (recorded in 1989)
Alive @ 50 (2016) (recorded in 2009)
Existentions (2016) (recorded in 1990)
Music For Film (2016) (recorded in 1989 - 1990)
Supremus Continue (2016) (recorded in 2011)
The Eurock Post-Symphony (2018)
Экзальтированная колыбельная 1979 - 1987 (2018)
A Bathroom For Esthete (2019)

Russian electronic composer. Chekalin (born in 1959) was very important in the development of Russian synthesizer music and his works span a wide range of styles. He appeared on the scene, or, rather, he appeared in Russian electronic underground in the 1970's. He was one of the first to realize the huge potential of synthesizers and other electronic keyboards. His early work mostly consisted of studio improvisations and live performances for small audiences, not counting playing keyboards with the hugely popular (at the time) band "Samotsvety". His setup often consisted of just the electric organ and some processing devices. He also embraced the first wave of analogue and digital synthesizers. Mikhail Chekalin never followed any fashions or trends and his early attempts in the EM field went largely unnoticed by the official music circles and the state. Despite this, the fact is that he was one of the few electronic musicians who were lucky enough to release their music on the state controlled Melodiya label and to be able to compose for the most prestigeous theatres, movie studios and planetariums. Some of his back catalogue was later re-released on CD. However, Mikhail Chekalin was, and to a certain degree, still is a "Moscow recluse", as he is called sometimes. On the other hand, the reputation of a loner gives him more freedom to do whatever he likes to. His works are very diverse stylistically. Mikhail is often compared with Klaus Schulze, but his music is slightly more avant-garde. His early organ experiments, however, will likely be enjoyed by fans of Irrlicht-era Klaus.


Chelidon Frame (Italy)

Transience (2022)
Nobody Lives Here (2023)

The 2022 release is an ambient work with extensive use of granular synthesis. Further investigation is needed.


Chemin, Claude (France)

Esthesies (1993)

Space Music.


Cherniavsky, Igor (Russia)

Завтра будет вчера (1988)
Gone (1993)

Synthesist, who, starting from 1982, has been residing in Poland. The Polish spelling of his name is Igor Czerniawski. Atmospheric electronics with a slight industrial vibe. He is also member of Polish group Aya RL that nowadays is known for its Deep Forest-like ethno-pop music.


Cherrystones (UK)

Aged In Bronze (2021)

A project of Garreth Goddard known as a jazz-funk / downtempo / turntablism musician. Aged In Bronze was recorded in his new, fully analog studio in Scotland, where he subjected himself to a detox / exile experience. Immediately you can hear sounds that will be enjoyed by fans of pulsing EM like Carpenter, as well as Cluster and mutant forms of dance / disco music.


Cheryl Charles Duo, The (UK)

Rhapsody (1980)

Weird stuff here. Privately pressed LP by this "cabaret" duo where the instrumentation is almost completely electronic. They are not progressive most of the time and do covers of well known film / radio tunes (from "Star Wars" and "Doctor Who") which are actually not bad (albeit expectedly cheesy) and are thankfully instrumental. Vocal covers of pop songs provide the most cringeworthy moments of the entire LP. There are also original tunes that range from the already mentioned horrible vocal pop style to a nice synth instrumental "Interstellar Rhapsody" which is the dog's bollocks. File under EM-related.


Chesumasuta (Japan)

I Am Chesumasuta (2016)

Vaporwave / cyperpunk project which is mostly known under its Japanese name チェスマスター. Some tracks on the above album have strong EM flair, like the opener and "Turn Me On" for example. File under EM-related.

See also: DARKPYRAMID, Kamokata, Subaeris, Hong Kong Express.


Chesworth, David (Australia)

Drive Time (2021) (recorded in 1984) (with Bill McDonald)

Pioneering English-born synth musician based in Australia, mostly working within the minimal synth / post-punk idiom, with also some academic electronic works to his credit. The above is a work for DX7 synthesizer and bass that was broadcast in 1984. Some tracks contain vocals and can be classed as "post-punk" indeed. Some of the (instrumental) material leans towards ambient EM, though. File under EM-related.


Cheung, Anji (UK)

Angelic Black (2014)
The Subjugation Tape (2015) (S)
Daughter of Fortitude (2016)
Hypatia (2016) (S)
Diamond Head (2017) (S)
Spirit of Creature (2017)
Terma (2018) (S)
Annihilare (2021)
N​ā​dalaya (2022) (S)

Dark soundscape artist residing in London. Sometimes noisy.


Chevallier, Christian (France)

Atmosphere (1979)
Noels d'hier et de demain (1981)
Light Breeze (1982) (with Alan Feanch)
Space Resonances (??) (with Alan Feanch)
Vous (1983) (S)

Library synth music. Noels features Christmas carols mixed with synth sounds. Christian Chevallier died in 2008.


Chevel (Italy)

Always Yours (2018)

Varied techno project of Dario Tronchin. Two ambient tracks from Always Yours - the opener and "Underwater" - are well worth checking out. Nice stuff and I would really like him to follow in that direction in the future.


Chi (Netherlands)

Chi (1986)
No Tunafish On Neptune (1989)
The Original Recordings (1996) (recorded in 1985)
The Bamboo Recordings (2016)
The Kallikatsou Recordings (2017)
Red Lantern At the Kallikatsou (2017)
The Mantra Recordings (2019)
Travel In Peace (2020)

Hanyo van Oosterom's ambient project from the 1980's. The group included Michel Banabila, Koos Derwort, Willem Cramer and a few other musicians and guests. Currently known as The Chi Factory.

See also: Oosterom, Hanyo van, Banabila, Michel, Son of Chi.


Chiang Valley Liberators (UK)

And Then Everything Changed (2020)

Varied ambient compositions. Sometimes noisy or industrial.


Chiba, Hiroki (Japan)

Nokto (2019)
Eine Phantasie im Morgen (2020)

Although primarily a double bass player, Hiroki Chiba presents nice ambient electronics dedicated to different cities of the world on his album / EP Nokto.


Chiclet, Dick (USA)

Melman Igba - I Fear A New World (2017)

A pseudonym of Grand Rapids, Michigan-based musician and producer Tommy Schichtel. Ranges from noisy and experimental to playful, melodic, 1960's / exotica.


Chikuma, Atsushi (Japan)

Divertimento (1986)
Les archives (2019) (recorded in 1986)

Arsushi (June) Chikuma is an experimental composer from Japan. Divertimento mixes repetitive, frenetic electronic compositions with lots of sampling and a string quartet. Les Archives collects tracks from the original release and adds 3 previously unreleased tracks from the same sessions. For fans of Zappa's synclavier experiments, The Residents, Rimarimba, sequencer & MIDI in general, The Art of Noise and Haruomi Hosono.


Child Actress (Canada)

2020/09/17 (2021)

Child Actress is a pseudonym of Calgary-based sound engineer and indie rock musician Rena Kozak. 2020/09/17 is her live experimental session recorded with various synths and electronics. Interesting sound here - ambient, but melodic, with some sequences / arpeggios.


Child, Anthony (UK)

Electronic Recordings From Maui Jungle Vol. 1 (2015)
You Have Already Surrendered Your Total Will (2016)
Behind the Lids (2016) (with Gnod)
Electronic Recordings From Maui Jungle Vol. 2 (2016)
Dialogue (2021) (with others)

Techno producer also known as Surgeon recorded this unusual album on the island of Maui, Hawaii, using field recordings and modular synthesizer. The music ranges from droning to sequencer-based.

See also: Transcendence Orchestra, The


Child of A Creek, The (Italy)

Hidden Tales And Other Lullabies (2014)

Instrumental album by Lorenzo Bracaloni who makes folk / psych / darkwave music. Nice atmospheric sound.

See also: Fallen


Childese (Russia)

Minor Eden (2022)

Sunny, organ-laden, a bit lo-fi electronics from St. Petersburg-based Vova Kolbin. A bit similar to an uplifting / pastoral version of early (pre-Timewind) Klaus Schulze.


Childre, Lew (USA)

Heart Zones (1990) (S)

Mini-cassette release (the program repeats on both sides) by this author and therapist. Two spacey melodic (sort of new-agey) tracks and two upbeat numbers a bit in the style of Tangerine Dream from around the same time.


Children of the Bong (UK)

Hallucinogen (1994)
Untitled (1994)
Sirius Sounds (1995)
Not Sirius (2023)
Sonic Ambulance (2024) (recorded in 1993 - 1994)

British duo of Daniel Goganian and Rob Henry that operated mainly within the Ambient Techno idiom, which was the fad of the day (early to mid 1990's). However, their dub influences and space rock stylings often make them sound very much like Ozric Tentacles and related projects (Nodens Ictus et al). File under EM-related.


Chillage, Mick (Ireland)

Tales From the Igloo (2009)
Night Works (2011)
FAXology (2011)
Pixels (2014)
Reverie (2014)
Saudade (2014)
Pixels II (2015)
Pixels III (2015)
Infinite Perspectives (2015)
Night Works (2016)
(M)odes (2016)
Zen Diagrams (2016)
Deviazioni cosmiche (2016) (with Lorenzo Montanà)
Paths (2016)
Exulansis (2017)
Harmonic Connections (2018)
Between the Endless Silence (2018)
Intervals of Light (2019)
Epinaz (2019)
Breathe Again (2019)
Mirrors (2020)
Memories, Moods & Moogs (2020)
The Functions of Life (2020)
Two Days (2020)
Celestial Observations (2020)
MS-V-MS (2021)
Ruhleben (2021) (with Dr. Atmo)
Jouhatsu (2021)
Growth (2021) (recorded in 2020)
Tides of Melancholy (2022)
So Far From Home (2022)
Urban Nature (2022)
Sky Gazing (+) (2022)
Variants of Perception (2022)
Brain Oscillations (2022)
FAXology 2022 (2022)
Inter-Dimensional Guidance (2023)
A Distant Reflection (2023)
Devotology (2024)

Diverse artist from Dublin whose real name is Michael Gainford. His music ranges from minimal techno to IDM, chill-out / downtempo and deep ambient soundscapes. This is not his full discography.

See also: Autumn of Communion, Architects of Existence, Skua Atlantic.


Chilltopia (Germany)

Floating (2002)

Ambient soundscapes by Udo Berger.


Chimère FM (France)

Chimère FM (2022)

French duo with a poppy, flashy, melodic, slightly experimental style.


Chin Xaou Ti Won (USA)

P'yongyang (2001)
Funeral Music For Chin Laou (2001)
Baalbek (2002)
Ku & Kadai (2004)
The Fatherland (2004) (EP)
Trees (2009) (EP)
The Complete Paint On Canvas Series (2009) (EP)
The Tower (2009) (EP)

Ambient / synth-pop duo from Houston, TX, consisting of Ian Travis and Marcus Cone. Only their ambient releases will be listed.


Chino, Shuichi (Japan)

The Man Who Assassinated Ryoma (1987) (soundtrack)

Rare soundtrack from this jazz / fusion musician who also worked with Wha-Ha-Ha and Mkwaju Ensemble. This is new-wavey electronics, with some atmospheric tracks as well.


Chiodata (Chile)

Dymensu (2014)
Páramos (2017)
Lucestas (2021)

Pretty abstract but melodic ambient material. A bit reminiscent of Art Forland.


Chioreanu, Costin (Romania)

There Is A Place Called Home (2016)
Afterlife Romance (2019) (with Sofia Sarri)
Alcyone (2020) (S)

Music for an exhibition by this Romanian composer, guitarist and member of numerous bands. Sometimes sounds like a depressive jam session by Edgar Froese and Mike Oldfield in a dark cave.


Chipzel (UK)

Interstellaria (2017) (recorded in 2015) (soundtrack)

Chipzel is an alias of Niamh Houston - a chiptune artist from Northern Ireland (she is currently based in Liverpool). Interstellaria is a spacey and ethereal soundtrack with a strong Prog EM vibe and hints of everything, from Space Music to Ambient and rhythmic / melodic EM (I am reminded on Serrie, Software, Patrick Kosmos and more). Good stuff from a talented artist. Ok, some of the upbeat numbers are expectedly cheesy (sounding like 1990's trance music) but the slow / atmospheric stuff is the real cream. More in that style, please.


Chisholm, Ben (USA)

Burgeoning Verse (2018) (with Felix Skinner)

Dramatic, semi-acoustic pieces with an ambient flair.


Chiu, Jeremiah (USA)

Recordings From the Åland Islands (2022) (with Marta Sofia Honer)
In Electric Time (2023)
he Closest Thing To Silence (2024) (with Ariel Kalma and Marta Sofia Honer)

The 2002 release is a mixture of field recordings, classical instrumentation and modular synth sounds. Pretty nice ambient stuff. In Electric Time ventures into nice analog EM of the melodic / meditative / cosmic kind.

See also: Cosmic Son


Chkhaidze, Lasha (Georgia)

Agartha (2022)
Atmos (2023)

A mixture of ambient compositions and subtle touches of glitch / dub.


Chkheidze, Anushka (Georgia)

Halfie (2020)
Move 20-21 (2021)
Clean Clear White (2024)

Varied music from this artist, mostly lush and rhythmic, between downtempo / IDM and Prog EM, with some nice sequencing from time to time.


Chkolnik, Ilia (Russia)

Endless (2023)

Russian pianist and trumpeter (currently based in Switzerland) related to the classical music world. On Endless, he combines his trumpet and piano playing with a rich electronic sound, mixing everything from Enigma-like atmospheres full of Gregorian chants to vaguely trancey, relaxed instrumental songs.


Chlorine Angel (France)

Triptyque pour la fin des temps (2022)

From dreamy, atmospheric electronics beyond Klaus Schulze's "Moogetique" to monolithic drones and noisier assaults. The atmospheric aspect is interesting and rather good. The noisier material is somewhat dull and nothing special.


Chmmr (Norway)

Auto (2017)
Try New Things (2019)

A project of Even Brenden. The music on Try New Things sounds like Forst-era Cluster trying to make a jazz fusion record. Nice and different.


Chocholak, Michael (USA)

Skomorokhi (1985)
Das Devonian Tag (1986)
Owl Man Dreams (1986)
Chocholak (1986)
The Latest Models (1986)
Prayers of Steel (1986)
Subterranean Rage (1988)
Red Spider, White Web (1988)
Concho (1988) (with Conrad Schnitzler)
Date With Kali (1989)
Hollow Bodies (2005)
Alveromancy (2008)
The Hadron Suite (2010) (with Ooy)
Segments (2012) (with Ooy)
Behind Doors of Water (2013) (S) (with Jan M. Iversen, Ole Christensen and Steven Cerio)
All Fires the Fire (??)

Oregon-based artist who's been making Electronic Music at least since the early 1980's. Originally a guitarist, nowadays he uses synthesizers, samples, field recordings, computers and other sound sources. He has a generally moody sound, sometimes in the vein of Dark Ambient, sometimes more melodic or rhythmic. Michael Chocholak collaborated with other experimental and electronic musicians, including Conrad Schnitzler.


Choco (Germany)

For Easy Listening (1985)
Bubbles In Your Brain? (1986)

Choco was one of several really obscure projects formed in the 1980's by Eloy members Detlev Schmidtchen and Manfred Wieczorke. The music is electronic. There are CDr versions of these but I've never seen any original vinyls... if they ever existed...

See also: Eloy, Schmidtchen, Detlev, Wieczorke, Manfred.


Chocolate Hills (UK)

A Pail of Air (2019)
Yarns From the Chocolate Triangle (2023)

Chocolate Hills is a foray into Prog EM and Ambient by Alex Paterson (The Orb) and Paul Conboy. Pretty nice cosmic or reflective sound here.

See also: Orb, The


Chogori (Germany)

Chogori (2014)
Heat Haze (2018)
Minor Green (2023)

Dusseldorf-based duo of Ralf Stritt and Gregor Kerkmann. They play synthesizers and double bass and are accompanied by Martell Beigang on drums. Interesting mixture of rock stylings, electronics and some classical touches.


Chollet, Jacotte (France)

Invisible Presence (1992)
Renaissance (1994)
Unite (1996)
Creation (2000)
Silent Night (2000)
Sky Dancing (2000)
High Spaces (2002)
Réconciliation (2008)
Cosmic Heart (2012)

Electronic New Age with a few darker shades and strong Space Music / Ambient influences by this musician, filmmaker, painter, researcher and therapist. In the 1970's, Jacotte Chollet concentrated on making documentaries but she has been also experimenting with sound, since 1984.


Chołody, Piotr (Poland)

Holodek (2023)

Relaxing ambience, sort of new-agey, with synths, field recordings and wailing, mantra-like guitars.


Chondropoulos, Christos (Greece)

Music From the Early Robotic Societies of the Basin (2017)
Athenian Primitivism (2021)
Relics (2021)
Acid Music For Buddy Bolden (2022)
Cyberfolk (2022)

Alternative tunings, complex sequences, AI vocals... Strange but rather fascinating stuff from this drummer, percussionist and electronic musician.


Chorchill (Germany)

Lichthupe (2019)
Kolonie (2020)
Antalya (2020)
Nachtfisch (2020)
Ruhrpott Diver (2021) (S)
Modern Tavla (2022) (S)

A project of Matthias Cingoez who states to be influenced "by the softer side of Krautrock and film music". Minimal, calm, ambient, reflective, nocturnal, gently rhythmic.


Chorobik, Victor (Poland)

Distant Voices (1998)
Desert of Clouds (2000)

Vast sonicscapes somewhere between Steve Roach's material from his Tribal period, Suso Saiz and World Music.


Chose Bleue (Germany)

The Red Thing (2020)

Varied electronic tracks, mostly like a completely instrumental variety of minimal synth / minimal wave.


Chris And Cosey (UK)

Heartbeat (1981)

Debut album by this legendary industrial duo was still very much informed by their krautrock peers Kraftwerk, and even had a bit of Tangerine Dream there, too ("Useless Information", among others, features great sequencing).

See also: CTI, Throbbing Gristle, Carter, Chris, Cosey Fanni Tutti.


Chrisstoffels, John (New Zealand)

Head[case] (2019) (with Sad Freq.)

Two side-long slabs of haunting theremins and string arrangements.


Christensen, Matt (USA)

Your Other Hope (2015)

Guitar drone artist from Chicago. This album mixes in some electronics for a relaxed ambient journey with a slight Ashra flair.


Christian, Barry (UK)

Biosonic Domains (1989)

Synthesist with a fairly ambient sound on Direction Music.

See also: Magenta Mirror


Christian, John (UK)

Bohunt Sabotage (2006)
Susbarbatus (2009)
Alexis A Friend Like You (2009) (S)
Sol invictus (2015)
The Lea Hall Winter Warmup (2017) (with Phil Booth and Jez Creek)
Glis Glis (2021)
Via australis (2022)
Stories (2022) (with Adrian Beasley)

Solo Berlin School Electronic Music from Airsculpture member.

See also: Airsculpture, Cosmic Smokers.


Christiana Vindictae (France)

Christiana Vindictae (2019)

Dramatic ambient compositions with drones, symphonic synths and a touch of plain chant. A project of Céline Malavaux and Césaire Roux.


Christiansen, Alan (Poland)

Fate And Coincidence (2008)

Ambient and gently rhythmic music from this synthesist. Alan Christiansen (born Krystian Firlik, 1977) is a Polish artist residing in Switzerland.


Christoff, Jordan (USA)

Enveloped (2019)
Reflections (2019)
Liminal (2019)
Water (2019)
Flipside (2020)
Wombs (2021)
XXXX-001 (2021) (with Asher)
All Black & Echo (2021)
Wild Eyed (2021)
Elements (2022)
Residues (2022)
Foliage (2022) (with Asher)

Relaxing ambient synths from this artist.

See also: Anarchist Mountains, PJS, Saturn's Daughter, Lid Flippers.


Christopher, Mike (USA)

Suspended Thoughts (1983)

First appearing playing a zombie in "Dawn of the Dead", Pittsburgh musician Mike Christopher moved to Los Angeles and started playing light shows using laser technology for visual effects and synthesizers for music. He released the above obscurity (Suspended Thoughts) on cassette in the early 1980's. It is a small gem with minimal, hypnotic sequences, reminding on early Steve Roach but with an individual touch. Mike Christopher made synthesizers for Oberheim in Santa Monica and scored a few soundtracks.


Christopherson, Peter (UK)

Nightmare Culture (2013) (EP) (with Boyd Rice and Geff Rushton)
Time Machines II (2014) (recorded in 2010)
Live At L'etrange Festival 2004 - The Art of Mirrors (2015)

A legend of experimental and industrial music, Peter Martin Christopherson (1955 - 2010) was a member of Coil, Throbbing Gristle and Psychic TV, among others, apart from working in Hipgnosis agency. His Time Machines II features abstract, pulsing, grating, experimental synth tracks that will be enjoyed by fans of Conrad Schnitzler and of course Coil.

See also: Coil, Throbbing Gristle, Electric Sewer Age.


Christus And the Cosmonaughts (USA)

The Four Whore's Men (2003)
Lacerations (2004) (S)
From Atop This Hill (2007)

American neo-psychedelia /space rock band with heavy use of electronics. Sometimes they cross into full-on Prog EM sound, as on a few tracks off From Atop This Hill. File under EM-related.


Chroma Key (USA)

Dead Air For Radios (1998)
You Go Now (2000)
Graveyard Mountain Home (2004)

The original Dream Theater keyboardist Kevin Moore with his own solo project. Mid-paced and calm electronics with sparse vocals.


ChromaDots (???)

Goldem (2019) (maxi)
Lorrol (2020)
(K) Winter Pines (2021)

Experimental, but playful compositions with a focus on textures created by Ciat-Lonbarde circuits.


Chrome Brulée (Belgium)

Kiss the Hiss Vol. 1 (2013)
Kiss the Hiss Vol. 2 (2014)
Chrome Brulée (2015)
Kiss the Hiss Vol. 3 (2022)

Chrome Brulée is a Belgian band that brings back the disco-infused electronic sound of bands like Rockets, Space, Droids, Giorgio Moroder and Automat by means of vintage synths galore, vocoders, Simmons drum rhythms and Hohner clavinet.


Chrome Canyon (USA)

Elemental Themes (2012)
Director (2022)

Big, grand orchestral synth themes by one Morgan Z, with flashy solos and fat rhythms. The influences are obvious: Vangelis and other 1980's film composers.


Chrome Sparks (USA)

Chrome Sparks (2018)

Unlikely mixture of vocal pop songs sung by a female vocalist, some hip-hop beats, vocoder voices, bright, kraftwerkian synths and ethereal, melodic analog synth ballads. Chrome Sparks is Jeremy Malvin from New York.


Chromosphere (Canada)

Spectral Omissions (2011)
Unknown Space (2016)

Music from the darker realms of Space from Toronto-based Kris Helstrom.


Chronicle (Japan)

Live At the Whiskey Au Go Go (1975)
Ima Wa Toki No Subete (1975)
Like A Message From the Stars (1977)

Offshoot from Far East Family Band and similar in style.

See also: Far East Family Band


Chronik, Hior (Greece)

Speechless (2009)
I'm A Tree (2010)
Unspoken Words (2011)
In-Between (2015) (with Arovane)
Taking the Veil (2015)
The First Ray (2015) (with Mikael Delta)
Into My Own (2017) (with Arovane)
Out of the Dust (2017)
Blind Heaven (2019)
Haze (2022)

Ambient artist heavily influenced by neo-classical music and often with a huge piano presence.


Chronos (Russia)

Steps To the Great Knowledge (2007)
Inspirational Power (2011)
When Mars Meets Venus (2012)
Helios (2013)
We Are One (2014)

Crossover psychedelic / downtempo / EM project by Moscow-based Nikita Klimenko. His slower, atmospheric tracks will be of interest to fans of Space Music and Ambient.


Chronotope Project (USA)

Chrysalis (2012)
Solar Winds (2012)
Event Horizon (2013)
Dharma Rain (2014)
Dawn Treader (2015)
Passages (2016)
Ovum (2017)
Lotus Rising (2018)
Gnosis (2021)
Chronology (2023)

Ambient / Space Music from cellist and electronic composer Jeffrey Ericson Allen.


Chronovalve (UK)

Trace of Light (2013)
Light (2020)

Emotional ambient compositions.


Chrysaldor (Belgium)

The Legend (2000)

Mixture of ambient washes and more rhythmic material which is very melodic.


Chrysalis, Jack (UK)

Jack Chrysalis (2022)

Deeply melodic, lush electronics influenced by the grime / UK garage genres, but sounding rather progressive overall.


Chrysler, Dorit (Austria)

Best of Dorit Chrysler (2004)
Tiny Thrills (2005) (S)
Sea of Negligence (2011)
Avalanche (2012) (S)
Chinatown Evil / Sci-Fi (2012) (S)
Calder Plays Theremin (2023)

Austrian-born, US-based theremin player and multi-instrumentalist. Calder Plays Theremin is what a theremin-based EM album should sound like - abstract, gnarling, cosmic, out-of-this-world and yet perfectly listenable. Other releases in the list are interesting, too. They're not 100% EM, but when they are, they do deliver the good stuff.


Chrysopee (France)

Iseum (1996)


Chubby Wolf (USA)

L'histoire (2009)
Meandering Pupa (2009) (S)
Ornitheology (2010)
Maudlin + Elusive (2011)
The Darker Sex (2011) (S)
Turkey Decoy (2011)
Los que no son Gentos (2011)
Seasick (2012)
The Lows; The Sows (2013)
It's A Small Place To Be (2022) (recorded in 2008)

Ambient drift from Danielle Baquet-Long (1982 - 2009) of Celer fame.

See also: Celer


Chucha (???)

What Remains (2022) (S)

A pseudonym of Laura Muñoz. Similar to a female version of Moebius, Chucha's music combines experimentalism with steady drum machine rhythms and melodic hooks.


Chufuli (Brazil)

Dentro do Círculo Mágico (2007)

André Luis Chufuli Amoroso from São Paulo has been composing solo music with various keyboards since the 1980's. Melodic, spacey, new-agey, bombastic...


Chuibit (Mexico)

Triangulo de Amor Bizarro (2019) (EP)
Subset (2020) (with Autoclav 1.1)
Oceáno Plástico (2020)

Varied project of Chuiy Bitios. No clear direction here, sometimes progressive, sometimes club-related.


Church Jr., Paul (USA)

Just Passing Through (1983)

Tranquil and at times disturbing EM.


Church of Hed (USA)

Church of Hed (2002)
Rivers of Asphalt (2010)
Electric Sepulcher (2015)

Solo project of ex-Quarkspace leader (and synthesist) Paul Williams, with some guests. The comparisons are, as expected, to Quarkspace, with also traces of Heldon in terms of the fatness of sound. I've also seen comparisons to early Tangerine Dream and even Vangelis at his most spacey.

See also: Quarkspace


Church of Synth (Brazil)

Religião (2018) (recorded in 2015)

Interesting stuff here. Church of Synth is a solo project of Paulo Beto, known for his Anvil Fx group / project. Religião is a tribute to Minimoog Model D synth and all the sounds on it were generated by Paulo's Model D made in the late 1970's. Nice analog EM with a variety of great sounds.

See also: Anvil Fx


Churcher, Mark (UK)

A Nice Random Meet (2021)

A strange one - basically a mixture of sax improvisations, tribal rhythms and abstract electronics. Often with a downtempo feel. I guess some of it could be classed as World Music but the overall feel is pretty avant-garde.


Chypho (USA)

Episodes In Oceanography (2023) (recorded in 2022)
Episodes In Oceanography Vol. 2 (2023)
Etnomongaku (2023)
Etnomongaku II (2023)

Varied aquatic electronics from this Alabama-based project. Melodic, spacey, serene, atmospheric...


Cialyn (France)

Sunbelievers Hideaway (2024)

Lille-based project between downtempo and analog EM.


Cian (USA)

Gemlux (2014)
Riparian (2015)
Strain Studies (2016)

Cian is New York-based artist and mathematician Kevin Altamirano, who uses mostly analog synthesis to create varied sonic sketches (both sequencer-based and abstract). His sound design is sometimes breathtakingly beautiful, although he seems to suffer from the same disease that a lot of newcomers to EM do - it's more form than substance. However, as the guy obviously has talent, chances are high that his soundscapes will develop into something more narrative or dramatic... if he chooses to take things in that direction. Anyway, fans of analog synthesis, take note.


Ciani, Suzanne (USA)

Voices of Packaged Souls (1970)
Seven Waves (1982)
Velocity of Love (1985)
Neverland (1988)
History of My Heart (1989)
Pianissimo (1990)
Hotel Luna (1991)
Dream Suite (1994)
Pianissimo II (1996)
A Very Green Christmas (1997)
Live! (1997) (with the Wave)
Turning (1999)
Pianissimo III (2002)
Silver Ship (2005)
Lixiviation (2012) (recorded in 1968 - 1985)
Logo Presentation Reels 1985 (2012)
Liberator (2014) (S) (recorded in ??)
Neotantrik Globes (2015) (S) (with Jane Weaver, Andy Votel and Sean Canty)
Buchla Concerts 1975 (2016)
Sunergy (2016) (with Kaitlyn Aurelia Smith)
Fish Music (2017) (S)
Help, Help, the Globolinks! (2017) (recorded in 1980) (soundtrack)
Live Buchla At Machines In Music (2018)
LIVE Quadraphonic (2018) (recorded in 2016)
Flowers of Evil (2019) (recorded in 1969)
A Life In Waves (2020) (recorded in 2017) (soundtrack)
A Sonic Womb: Live Buchla Performance At Lapsus (2020)
Music For Denali (2020) (recorded in 1973) (soundtrack)
Xenon (2021) (S)
Improvisation On Four Sequences At Festival Antigel (2021) (recorded in 2020)
Golden Apples of the Sun (2023) (with Jonathan Fitoussi)
Improvisation On Four Sequences (2023)

American female musician and electronic pioneer. She started her career as a studio experimentator, working with Buchla modular systems mostly, providing jingles and soundtracks for American TV industry. Later she developed a style that was much closer to new age, sometimes dominated by piano or orchestra. Recommended for those who like romantic new age-like music. Velocity of Love is also a must for Vangelis completists, as he is featured on the album. Seven Waves is the most interesting work.

See also: NeoTantrik


Ciao Kennedy (Belgium)

The Problem Is (2022)

Complex, spontaneous compositions between instrumental rock / math rock and Electronic Music by this Brussels-based five-piece.


Ciber People (Netherlands)

The Return of the Ciber People (1993)

Dutch ‘continuation’ of the original Italian ‘Cyber People’ project with a slightly changed name. Space disco music in the vein of Laserdance and Koto.

See also: Daylight, Futurespace.


Ciccotti, Marco (Italy)

Mistica Maxima (2016) (S)

This artist uses exotic and not so exotic analog gear by Buchla, Eurorack and more to create hypnotic, droning compositions.


Cid Rim (Austria)

Material (2017)

Drummer extraordinaire from Vienna (real name - Clemens Bacher), whose music is an unlikely mixture of bop rhythms, "electronica" and Prog EM.


Cidrón, Juan Manuel (Spain)

Sonido para Acciones 1 (1989)
Sonido para Acciones 2 (1991)
Sonido para Acciones 3 (1993)
Tau (1997) (recorded in 1985 - 1997)
Inóx (2001)
Yaset (2005)
De la Sombra y de la Espuma (2009)
Elecrodomestico (2010)
Gnostic Laberyntus (2012)
Patagón (2012)
Equilibrios en el Aire (2013)
Tránsito (2014)
Cariño (2015) (with Mynationshit)
Pneumático (2016)
Tras la Lluvia (2018)
Los Conciertos que no se Hicieron (2020)
Materiales para la Construcboración (2022) (recorded in 2011 - 2019)
SLG3 (2023)

This synthesist started in the 80's and has released several albums of Electronic Music since then. His music is a mix between his personal style, minimalism and Berlinesque influences.

See also: Vértice


Ciencia Celeste (Germany??)

Ciencia Celeste (2015) (recorded in 2004 - 2014)

A mixture of danceable and repetitive sequencer tunes.


Cieniawa (Poland)

Okolice (2021)

Ambient electronics with some rhythmic elements.


Cieślik, Piotr (Poland)

Journey Into the Unknown (2016)

Rich, melodic EM with a symphonic / cinematic touch and some sequences.


Cilia, Luis (Portugal)

O Peso da Sombra (1980)
A Regra do Fogo (1988)
Bailados (1995)

Portuguese composer and singer-songwriter born in Angola in 1943. Starting from the late 1970's he incorporates keyboards and synthesizers into his music and experiments with electronics from time to time, also writing a lot of theater and TV scores during that time. O Peso da Sombra is an album dedicaed to the poetry of Eugenio de Andráre. It's a compilation of sorts, gathering songs with lyrics by Andráre. However, it closes with the long title track, which mostly an instrumental workout with synths handled by Cilia and Pedro Osório. There are also spoken word sections that do not distract from the dark synthesizer goodness. A Regra do Fogo collects some theater pieces from what I gather. These are predominantly electronic and done in a mostly relaxed, minimal style, with orchestral emulations (lots of typical 1980's "orchestral hit" samples). There's also acoustic guitar and sax and if you don't like the sax, then maybe it's not for you, as there's plenty of that here (2 of the 4 tracks have sax in spades). Bailados is another disc full of theater music, which is, if anything, even more clasically-oriented.


Cima, Alex (USA)

Cosmic Connection (1979)
Final Alley (1980)
Solid State (1986)
Heartrise (1990)

A pioneer of synthesizers, Alex Cima started in the 1970's, creating classic Electronic Music like Klaus Schulze. However, over the years his style has transformed a lot. I think his last instrumental album was Heartrise, and even that one sounds more like background muzak than real EM. You've been warned!

See also: Lem


Cimerion (Canada)

Vers la montagne noire (2021)
Arcanes (2022) (with Oublieth)
Forêts d'outre​-​monde (2022)
Contresort (2023)

Melodic, hymnal, cinematic music made with warm analog sounds we all love so much.


Cimiotti, Paul (USA)

Research Vol. 1 (2014)
Four Songs (2019) (S)
Va piano (2019)
Sitter (2021)

Research Vol. 1 presents varied new-agey, droney compositions from Paul "Cimiotti" Collins. Limited edition mono cassette. Farfisa, Moog Rogue, piano, guitar, etc.


Cimitero Senza Croci (Canada)

Trilogia di gracie (2017)

Ambient project of Vince Wald inspired by and based on Spaghetti Western images and sounds. Trilogia di Gracie gathers previously released digital / download releases in a single CDR bundle.


Cimitir (USA)

Bonechiller (2016)
Recollection of Loathsome Legends (2018)

A project from California, influenced by dungeon synth and horror synth.


Cindytalk (UK)

The Wind Is Strong (1990)
Hold Everything Dear (2011)
A Life Is Everywhere (2013)
The Labyrinth of the Straight Line (2016)
Of Ghosts And Buildings (2021)
Subterminal (2022) (recorded in 2020 - 2021)

Ambient electronics combined with the sounds of nature. Cindytalk is a group consisting of Gordon Sharp, Matthew Kinnison and Paul Middleton. They have been around since the early 1980's, but I am not sure how much of their music could actually qualify for an inclusion in EEM.


Cinecenta (UK)

Cinecenta (2020) (S)
Cementality (2021) (with Dogs Versus Shadows)

Sheffield-based project that mixes musique concrete / recorded sounds and ambient electronics.


Cinema (Germany)

Isolation (1985)
Once Upon A Time (??) (S)
The Magic Box (2013)
Loopings (2014)
The Discovering of Time (2017)

This project was formed in the 1980's by Jürgen Krutzsch who had previously played in progressive rock band Tibet. Here we get very accessible stuff with lots of cheese really - typical italo songs of the day. However, it's all mixed with instrumental material that is still very poppy and accessible but has a nice synth sound to it. The whole reminded me on Christian von Eschersheim's Sommernachtstraum, with a similar combination of melodic synths and real drums. File under EM-related. There seem to exist a couple of newer albums, too, released by Sireena Records. On these, he started incorporating melodic trance / downtempo sounds to his music. They are only very remotely (and only sporadically) progressive.


Cinema (USA)

Contrast (2017)
VARIA.V3 (2021)
Influx / Tension (2021) (recorded in 2019)
I N T E R F A C E (2021)

Also known as Cinema.av. Modular electronics from Andrew Neal. Mostly abstract sound sculpting, but also vaguely melodic / sequenced on Contrast. Something more rhythmic, melodic and purposeful on I N T E R F A C E.


Cinema (USA)

Absence (2017)

Cinema is Evan Henry who uses modular synths to sculpt melodic pieces based almost exclusively on relaxed sequencing. Some (IMO) unnecessary tape distortion on many tracks makes this one (for me) a not very pleasant listening experience.


Cinema Perdu (Netherlands)

Weggaan (2012) (S)
Reworks (2013)
Blue Ruins Under Yellow Skies (2014) (with Woodbender and The [Law-Rah] Collective)
Invocation (2016) (with The [Law-Rah] Collective)
Interventions In A Landscape (2016)
A Prefect Negative (2016)
Amsterdam CS (2018)
2 Compositions With Found Sounds (2018) (S)
Fragments of Echoes (2018)
Vlakverdeling (2020)
The Cosmic City (2022)

Cinema Perdu is Drone Ambient artist Martijn Pieck who is very much into reworked field recordings. His music is often industrial-like, noisy and foreboding, but often strangely melodic, creating a sense of isolation and alienation.

See also: [Law-Rah] Collective, The


Cinematic 74 (USA)

Realtime Inverted (2016) (recorded in 2003 - 2015)

Nice ambient, atmospheric compositions from Brooks Mosher who normally produces various forms of techno music. The album even ends with a nice sequencer trip that is "Transition Point".


Cinnaman (Netherlands)

Kingfisher (2021) (S)

Ambient, repetitive electronics with a slight "balearic" feel from Yuri Boselie.


Cioccio, Paolo di (Italy)

Images (1999)
Le roi et la colombe (2000)
Logos (2002)
The Tarot of Tomorrow (2006)
The Planets (2007)
Evening Star (??)

Modern cosmic electronics by this oboe player and electronic composer. Paolo di Cioccio is mostly known in the classical circles. Some of his works contain electronic interpretations of classical pieces (The Planets). Paolo predominantly uses analogue synthesizers and, naturally, oboe.

See also: Theatrum Chemicum, Le Borg.


Circaea (UK)

The Bridge of Dreams (2019)

Ambient trio of Andrew Chalk, Tom James Scott and Ecka Mordecai. Huge piano presence here and lots of classical instrumentation coupled with subtle electronics. For those into semi-acoustic ambients of Brian Eno, Harold Budd and, especially, Tim Story.

See also: Chalk, Andrew


Circle (Finland)

Miljard (2006)
Tower (2007) (with Verde)
Panic (2007)
Rakkaus tulessa (2011) (with Erkki Kurenniemi)
Giardino (2011) (recorded in 2007) (with Verde)
Enharmonic Intervals (2013) (with Mamiffer)
Pharaoh Overlord (2015)
Fraten (2017)
Terminal (2017)
Hymiö 2 (2023)
Muurahaiset (2024)

One of the most diverse bands in the world, Circle (formed in 1991 in Pori) are often classified as space rock / psychedelic. However, that would be a huge understatement as in fact they combine everything from country rock to black metal, krautrock, heavy metal, hardcore punk, space rock, stoner rock and, yes, even progressive electronic, often in one single album! It is, therefore, a daunting task to decide once and for all, which of their albums (and there are quite a few of them) should be in EEM. At least I'll try to list those with a strong EM element here. Most of their works are a mixture of styles, though, such as Panic, which is half electronic soundscapes and half hardcore punk music (can you imagine such a combination?)

See also: Rättö, Mika, Lehtisalo, Jussi, Mahti, Ektroverde.


Circle of Confusion (Italy)

Tears (2002)
Synapse (2002)
The Fibonacci Sequence (2002)
Pythagorean (2002)
Intro<Navigation (2002)
Back2Proxima (2003)
The Fall On Earth (2003)
Three Stigmata (2003)

Ambient project of Carlo Alfano. From dark and deep soundscapes (mostly in Dark Space vein) to more rhythmic and ethnic-tinged material.


Circle of Pines (Germany / USA)

Dark Water Pond (2019)

Ambient duo of Seetyca and Nathan Larson.

See also: Seetyca, Samsa.


Circles (Germany)

Circles (1983)
More Circles (1984)
The Third Cycle (1986)
Structures (2016) (recorded in 1985 - 1989)

A duo of Dierk Leitert and Michael Bohrmann. Floating, atmospheric, krautrock-like mixture of guitar and electronics. Their albums were released on Dierk's own label Einhorn Music.

See also: Das Organisierte Chaos, Kofler & Leitert.


Circuit Diagram (Germany)

Pudel Produkte 20 (2013) (S)
Motown (2014) (EP)
Ursumpf (2022) (S)
Werkschau (2023)

Electronics / drums duo of Kris Jacob and Nicolas Sheikholeslami. Rhythmic, manic, krautrock-ish.


Circuit Rider UK (USA)

Culprit (2014) (S)
Alienist (2014) (S)

Improvised EM from these two gentlemen. Ranges from totally abstract to vaguely structured.

See also: Rogers, Derek, Noble, Lee, Kim's Spirit.


Circuit3 (Ireland)

Technology For the Youth (2022)

Circuit3 is a synth-pop project of Dublin-based Peter Fitzpatrick. Technology For the Youth is mostly interesting for its spacey instrumental synth interludes that rub shoulders with his typical vocal synth-pop style known from his previous releases. File under EM-related.


Circular (Germany)

Shaping the Unknown (2007)
Deep Space Illumination (2007) (with Inade)
Cycles of Remembrance (2010)
Radiating Perpetual Light (2013)
Ghostwhite (2019)
Float (2023) (EP)

Pulsating analogue sounds and ambient atmospheres with dark shades from Johannes Riedel.


Circular (Norway)

Nanotopia (1997)
Divergent (1999)
Glass Darkly (2004)
Substans (2009)
Moon Pool (2014)

Ambient. Circular is a project of Dahl Gjelsvik from Neural Network. He is assisted by Bjarte Andreassen.

See also: Neural Network, Pjusk.


Circular Ruins (Germany??)

North of the Sun (2015) (S)
The Thorned Maze (2017)

Not to be confused with the Canadian project of the same name (see below), this is Berlin-based Marijn Degenaar (his name sounds Dutch to me, so I am not sure where to put him). Kosmische analog synths galore. Some tracks are more ambient and minimal.


Circular Ruins, The (Canada)

Labyrinths (1999)
A Rope of Sand (2000)
Winter Foliage (2001)
Confluence (2002)
Realm of Possibility (2002)
Conjunction (2003)
Empathy Test (2003)
Land of the Blind (2004)
Alchemy Concert (2004)
Degrees of Separation (2005)
Their Subtle Purpose (2006)
We All Fall Down (2006) (with Off the Sky)
Shadows On Water (2007) (with Synthetic Block)
Falling Into the Sky (2007)
Before the Colors Deepened (2008)
Invisible Cities (2010)
We Leave Everything Behind (2011)
Fantastic Journey (2013) (with Mystified)
The Birth of Tragedy (2013)
Middle Distance (2014) (with Specta Ciera)
Full Circle (2014)
Nightfall (2015)
Mnemosyne (2016) (with Specta Ciera)
Pathways (2017)
Perpetual (2018)
Curious Geometries (2019)
Distant Peaks (2021)

Unique rhythmic / atmospheric electronics. The Circular Ruins is Canadian synthesist Anthony Paul Kerby.

See also: Kerby, Anthony Paul, Lammergeyer, Nunc Stans, Hive Project, The, Winterhouse, The.


Circulum Musicum (Germany)

Phases (2009)

Varied ambient soundscapes, sometimes experimental, sometimes atmospheric.


Circulus (UK)

Gate 47 (2018)

Atypical, instrumental World Music / kraut album from this space folk band.


Circus Underwater (USA)

Circus Underwater (1984)

Hailing from Maryland, Circus Underwater was a duo of Jay Yarnall and Richard Sales and they released their only (eponymous) album in 1984. At 28 minutes, the album is very short and today would be considered an EP. The music is spacey and electronic, somewhat dreamy, and features programmed drums, frippoid guitars and at times strange vocals.


Ciria, J.M. (Spain)

Ylem (2002)
Mobilis in mobili (2007)

Diverse electronics. Rhythmic, melodic, dark, brooding, everything is there. J.M. Ciria was a member of AT-Mooss in the past. He is also part of the group Programa.

See also: At-Mooss, Programa.


Cirino, Chuck (USA)

Chopping Mall (2014) (recorded in 1986) (soundtrack)

Low-fi synth soundtrack to a low-budget horror movie. Between Goblin, late 1980's Tangerine Dream soundtracks and his own unique style, using typical synth equipment of the day.


Cirkl (Sweden)

Fables of A Faraway Land (2014)

Varied album by a very talented girl from Mälmö. Just about half of the tracks have vocals. These are nice but it is the intrumental material that really shines here. Floating, pastoral and melodic, it hints at Cluster, Oldfield and more. "Belle Fleur" is a fantastic, relaxing, melodic EM track.

See also: Ring, Liis


Cirocco, Claire (USA)

Commute (2020) (S)
No Groove (2022) (with Fred Thomas)

Minimal synthesizer compositions.

See also: Cultural Fog


Cirocco, Phil (USA)

Music of the Electron (2007)

This one's interesting. Phil Cirocco is an engineer and synthesizer builder from Pennsylvania (he is known for his CMS modular synthesizers). On Music of the Electron, he plays all tracks alone without overdubs on an instrument called the Novachord. It was produced by Hammond company from 1938 to 1942 and was essentially the first polyphonic synthesizer. Phil spent a lot of time and effort restoring his instrument but the results are certainly worth it. The sound is fat, warm and surprisingly clear. The pieces are ambient, melodic and atmopsheric.


Cisco, Stu (Canada)

Amanita (1980)

A mega rare electronic record from ex-member of folk-psych outfit Jeremy Dormhouse.


Cisfinitum (Russia)

8 (1999)
Landschaft (2000)
V (2003)
VS (2004)
Bezdna (2005)
Coniunctio (2005)
Music of Light (2005)
Mental Travellers (2006) (with Rapoon)
COCK: Cisfinitum's Only Culpable Killtime (2007)
Tactio (2008)
Nevmenosis (2008)
Drone (2008) (with Maaaa)
Alchemicals (2011) (with First Human Ferro)
Industriewerke 2002 - 2012 (2013)
The Bog (2013)
0 vs 0 (2014)
Live In Sevilla (2015)
Symphony of Horror (2017) (with S. Letov)
Monochrome (2018)
93, 23! (2021) (with Pahom)

Drone Ambient by Evgeny Voronovsky.

See also: Codachrom


Cisowa - Wrzeszcz (Poland)

Wyspa (2024)

A duo from Gdynia, consisting of Tomasz Garstkowiak and Piotr Salewski, both of which previously worked in a downtempo / post-rock project / band Old Time Radio. Cisowa - Wrzeszcz focuses on the electronic side of their skills, absorbing influences from ambient electronics, krautorck, etc.


Citadel Noire (Australia)

Journeys Into the Shadow-Realm (2020)

Dungeon synth project that uses a lot of analog sounds, making it very EM-friendly.


Cité Lumière (France)

Le songe de Kepler (2017) (S)
Calcul Olympic / Bataille de Boules Lazer (2018) (S)

Paris-based synth duo of Alexis Molenat and Florian Chambonnière. Like a stripped-down version of Kraftwerk with a typically French touch.

See also: Lumière, Alexis


Cities In Ruin (USA)

Athanor of Souls (2021) (S)

Cinematic, post-apocalyptic ambience.


Cities Last Broadcast (Sweden)

The Cancelled Earth (2009)
The Humming Tapes (2016)
Black Corner Den (2017) (with Atrium Carceri)
Miles To Midnight (2018) (with Atrium Carceri and God Body Disconnect)
Black Stage of Night (2019) (with Atrium Carceri)
The Umbra Report (2021)

Post-apocalyptic ambience from Pär Boström.

See also: Kammarheit, Altarmang, Bonini Bulga, Hymnambulae, Teahouse Radio, Aindulmedir, Underwater Sleep Orchestra, Grave Owl, Trollslottet.


Citofono (Canada)

Signature (2009)

An album with a diverse set of influences, filled with warm analogue synths and motorik rhythms. Will appeal to fans of both Berlin and Dusseldorf "schools" as well as those into krautrock. Citofono are Nicolas Dion, Jean-Michel Gadoua and Pascal Gauthier.


Citrouille (Canada)

Lycanthropy (2015)
Garden (2017)
This Is the Eleventh Day of Bright Sunshine Without Rain (2018)

Moody droning synths, sometimes a bit harsh, but somewhat lacking in variety overall.


Citty (Czech Republic)

Bude Le (2019) (S)

Techno project of Martini Vodecka. Thanks to the use of live modular synth sound sculpting, on ambient tracks the sound is really close to EM.


City (Canada)

Simulation Mix (2015)
A Goal Is An Image (2017)
Only Borders (2018)
Spirit Volume (2019) (with i.o.)

As I have already mentioned elsewhere, crosses between industrial / power electronics and Progressive EM are quite rare for some reason although such a marriage potentially gives birth to some interesting results. A Goal Is An Image by Vancouver-based artist Will Ballantyne aka City is exactly this kind of work: harsh, relentless, collage-like electronics with melodic analog synths / arpeggios and sometimes quite complex structure.


City of Dawn (USA)

Nobody / Nowhere (2015)
Recovery II (2017)
Under Our Quiet Stars (2017)
Wallflower (2018) (with Theatre Romance)
Hymn of A Voyage Wander (2018)
Wander (2020) (with 扎克)
Desiderium (2020)
Avenoir (2021)
An Eternal Moment Hidden Away (2021) (with zakè)
Frizzell & Duque: A Sorrow Unrequited (2021) (with zakè)
Orchestre de poussière (2021) (with zakè)
Tacenda (2021)
Weltanschauung (2021) (with zakè)
A Pale Shelter (2021) (with zakè and Ossa)
Solace (2021) (with Sherry Finzer)
Where the World Quietly Sing Their Song (2021)
Mosaic of Senses (2021) (with The Corrupting Sea)
Agape (2022)
Frizzell & Duque: Orison (2022) (with zakè)
Tape Hymns (2022) (with zakè)
Pineheaven (2022) (with zakè)
As the Universe, So the Soul (2022)
Anemoia (2022)
Stella (2022)
Moonwheel (2022) (with Sherry Finzer)
Misty Memories (2022) (with From Overseas)
Ash (2022) (with zakè)
Anoesis (2022)
Transient Lounge (2023)
Liminal Space (2023)
Scattered Colours (2023)
The Journeying Sun (2024) (EP) (with Sherry Finzer and Karasvana)

City of Dawn is Texan artist Damien Duque who creates ethereal, featherlight, hazy, emotional, droning Ambient. He has also released a lot of splits with other artists.


City of Sadness (France)

Away (2013) (EP)
Insomniacity (2013)
My Destiny (2015) (S)

Melancholic Ambient focused on piano and synth pads from this duo.


Citytronix (UK)

Ambient Works (2019) (recorded in 2018)

A project of Drew Holliday. This particular album (Ambient Works) features varied ambient compositions, mostly relaxing, sometimes with slight touches of dubbiness and "deconstructed club".


Ciuffo, Rodolfo (Italy)

Antarabhava - Spriritual Stages Between Death And Rebirth (2021)
Music For Meditation And Soundscapes For Tension Releasing (2022)

Long-form, droning electronics, a bit grating and metallic-sounding.


Ciullini, Daniele (Italy)

Oxidized Sounds (1982)
Domestic Exile (1983) (S)
Domestic Exile Collected Works 82-86 (2015)
Great Events Are Coming (2020)
Cosmetics For Mannequins (2023)
23 (2023)

Italian artist from Florence. He was part of the DIY / mail music network and a member of industrial group The Cop Killers. His music is minimal and experimental. Some of it is rhythmic and some atmospheric. It seems to be influenced by minimal synth, Prog EM and industrial.


Ciuret (Spain)

Ciuret (2020)

Ciuret is Toni Serrat (who plays drums / percussive instruments and electronics) plus guests. The music ranges from ambient EM to rock-y, spacey, with guitars.


Civilistjävel! (Sweden)

Civilistjävel! (2018)
2 (2019)
3 (2019)
Generalstreijk (2020)
4-5 (2021)
PREKIN001 (2021)
Järnnätter (2022)
Fyra platser (2023)
Live (2023)
Verktyg (2023)

Moody, ambient synth compositions.


CJ Mirra (Australia??)

Timelapses (2017)
Static (Original Surf Soundtracks Vol. 1) (2018)
A Banquet (2022) (soundtrack)

CJ Mirra is a pseudonym of UK-based John Sampson, who is a synth musician and sountrack composer. His scores tend to be dark and ambient in nature.


C-Jay (Netherlands)

Adem (2019)
Backslider II (2022)

Relaxed EM with sequences and melodies from this musician who is mainly known as a club DJ.


Clade (UK)

If Brightness Outshine Heavens So Prepared (2011)
Holonic Sadism (2013)
Vietnamese Piano (2013)
Klavierstücke (2014)

Scottish project from Edinburgh, currently based in Munich. Difficult to classify: sort of Dark Ambient, but often electroacoustic sound, with some pianos and guitars alongside synths. Sometimes droning, sometimes more like piano-based Harold Budd with an evil edge.


Clair (UK)

Earth Mothers (2021)

A minimal mixture of field recordings, a few vocalizations and keyboard textures relying on both acoustic and electronic sources. Full name of the musician - Clair Crawford (based in Scotland).


Claire, Tonni (Denmark)

Kosmiske ambitioner (2019) (S)

Alter ego of experimental composer Sandra Boss, where whe uses electric organ (plus some synths) to create varied compositions, mostly cheesy and based on the exotica sounds but also cosmic and experimental.


Clark, Chris (UK)

The Last Panthers (2016) (soundtrack)
Kiri Variations (2019)
Playground In A Lake (2021)
Cave Dog (2023) (EP)

Christopher Stephen Clark is a techno musician who has been a stalwart of Warp Records for many years. The above soundtrack, though, features no beats and is completely ambient, with even a touch of classical. Playground In A Lake follows a similar pattern, entering the Nils Frahm territory even.


Clark, David Antony (New Zealand)

Terra Inhabitata (1995)
Australia: Beyond the Dreamtime (1995)
Before Africa (1996)
The Man Who Painted Caves (1999)
Sacred Sites (2004)

Tribal Ambient / World Music stuff (?) with ancestral atmospheres from this Dunedin-born musician.


Clark, Jesse (USA)

Visionary (1983)
Indigo (1983)
Psyco Surgery For Early Morning Risers (1983)
Dreamquest (1984)
Snowbound (1984)
Abstractions (1985)
Dubliner Concert (1988)

US synthesist who makes melodic and rhythmic music influenced by Tangerine Dream, Schulze, Jarre etc.


Clark, Joseph Lawrence (USA)

Cathedral Pines (2019)
A Gaze Imprisoned (2020)
Thendara (2021)

Rochester, New York-based ambient composer. Intense, emotional, a bit noisy...


Clark, Tim (USA)

The Last Question (1973)
Myth (1987)
Tales of the Sun People (1989)
The Music From Ruby 3 (1991)
Rain (1995) (with Kevin Braheny)
The Spell (1996) (with Kevin Braheny)

American Ambient composer and Electronic Music longstay. Tim Clark did some planetarium soundtracks back in the day, performing on the moog synthesizer. One of these shows is documented on a privately pressed LP, The Last Question. During the 1980's he was part of the experimental synth-pop / disco duo the Android Sisters with Tom Lopez. Lately he's plunged into the world of ambient synthesis, collaborating with like-minded musician Kevin Braheny.


Clarke, Mick (UK)

Games (1976)
Zusammen (2016)
A Wall of Stars (2018)

Melodic, sequencer Electronic Music.


Clarke, Vince (UK)

Pretentious (2000) (with Martyn Ware)
Spectrum Pirsuit Vehicle (2001) (with Martyn Ware)
House of Illustrious (2012) (with Martyn Ware)
Songs of Silence (2023)

Vince Clark is a well-known synthesist, composer, musician and producer, who was a member of Depeche Mode and Yazoo & is one half of Erasure. His works with Martyn Ware are ambient-oriented. The same can be said about his solo debut Songs of Silence.


Clarkson, Dave (UK)

Music For Lighthouses (2014)
A Red Guide To The Coastal Quicksand Of The British Isles (2017)
A Blue Guide to Shore Ghosts and Sea Mystery (2017)
A Pocket Guide To Subterranea - Mysterious Caves Of The British Isles (2019)
A Pocket Guide To Dream Land (Faded Fairgrounds And Coastal Ghost Towns of The British Isles) (2022)
A Pocket Guide To Further Afield Recordings (Obscure Locations Of The British Isles) (2023)
Ghosts of Christmas Past (2023)
Dreamadelica (2024)

Experimental musician who has been recording music since the 1980's under pseudonyms Central Processing Unit and Illuminati. He was also member of several groups. Music For Lighthouses contains fittingly atmospheric, a bit spooky compositions based on a lot of field recordings / concrete textures and subtle electronics, creating a feeling of desolation and haunting typical of lighthouse environment. A bit similar to other likeminded UK artists who operate on the border of field recordings / musique concrete and Ambient, like Darren Tate, Colin Potter, Paul Bradley, etc.


Clarkson, Jeff (New Zealand)

Forward Looking (1987)

Formerly a pop singer and keyboard player, Jeff Clarkson devoted himself to "relaxing music", becoming of the few New Zealand's artists in that genre. It is hard to tell if and what of his massive oeuvre could be interesting to EM fans. Most of it seems to be just ordinary new age, not bad, but full of that genre's cliches. I decided to choose this cassette which is one of his earliest (seems to be his second "new age" release after 1986's Butterfly). The piece occupying the first side of this cassette is pretty typical of the rest of his output (so you may get a taste of it), while side B is more interesting. Consisting of 3 shorter tracks, it approximates the territory of relaxing EM and sometimes sounds like the most flowing and ambient Kitaro without any of the oriental influences. If you like Electronic New Age, give this a try.


Claudel, Henri (UK)

Technopoly (2013) (S)

A pseudonym of Scottish artist Lewis Cook. Technopoly is a vocal synth-pop record with lots of classic 1980's sounds. The real attraction, though, is the short instrumental closer "Congratulations! You Are Our 1000000000th Visitor!", which is chock-full of tasty analog sounds and arpeggios. Great EM, but at under 2 minutes in length, it's criminally short. File under EM-related (slightly EM-related due to the length of the EM material).


Claudio PRC (Italy)

The Coexistence Patterns (2016) (S) (with Dubit)

Dark soundscapes from this Italian artist (Claudio Porceddu) who is mostly known for his techno productions.

See also: Abyss Within Us, The


Clausen, Rune (Norway)

Mannen faller (2017) (with Anders Brørby)
Tones jul (2019)
Before Your Birth / After Your Death (2021)
Svartor (2024)

Murky soundscapes inspired by Norwegian forests.


Clavicvla (Italy)

Sermons (2018)
Sepulchral Blessing (2019)

Black Ambient project from Italy. For me, Sepulchral Blessing embodies almost everything that's good about the genre, at the same time avoiding its traps, which, IMO, are numerous. Having said that, I found the distant distorted "vocals" extremely annoying. It would be so much better without them...


Clavius (Spain)

Nebula (2016)
After Dark (2020)

Dark soundscapes.


Clay, Brad (???)

Zero Zero One (2017)

Quiet, spacey modular synth compositions.


Clay Colonna (USA)

December 22 (2924) (EP)

Cosmic, ethereal ambient soundscapes and some sparse vocalizations.


Clay, Mike (USA)

Imaginary Edges (2020)
Somewhere In Space And Time (2022)

Mike Clay is a synthesist currently based in Hawaii (originally from Arizona) who has been composing Electronic Music since the 1970's, when he bought his first synthesizer (an Octave Cat). His album Somewhere In Space And Time presents fine compositions in classic Space Music vein with also a noticeable Berlin School influence. Excellent stuff to travel to the far reaches of space using your imagination.

See also: Crystal, Star Zeit.


Clear Fluids (USA)

Sicariidae (2015) (S)
Canis Major (2016) (S)
Music of the Spheres (2018) (S)

Diverse musical project, ranging from industrial to ambient forms. Relevant works will be listed.


Clear Path Ensemble (New Zealand)

Solar Eclipse (2022)

Modern jazz / nu-jazz / jazz fusion ensemble led by Cory Champion. It has synths and can be considered as (very slightly) EM-related thanks to the mostly synth-based (albeit very short) tracks like "Talking To Water".


Clearing (USA)

Keepsake (2011)
Tape Drag (2011)
13 Pictures (2011)
Stride (2012)
No Titles (2012)
Distance (2013)
Scratch (2013)
Threat (2013) (S)
Be There (2014)
Differences (2015)
Lights (2016) (S)
Moonbath (2017)
Point of View (2018)
Spaces/Balance (2019)
Themes (2020)
Grow (2021)

Warm ambient sounds from Joseph Volmer.


Clearlight (France)

Symphony (1973)
Forever Blowing Bubbles (1975)
Les contes du singe fou (1976)
Visions (1978)
Symphony II (1990)
Mosaique (In Your Hands) (1996)
Rainbow Music - Best of 1975 - 2000 (2000)
Infinite Symphony (2003)
The Inner Peace Concerto (2003)
Christmas Time In the World (2005)
Impressionist Symphony (2014)
The Roadmap In Your Head (2016) (with Spirits Burning)

Cyrille Verdeaux’s band from the Seventies. Symphony is the best album for Electronic Music fans, featuring synthesis by Verdeaux and Tim Blake. Others are mainly symphonic rock with synths.

See also: Verdeaux, Cyrille


Clearlight (USA)

As Above, So Below (1982)
Circuits Maximus (1984)

Obscure band from Texas who released a couple of privately pressed LP's, one of them a double album. The style is diverse - at times jazzy, at times dreamy and hypnotic. The line-up was: Ron Snider (drums), Pete Brewer (woodwinds, moog, electronics), Larry White (pedal steel guitar), Jerry Hunt (keyboards) plus guests on minimoogs & electronics. Long tracks.


Clearvision (???)

Meteorythm File 001 (2015) (EP) (with Caslau)
Geometry of the Mind (2016) (EP)

This project is dedicated to both techno and ambient. The opening tracks on both of the above releases are spacey ambient / EM floaters.


Cleaver, Gerald (USA)

Signs (2020)
Griots (2021)

Electronic excursions from this free jazz drummer.


Clem (USA)

Songs From the Valley (2022) (S)

Wacky "comfy synth" pastiche with lots of cosmic and cartoonish analog sounds.


Clément, Joda (Canada)

Movement + Rest (2005)
The Narrows (2011)
The Party (2013) (with Jeffrey Allport and Chandan Narayan)
A Concert For Charles Cros (2014) (with Daniel Jones, Lance Austin Olsen and Mathieu Ruhlmann)
I Hope You Like the Universe (2015)
Sea Songs (2016)
Time + Place (2017)
Kindred (2017) (with Mathieu Ruhlmann)
The Last Place They Thought Of (2020)
Eidolon (2021) (with Tim Olive and Mathieu Ruhlmann)

Joda Clément is an electro-acoustic explorer and electronic composer. He is a son of ambient composer Tim Clement (of Danna & Clement fame). His style is characterized by lots of processed field recordings and lots of drones.


Clements, Chuck (Canada)

Electronic Hymns (??)

This is a tricky one. Released somewhere during the 1970's or early 1980's, this album (available on LP and cassette at the time and never reissued on CD) features christian songs performed exclusively on synthesizers. So, not an awfully progressive concept but I include it here for its supposed nice and warm analogue sound.


Clent, James J (USA)

Windows In the Sky (2018)
Powerful Waves (2020)

Electronic rock music with guitar and synths, akin to Pyramaxx, Frank Dorittke and MorPheusz. James J Clent first came into prominence as one of the early contributors to the Analogy series of samplers. Read my reviews of the two volumes that feature tracks by James here and here.


Cleveland, Barry (USA)

Stones of Precious Water (1981)
Mythos (1986)
First Frost (1986) (Michael Masley)
Volcano (1987) (S)
Voluntary Dreaming (1990)
Hologramatron (2010)
Mu (2016) (with Richard Pinhas)

Ex-Thin Ice musician. Stones of Precious Water, recorded in 1981 and issued in a tiny edition, as well as Mythos, released on Larry Fast's Audion label, are works of flowing electronics and processed guitar (his main instrument) loops. Members of Emerald Web participate on both albums as guests.


Cliffdiver (USA)

Cliffdiver (2023)
Ambient Extensions (2023)

Austin, Texas-based ambient artist who uses both guitar and synths to achieve his droning, often melancholic sound.


Clifford, Matthew (UK)

Accumulus (1989)

Keyboardist from Wales. This album is more or less an ordinary new instrumental / new age release. However, there's the long "Starscape" that I suspect might interest fans of Space Music.


Cliffsides (USA)

Cliffsides (2008)
Singularity (2009) (S)
Lucid Dreams (2009) (S)
Liquid Mirrors (2011)
Spirit In the Mountain Temple (2013)
Headspace (2014)

Brooklyn-based synthesizer artist Ryan McGill.

See also: Afterlife, Bones of Seabirds.


Climmma (Mexico??)

Rastros Impensados (2021)


Clinger, Ken (USA)

K. C. Ambient Series Vol. I: Oleh & Contemplation (1990)
K. C. Ambient Series Vol. II: Starlight Flow (1990)

Veteran US hometaper and artist.


Clive, Alan (???)

Synthetizer Waves (1993)


Cloaked Figures (Canada)

Tome Is Melting (2015) (S)

Noises, minimal synth and repetitive melodies. A bit more variety and a richer sound would not harm.


Clock DVA (UK)

Digital Soundtracks (1992)

Sheffield-based outfit formed in 1977 and led by Adi Newton. Rhythmic music. I've included only one album so far, mainly because of its Kraftwerkian qualities. Maybe there are some other interesting items but most of their output is EBM / electropop.

See also: Psychophysicist, SŌON, Spectral Unit.


Clocolan (South Africa)

Nothing Left To Abandon (2017)
It's Not Too Early For Each Other (2020)
Daisy Chain (2020) (S)
This Will End In Love (2021)
op+errata (2021)
Empathy Alpha (2022)
Incide (2023)

A project of Emlyn Ellis Assison who currently resides in Providence, Rhode Island. Mostly downtempo / IDM in the style of Boards of Canada, but also some proggy moments and sounds. File under EM-related.


Cloistral (Armenia)

Նվիրվածություն (2016)
Զուգահեռներ (2017)
Nya katedraler (2018) (with Drottning Omma)
Որպես ջուր (2019) (S)

Ambient synth compositions, mostly of analog nature. Some nice sounds here.


Clop Neplat (Norway)

CD 1 (1997)

Dark, droning soundscapes by Mads Staff Jensen from Trondheim, Norway.


Clora (Sweden)

Clora (2016) (EP)
Arkiv (2018)
Fauna Diorama (2019) (S)
Till Doro (2019)
Sent (2021) (recorded in 2017)

Ambient artist who, apart from electronics, uses some acoustic instruments and textures.


closing. (USA)

I (2020)
III (2022)

Aka Patrick Scott from Brooklyn. Lo-fi drones and obscure atmospheres. Music for dimly-lit corridors and spaceship bowels.


Closing On Flesh (Russia)

Электропроводность тела (1998)

A project of Alexander Chulkov, known for his participation in several industrial and ambient projects. Wacky music with seemingly contrasting elements, complex structures and melodic parts.

See also: Midal E Garda


Closing the Eternity (Russia)

Closing the Eternity (2001)
Untitled (2001)
Superstring Paradigma (2004)
Nearby Being (2006) (with Ad Lux Tenebrae)
Northern Lights Ambience (2006) (S)
Arctica (2006) (S)
Ishopanishad (2008) (with Vishudha Kali and Velehentor)
Noughtwards (2009)
Skywards the Eternity (2010) (with Ad Lux Tenebrae)
Kosmodrones (2011)
Northern Nights Ambience (2012)
No Title (2013) (with Mathias Grassow)
Untitled (2016) (with Mathias Grassow)
Forever And A Day (2016)
Каменный цветок (2019)

Drone Ambient from Russia.

See also: Velehentor


Cloth (Russia)

A Mirror With Polished Metal (2016)

Cloth is ambient musician Boris Bobrishev. A Mirror With Polished Metal features droning and concrete-flavored tracks and the tape closes with a gentle, repetitive and still very ambient sequencer chugger.


Clothearz (UK)

Plipsqueak (1987)
Blod (1988)
Stig (1989)
Bib (1989)
GiG (1992)

Experimental duo of Leeds-based musicians Michael Clough and Richard Errington (both members of avant-rock band Rancid Poultry). They are inspired by such electronic acts as Cluster, Peter Frohmader, Alto Stratus, Heldon and more. I am not sure that everything they did fits stylistically to EEM but at least some of it supposedly does.


Cloud (UK)

Big Clock (2013) (EP)
Cloud (2015)
Flight (2016) (EP)

Brighton-based space rock group with an extremely heavy krautrock and Dusseldorf School influence. At the core of the band's sound are Mike Rawlings (bass), Scott Power (bass, guitar), Alex White (guitar, synthesizer), Peter Mason (synthesizer), Mat Benzie (synthesizer, violin). There are also a couple of vocalists.


Cloud Diameter (UK)

Cloud Diameter 2 (2020)

Varied electronic compositions, mostly ambient and playful. Slightly experimental.


Cloud Dweller (USA)

S/T (2017)
Winter (2018)
Apocryphal (2019)
Winchester Forest (2019)
Atavism (2019)
Remnants From A Flood (2019)
Field Stone (2020) (S)
Meeting With Stanislav (2020)
Eschatology (2020)
The Natural Bridge (2020)

Ambient artist (Glenn Nelson) who started in a slightly noisier vein. Atavism is a pretty neat work, overall.


Cloud Forest Protection Agency (USA)

C.F.P.A. (2018)
C.F.P.A. Vol. II (2023)

Bird and nature sounds, relaxed drum machine rhythm and nebulous synth melodies.


Cloud Management (Germany)

s/t (2022)
V.A. (2023)

Krautrock-influenced electronic trio from Hamburg. Static rhythms, weird synth sounds, repetitive melodies...

See also: Schütte, Ulf, Kokus, Sebastian, Love-Songs.


Cloud Michaels (New Zealand / Canada)

New River (2015)
Cloud Michaels (2016) (S)

Percussive, rhythmic and melodic/ jazzy music between krautrock sounds and jazzy YMO with vocoder singing (closer to the latter). A duo of James Duncan and Julien Dyne.


Cloud Over Jupiter (USA)

They're Here With Us... Not For Us (2020)

A project of Wisconsin-based guitarist and multi-instrumentalist Jerry King. Mostly instrumental progrock. features vocals of Michele King and a whole cast of supporting musicians. There are a few brief electronic moments which make this album slightly EM-related. An example of a nice and spacey electronic track is "Helium Histronics". The sound of this track and a few others reminds me a bit on Happy the Man's debut (the spacey synth moments).


Cloud Tears (UK)

Songs For Summer Rain (2023)

Environmental Ambient.

See also: Mju, Mosman, Dungeonsoft, Samphire, Sundhelm, Mind Wiper, Bioscanner, Tombo No Yu.


Cloudface (Canada)

Wyre Drive (2012) (S)
Untitled (2014)
Variations (2017)
Super You (2017) (S)

The second cassette (Variations) features minimal repeating patterns all recorded with a Korg Mono/Poly synthesizer. Earlier output ranges from techno / acid to noisier stuff, all with a slight Prog EM influence. Cloudface is a project of David Reynolds from British Columbia.


Cloudland Ballroom (UK)

Blues From the Sun (2010) (S)
Illusion Circles (2011)
Infinite Mind (2011)

Bright and darker Space Music with occasional sequences from this Belfast-based project.

See also: Black Mountain Transmitter


Cloudland Canyon (USA)

Requiems Der Natur 2002-2004 (2006)
Exterminating Angel (2007) (with Lichens)
Silver Tongued Sisyphus (2007) (S)
The Mind Electric (2007)
Lie In Light (2008)
Fin Eaves (2010)
Mothlight Part 2 / In the Cold (2010) (S)
Born Blonde (2012) (S)
Aureliua (2012) (EP)
An Arabesque (2016)
Internet Dreams (2023)

A "krautrock revival" band consisting of Kip Uhlhorn and Simon Wojan. They do Cluster, Neu!, Harmonia, Faust, Tangerine Dream and Schulze styles plus more. Derivative.


Cloudling (USA)

Empty of All False Dreams (2021)

A project of Dylan Bloom with some guests. The music combines synths with cittern and other folk / medieval instruments. Hypnotic, meditative, hymnal, reflective, cosmic...


Clouds Without Water (USA)

Clouds Without Water (2023)

Gloomy soundscapes and wordless vocalizations from this duo of Grant Stewart and Angela Winter.


Cloudsound (USA)

Asperatus (2014)
Soapy Mystics (2014)
Cloudsound (2014)
Spirit of Love As Infinite Life (2015)
Static Sense & Wonder Stasis (2016)
Indigo Appalachia (2017)
Axiom of Maria (2018)
Tempus of Diminution (2020)

If you like Manuel Goettsching's Inventions For Electric Guitar or the output of people like Mark McGuire for example, this is along those lines. Cloudsound is Lee Boyd who uses guitar and extensive processing to create his droning, ethereal and at times gently pulsing compositions. He is an artist who appears in EEM because of his sound, not instrumentation.


Cloudviewishwater (USA)

Abar Olam V'ad Olam (2007)

Deep Drone Ambient and very low textures from California-based artist Steve Roffeld, who is one half on the experimental formation Receptor Sight.


Cloudwalk (USA)

Forgotten World (2017)

Melodic Space Music and Ambient from Montana-based musician Paul Mehlhaff.


Club of Rome (Germany)

Große Statik (1985)

Asmus Tietchens under a pseudonym. Now, this will not be for everyone for sure. This cassette, released on ADN label, features, apart from a short spoken word "poem", one side of noisy and experimental synths and one side of sick, spooky string orchestra that reminds a lot on "The Thing" soundtrack.

See also: Tietchens, Asmus, Statische Musen.


Clune, Megan Alice (Australia)

If You Do (2021)

Sydney-based artist who uses her voice and electronics.


Cluster (Germany)

Cluster 71 (1971)
Cluster II (1972)
Zuckerzeit (1974)
Sowiesoso (1976)
Cluster & Eno (1977) (with Brian Eno)
Grosses Wasser (1979)
Live In Vienna (1980) (with Farnbauer)
Curiosum (1981)
One Hour (1995)
Live Japan 1996 (1997)
First Encounter Tour 1996 (1997)
Berlin 07 (2008)
Qua (2009)
1971 - 1981 (2016)
Konzerte 1972 / 1977 (2017)

Legendary German experimental electronic band consisting of Hans-Joachim Roedelius and Dieter Moebius. Cluster started in 1970 as ‘Kluster’ and at that time consisted of Roedelius, Moebius and Conrad Schnitzler. They played wild, noisy improvised sets in Berlin underground clubs and other locations. Later Schnitzler left to pursue a solo career and the name was changed to ‘Cluster’, which essentially was an English spelling of the word. Their albums are classics of Electronic Music, but should appeal only to the adventurous listener, because the music is very experimental in nature. Their early stuff is rough noisy electronic experiments. In their later efforts Moebius and Roedelius venture into more melodic realms, still retaining the experimental edge. Their music being sometimes noisy, sometimes minimalistic, sounding like the electronic melodies coming out of a child’s music box, sometimes classic Ambient, they can be considered one of the stylistically most diverse bands out there. Pieces like ‘In Ewigkeit’ from Sowiesoso are a good reason to buy the whole album, this is simply charming stuff, everyone should hear this. Cluster have collaborated with Brian Eno (and were influenced a bit by his style) and with Michael Rother of Neu! under the name of Harmonia. Grosses Wasser was recorded in Peter Baumann’s Paragon Studios.

See also: Kluster, Roedelius, Hans-Joachim, Moebius, Harmonia, Qluster.


Cluster Balm (USA)

1.0 (2004)
Instamatic (2005)

Varied Ambient from this trio of Scott Turner, Jason Philip and Darrell Burgan (Palancar). Two of the members also have a side-project called Copal River.

See also: Copal River, Not Your Average Hippy, Palancar.


Cluster Lizard (Ukraine)

Edge of the Universe (2017)
Prophecy (2018)
Star Corsar / Зоряний корсар (2021)

Electronic duo formed in Vienna by Dmytro Fedorenko and Kateryna Zavoloka, both currently based in Berlin. On Star Corsar, they create an imaginary soundtrack to a sci-fi novel by Ukranian writer Oles' Berdnyk. The music is fittingly cinematic.


Clynes, Bob (Mexico)

+Mist (2019)

Synthesizer melodies, drones and trip-hop / downtempo rhythms.


Clytha Social, The (UK)

Cults of the Valley (2018)

Vaporous digital soundworlds and gentle sequencer rides.

See also: Vermillion Gaze, Tokyo Isolation Chamber, The.


CMD094 (UK)

1992 (2017)
Lost (2018)
Kagami Tears (2018)
Liquid (2019)
For Life (2019) (with Sangam)
Oscillation (2019)
Energy Shield / Steel Legend (2021) (S)
AVA (2021)
Memories (2021)
Basement Trax (2022)
Aria (2022)

Synthpunk / cyberpunk ambience.

See also: Kuroi Ame


Cmiral, Elia (Czech Republic)

liv och död (1986) (S)
Shaman (1987)
Apartment Zero (1989) (soundtrack)
Ultima Thule Suite (1993)

Elia David Cmiral is a well-known film composer, living and working in the USA. These albums contain original compositions that are supposedly electronic.


CN (Norway)

The Mountain (2011) (S)
The Expedition Beyond (2011)
Ra (2012) (S)
Voyages (2013) (S)
Nu (2014)
The Derelict (2015)
Obscure Fragments (2016) (S)

CN is Stian Gjevik from Norway. He is an electro / techno musician but about 10 to 20% of his tracks are ambient and flowing. File under EM-related.


CNM (Germany)

Metabolism (2011) (S)
Lambda Calculus (2018)

Dark, often intense soundscapes.



Penombra (2020) (EP)

A guitar / synths duo of Marco Bonini and Gianclaudio H. Moniri. Lots of fat sequencing and distorted guitar drones here.


Coarbegh (Germany)

The Sound And Flow of London Town (2019)
Watercolours (2021)

A mixture of ambient soundscapes and slightly more rhythmic EM tracks.


CoastalDives (USA)

All Small Bodies (2017) (S) (soundtrack)
Next Light (2022)
Lineage (2024)

The 2017 release is a synth soundtrack to a short movie. Varied tracks of cinematic moods.


Cobalt (USA)

Astral Travels (1979)

Cobalt was actually a pseudonym of Chip Weitzner, used for his solo synthesizer performances together with drummer Michael Campbell. Weird stuff. Melodic to the point of being easy-listening, with that slight exotica / religious and especially country / western flair. However, there is also a nice progressive touch, so the whole ends up sounding rather unique. A Synergy for lounge rooms and methodist churches? Perhaps not a masterpiece, but a nice find for those obscure music diggers. The melody on "Cyan Journey" reminds a bit on Jarre.

See also: Sweet Air


Cobalt Road (USA)

Biosphere (2016) (with Staqq Overflo)

Vaporwave / trap project from Florida with a strong EM / Ambient influence.


Cobbs, Terry (France)

Thru the Door (1998)
Solo Concert (2000)
Haut-Fourneau Site Senelle Live (2001)

Music in the style of Tangerine Dream (Phaedra era).


Cobby, Steve (UK)

Revolutions Soundtrack (2015)
I've Loved You All My Life (2021)
Shanty Bivouac (2021)

Prolific dub / downtempo / deep house musician and producer. Some of his stuff (listed) shows some EM influences.


Cobham, Billy (Panama)

Spectrum (1973)
Inner Conflicts (1978)

How could this pass unnoticed? Billy Cobham is of course a well-known, dare I say it, famous jazz musician (drummer) and a legend of fusion and related styles. He was born in Panama and is currently residing in Switzerland. Spectrum is his debut release done in collaboration with Jan Hammer. It is mostly wild jazz workouts with a few brief electronic moments provided by Hammer. Only very marginally related to EM, this one. However, on to Inner Conflicts, whose eponymous opener is a 10-minute synth / drum tour-de-force, full of sparkling synth / arpeggios and other nice sounds. Great EM. I don't know if it's very unique among his released works but I am sure willing to discover more.


Cobra Zeno (UK)

Now Or Never (2015)
Supernova Skyline (2017)
Golden Dragon (2019)
Stasis (2021) (EP)

Energetic melodic electronics in synth-rock style, comparable to late 1980's - early 1990's Mark Shreeve perhaps, with even touches of synthwave and spacesynth. Cobra Zero is a duo of guys who go by the names Johnny and Danny. Read my review of Now Or Never here.


Coccia, Roberto (Italy)

R. Acquarii (??)
Strumentali: Ursa Major (1986)
Proxima Centauri (1989)
Descrittivi - Serengeti (1991)

Melodic Electronic Music from this little-known synthesist.


Cocolas, Madeleine (Australia)

Cascadia (2016)

Australian artist currently residing in Seattle. Cinematic compositions for piano, synthesizers and voice.

See also: Flightless Birds Take Wing


Coco, Chris (UK)

Indigo (2018)
Music As A Foreign Language (2020)

Peaceful, ambient-oriented albums from this pioneer of the techno / acid scene. Some tracks make use of downtempo rhythms, some are completely flowing and ambient.


Cocomusic (Hungary)

Dream One (2004)
Digital Dream (2006)

Cocomusic is a project of Mollináry László. Upbeat melodic music, influenced by classic EM like Jarre but also by modern club / dance scenes. Fast pieces are forgettable, slower ones are ok.


Coconut Dealers (Russia)

Coconut Dealers (2021)

Tropical / naturalist EM from Konstantin Shkolnikov Sort of lo-fi, with lots of processed field recordings (mostly sea, water streams, tide, birds etc.) and lulling, cosmic synths. For fans of X.Y.R., Dolphins Into the Future, etc.


Cocoon (Australia)

Spaceship Cocoon (2013)

Melbourne-based Tony Tralongo lets himself be inspired by both Berlin and Dusseldorf "schools" on this release, as well as by space rock.


Cocytus (China)

Shemhamphorash (2000)
Dtzenioutha (2003)

Ritual Ambient released on Chinese label Dying Art. The second album was also released under the IHVHLXXII moniker (the music is identical).


Codachrom (Russia / Spain)

Plastinka (2013) (S)

Codachrom is a duo of Evgeny Voronovsky (Cisfinitum) and Miguel A. Ruiz. You would expect something darker, more ambient and experimental, but no. Vintage synths galore, vocoders, cosmic sounds, catchy melodies and stiff synthetic rhythms make this one a perfect choice for fans of Jean-Michel Jarre and other melodic / cosmic EM masters.

See also: Cisfinitum, Ruiz, Miguel Angel.


Code 0066 (Italy)

53 Minutes (2012)
Torino (2014) (S)
La bellezza del cemento (2016) (S)

Code 0066 is Alessandro Lerario. Starting with a very dub / techno influenced 53 Minutes, he was already showing strong Ambient influences, including several nice, completely beatless, atmopheric tracks. The trend of mixing techno, Prog EM and maybe a bit of industrial / noise continued on Torino, whose opener is a slowly building, melancholic sequencer floater. La Bellezza del Cemento follows in similar vein. File under EM-related.


Code Elektro (Denmark)

Superstrings (2015)
Wolf (2016)
Triads (2017)
Never Mind the Solar Wind (2019)
Live At the Radar Station (2021)

Electronic project of Martin Ahm Nielsen, related to synthwave and melodic EM. Nice, crisp, sequencer-full sound on Never Mind the Solar Wind.


Code III (Germany)

Planet of Man (1974)

A very obscure German band from the Seventies. Produced by Klaus Schulze.


Code:Indigo (UK)

For Whom the Bell (1996)
Live In Duisburg (1997)
Uforia (1999)
TimeCode (2003)
Chill (2006)
E-Live Special Edition (2006)
In Concert (2007) (recorded in 2004 - 2006)
Take the Money & Run (2014)

For those who like melodic and not very "electronic-sounding" music. For me it's all too poppish, although the music is very well done.

See also: Fox, Robert, Wright, David.


Code Zero (USA)

Process of Improvisation (1989)

Half is very rhythmic electronic sequencer pieces, the other half is psychedelic violin and acoustic guitar playing.

See also: Carney, Jeff


Codice (Mexico)

Alba y Ocaso (1999)

A massive, two-disc set from this neo-prog band led by Marco Corona with a wide range of influences, from King Crimson to ELP and Tangerine Dream (some sections are pure Electronic Music). The keyboardists (there are two of them here) use both digital and analogue synths.


Codsi, Marc (Lebanon)

Faded Postcards (2010)
A New World (2019)
The Silence Between the New World And the Aftermath (2022) (recorded in 2019 - 2021)
Songs From the Aftermath (2023)

Pretty nice ambient synth music from this Lebanese artist, often with a warm analog sound and a neo-classical influence.


Coe, Frank (USA)

Music For Robots (1961) (with Forrest J. Ackerman)

Historic item here. Side one features narrated story by Forrest Ackerman with background effects by Hollywood experimenter Frank Coe. Side two, however, consists of just the electronic score by Coe. Put this alongside your "Forbidden Planet", Raymond Scott and Bruce Haack LP's.


Coeden (Italy)

Erewhon (2023) (S)

Experimental dub project venturing into beatless ambient EM compositions on Erewhon.


Coefficient (UK)

The Worlds of Arcship Five (2023)

A project of techno musician Pat Cooper. The Worlds... is a sci-fi-based concept work that alternates between beepy techno bangers and the beatless synth floaters. The beatless synth floaters are pure analog EM and are rather nice. The beepy techno bangers... well, they're just techno. Not excellent, not bad... I'm just not a fan, you know. File under EM-related.


Coenobite, The (Netherlands)

My Habit (1992)
Castles In the Air (1994)
Recovery (1997)
Checkmate! (1998)
Fading Light (2001)
French Kiss (2003)

Symphonic electronic compositions. The Coenobite is also known as "Dr. Coenobit".


CoEx (UK)

Synaesthesia (1995)
Ascents Meteora (1996)

This is an offshoot from the band Death In June in a gloomy Dark Ambient mould.


Cofaxx (USA)

It Became Clearer (2019)
Isles (2019)
Shell Collector (2021) (S)

Ambient project of New York-based Joseph Magee. Relaxing, shady, sort of lo-fi.


Cofradia de los Herederos del Vino (UK??)

Cofradia de los Herederos del Vino (2015)

Ambient trio. A mixture of piano melodies and electronics.


Cognition Delay (UK / USA)

Mostly Dreaming (2023)
Synapse Lapse (2023)
Night Looping (2023)
Invert the Signal (2023)

Music between 1990's FAX output and Space Music from the duo of Jeremy Rice and Paul Alexander.


Cohen, Art (USA)

Real Time (1989)
Wirehead (1990)
Available Space (1992) (with Steve Bowman)
Index of Fractals (2006)

Classic Electronic Music ala Inventions For Electric Guitar on Synkronos label.

See also: Ministry of Inside Things, Available Space, Delicate Monster.


Cohen, Charles (USA)

Music For Dance And Theater (1988) (recorded in 1976 - 1988)
The Learning Curve: Generator Live (1989)
Those Are Pearls That Were His Eyes (2007) (with Ed Wilcox)
Group Motion (2013) (recorded in 1989)
The Middle Distance (2013) (recorded in 1979 - 1988)
A Retrospective (2014) (recorded in 1976 - 1988)
Brother I Prove You Wrong (2015)

Master of Buchla synthesizer with his solo works. Experimental, but also quite listenable. Charles Cohen passed away on September 29, 2017.

See also: Ghostwriters, Planet-Y.


Cohen, Gilbert (France)

Lord of the Basics (2019)
Head Voices (2020) (with Ariel Kalma)
On danse comme des fous (2021)
L'aurore (2022) (with Judah Warsky)

French synthesist also known as Gilb'R. His album made in collaboration with Turzi member Judah Warsky is a strange vocal / electronic work that often comes off as a French version of Wahnfried's Time Actor.

See also: Explosion, The, Château Flight, Cumbaya.


Coil (UK)

The Unreleased Themes For Hellraiser (1987) (EP)
Musick To Play In the Dark (1999)
ANS (2004)
Sara Dale's Sensual Massage (2020)

Legendary industrial band from the first wave of extreme sonic explorers. Musick To Play In the Dark (recorded by Thighpaulsandra, John Balance, Peter Christopherson and Drew McDowall) is rather ambient in nature as a general rule but the real reason I include them here is the second (12-minute) track "Red Birds Will Fly Out of the East And Destroy Paris In A Night" (how's that for a title?) It is stated by band members to be inspired by Tangerine Dream's Rubycon. Well, it doesn't sound like Rubycon to me but it does sound like a classic sequencer-based EM track.

See also: Thighpaulsandra, Christopherson, Peter.


Coimbra, João Pedro (Portugal)

Vibra (2020)

João Pedro Coimbra likes to combine electronics with classical instrumentation (mostly piano and string section). Lively, melodic, energetic, rhythmic. EM in unique style which is a nice listen overall. Coimbra is one half of pop / rock / house / trip hop duo Mesa.


Cola Wars (Canada)

Cola Wars (2020)

Solo Electronic Music from Gregory Macdonald, member of Toronto rock band Sloan. Rhythmic, repetitive, sometimes ala Dusseldorf School, sometimes abstract.


Cold D (Russia)

Time Loops (2020)

Mostly cosmic and reflective ambient electronics, with some mellotron sounds and some rhythms on a couple of tracks.


Cold Electric Fire (USA)

Cold Electric Fire (2002)
In Nights Dream We Are Ghosts (2002)
Mule (2020)

Dark Ambient.


Cold Forest (Brazil)

A Journey Through Cosmic Infinity (2013)
Misantropica Jornada Obscura (2013)
Transcendental (2013) (EP)
The Silence Under the Sea (2014)
My Dark Kingdom (2014)

Ambient project from São Paulo. Reflective, melancholic, but rarely dark.


Cold Prophet (Finland)

Cold Prophet (2022)

Dark Ambient from Tuomas Tahvanainen, who is related to the black metal scene. Obscure sounds, echoing percussive rhythms, drones and general blackness.


Cold Void (Netherlands)

Cold Void (2013)

A duo of Luuk Bouwman and Rafael Rozendaal, currently residing in New York. Their music is a study in repetition and creates a special atmosphere of desolation or sounds like taking a stroll in a haunted Victorian mansion at midnight. This minimal sound seems to be somehow related to the "dungeon synth" genre but is quite unique overall.


Cold Womb Descent (Poland)

Descendants of Tethys (2016)
Ldaovh Trilogy (2017) (recorded in 2011 - 2013)
Futurism (2019)
Science Art Project (2020)
Age of Ldaovh (2021)
A Handful of Spacedust (2021)

Very nice cinematic EM / Space Music with elements of ambient techno and downtempo.

See also: Mealann


Coldrune (USA)

Das Geist aus Eis und Blut (2022) (S)
When the Light Grows Dim (2023) (S)
Vargavinter (2023)

Repetitive melodic synth music akin to early Burzum.


ColdWorld (Germany)

Interludium (2018)

ColdWorld is a Leipzig-based depressive black metal project who on Interludium created an ambient work and it's a pretty good one, in my opinion.


Cole, Lloyd (UK)

Selected Studies Vol. 1 (2013) (with Hans-Joachim Roedelius)
1D Electronic 2012 - 2014 (2015)

Lloyd Cole is a British singer-songwriter, as well as acoustic guitar player. Surprisingly, he is also an electronic musician with a unique, minimal style based on repeating patterns created on modular gear.


Coleclough, Jonathan (UK)

Sumac (1997) (with Andrew Chalk)
Cake (1998)
Windlass (1999)
Period (1999)
Minya (2000) (with Andrew Chalk and Colin Potter)
Low Ground (2000) (with Colin Potter)
Murray One / Tunnel (2001)
Halant / Heat / Beech (2002)
Beech For John And Miho (2002) (with Tim Hill)
Flutter (2002)
Casino (2003)
Jonathan Coleclough / Bass Communion / Colin Potter (2003) (with Bass Communion and Colin Potter)
Makruna - Minya (2004)
Long Heat (2005) (with Lethe)
Husk (2006) (with Murmer)
Torch Songs (2007) (with Andrew Liles)
Burn (2008) (with Andrew Liles)
Bad Light (2009) (with Colin Potter)
Slowly Sinking (2009) (with Monos)
Water Mountain (2013) (with Paul Bradley, Hitoshi Kojo and Colin Potter)
Köln Path (2014)
Live At Oto (2016) (with Colin Potter)
Slowed Life (2024) (with Theo Travis and Jeph Jerman)

Ex-Ora member with his own atmospheric compositions of Ritual Ambient and Drone. A lot of his compositions were made on self-built machines, others approximate musique concrete with their subtle mix of recorded sounds and electronic processing.

See also: Ora


Colina (Spain??)

Autoridad de Estado (2018)

Minimal, neurotic synth compositions with an industrial flair and a bit of an Heldon vibe.


Colisseum (Italy)

Adventus (2018)

Synth duo.

See also: Perceptual Defence


Collapsar (France)

Beyond the Event Horizon (2009)
Deus irae (2015) (with Flint Glass)

Collapsar is a project from Strasbourg, Alsace, France, that works within the domain of Dark Ambient forms, mainly Dark Space.

See also: Maculatum


Collapsed Textures (Denmark)

Tape/01 (2021)

Ambient project (Henrik Laugesen). Cosmic, psychedelic, hypnotic...

See also: Lauge


Collateral Intelligence (Malta)

Butterflies In Funerals (2021)

A project of Neil Hales aka Acidulant. A mixture of styles such as dubstep, UK bass, grime, IDM, electro and progressive EM.


Collateral Nature (Italy)

Morning Mars (2022)

Progressive pop / electronic outfit led by Claudio Vittori and alternating between vocal and instrumental tracks on Morning Mars. The instrumental material is nice, energetic and rocky. The vocal songs are nothing special.


Collector (Australia)

The Blooms (2014) (S)
Triple Crown (2016)
Prosthetic (2020)
Lowered Ute (2021)

A project of Jason Campbell. Compared to the stuff he releases as Stitched Vision, this is much more rhythm-oriented, more informed by industrial and EBM perhaps, but still with some Prog EM influences.

See also: Stitched Vision, Campbell, J.


Colleen (France)

The Tunnel And the Clearing (2021)
Le jour et la nuit du réel (2023)

The 2021 release is a fantastic EM-related album from Barcelona-based French artist Cécile Schott. Using a lot of electric organ textures, these playful compositions sound like Sowiesoso-era Cluster playing with Klaus Schulze in his studio circa Cyborg. Mostly instrumental, with some singing on a couple of tracks. Le jour et la nuit du réel continues with the EM feast started on The Tunnel...


College (France)

Secret Diary (2008)
A Real Hero (2009) (S)
Northern Council (2011)
Heritage (2013)
Shanghai (2017)

Another italo (synthwave, outrun electro, French touch etc.) revival producer (real name - David Grellier) that straddles the line between dance and prog EM. Pretty much every album is a mix of rhythm-based an atmospheric tracks.


Colleran, Jack (Ireland)

Gardenia (2018)
EP01 (2019) (EP)

Dublin-based artist whose style is pretty unique: ambient in its essence, it absorbs influences like neo-classical (on Gardenia), deconstructed club music (on the untitled EP from 2019), vaporwave, grime & more.


Collier-Ford, Randal (USA)

The Architects (2015)
Remnants (2015)
Promethean (2017)
Advent (2020)
Traumaturgy (2022)

Oregon-based Dark Ambient artist. Atmospheric, melancholic, sometimes with an electro-acoustic element and sometimes quite cosmic.

See also: Black Sun


Collier, Rob (USA)

Driftwood And Other Found Objects (2022)

Melodic EM recorded entirely with a Casio CZ-1 phase distortion synthesizer. The unique sound of the instrument, coupled with Rob's great melodic sensibility, creates a rather worthwhile experience.


Collings, Matthew (UK)

Uzonia (2019)

Scottish guitarist. Uzonia sounds like fully orchestrated and sequenced EM, but with an experimental twist - featuring both orchestral and electronic textures. Nice stuff.


Collins (Ireland)

Animal Magnetism (2013)
Suzy Went Missing (2018)
Skins (2022)

A mixture of synthwave and darker, more atmospheric tracks. A project of Gary Collins.


Collins, Gazz (UK)

Sonnenlicht (2012)
Atacama (2014)
Azimuth (2014)
Under Stars (2015) (EP)
Ascension (2016)
Atacama - Returning On A Journey (2016)
Scuba (2016)
Live 2018 (2018)
Chase the Sun (2019)

Electronic musician who released a ton of his music via downloads. Most of it sounds very samey to me, with a style based more on rhythmic "electronica" than on Progressive Electronic. There are some exceptions, though. Sonnenlicht contains pre-concert music in ambient style arranged in two long tracks. Other listed items also contain some EM or EM-related material.


Collision Objects (Ireland)

Practice & Theory (2018)
Human Geography (2019)
Sense Routines (2020)

Dublin-based artist who uses generative techniques to compose his works. For some reason, the warm, ambient, repetitive sounds heard on Sense Routines remind me on classic Steve Roach ambient works.


Cologne Tape (Germany)

Render (2010)
Welt (2017)

A loose collective of musicians, partly with changing members, playing instrumental krautrock / EM hybrid with some influences from house / techno.

See also: Beyer, Jens-Uwe


Colohan, David (Ireland)

Hill of the Moon (2016)
A Melbourne Nocturne (2016)
Hope Can Be A Barrier To Action (2017)
Arc of A Snowfall (2018)
Prosperpolder (2018)
The Riverside Visitation (2018) (S)
Visitations (2020)
Walking Ghost Phase (2020)
Darlington Point (2021)
Wells Cathedral Morning (2022)
A Map of Where the Leaves Fall First (2022)
A Lunar Standstill (2023)
Poldertocht (2024) (S) (with Steenkiste)

Usually found playing harmonium or other traditional instruments, David Colohan is a folk / drone musician. On Hill of the Moon, electronics are used extensively for a sound that marries droning Popol Vuh with classic Ambient and a bit of folk.

See also: Raising Holy Sparks, Fort Bedmar.


Colonial Skyway (USA)

Landline (2020)
Evening On Earth (2022)

Pretty quiet but sort of unnerving ambience from this project out of Wisconsin.


Color of Time (USA / Reunion Island)

Color of Time (2021)

Looping, static and flowing Ambient from the duo of Nick Turner and Kévin Séry. Guitar / synth material.

See also: Tyresta


Color Status (USA)

Sunset (2020)

Ambient project from Michigan.


Colored Mushroom And The Medicine Rocks (USA)

Colored Mushroom And the Medicine Rocks (2010)
The Sundial Metaphysical Center (2010)
At Red Frosting (2010) (S)
Arcades of the Morning (2010) (S)
Sea Channels (2010) (S)
Sunshine Units (2012)
The Gold Manor Eclipse (2014) (S)

One of those numerous Emeralds-related projects, this one featuring John Elliott in collaboration with Charles Szerzen and Sandra Serio. Long tracks with gently bubbling synths, sequencers and drum machines. Warm, analogue sound.

See also: Outer Space


Colorlist (USA)

Full Circle (2018)

Interesting EM / jazz hybrid from this improvising ensemble. I need to investigate their other releases.


Colossal Squid (UK)

Colossal Squid (2016)
Swungert (2019)
A Haunted Tongue (2023)

Drummer who is very much into synths / electronics. Melodic, rhythmic, driving, energetic. Rather nice and unique style.

See also: Shobaleader One


Colossius (Italy)

Slowly We Lost (2018)

A project of ambient musician Andrea Bracali. Flowing, hypnotic, synthy, sometimes with slow and soft rhythms. Pretty inventive sound design overall, venturing into weirder, Cluster-like realms even.


Coloured Chaos, The (Germany)

Spectrum (2012)

The ambient side of the guy known as Vertical67.

See also: Vertical67


Colourform (UK)

Visions of Surya (2008)

Same band as Crystal Moon, and similar in style.

See also: Crystal Moon, Ishq, Ishvara, Futurology, Optic Eye.


Colourful Xsample (Germany)

2 (2004)

Inspired by Tangerine Dream but quite modern-sounding, I suppose. Colourful Xsample is Gereon Hillebrand.


Colours of Infinity (Australia)

Colours of Infinity (2017)

A project of Melbourne-based Andy Donnelly with a heavy focus on classic analog sounds of the 1970's with a modern twist.

See also: Kloke, Travancore.


Columnaris (USA)

Alders In the Middle Reach (2016)
Tricaine (2017)
Standard Operating Procedures (2018)
Rehabilitations of Fish Populations With Toxicants (2019)
Leeds Point (2020)

Varied, often industrial-tinged Ambient.


Coma Divine (Italy)

# 10110 (2003) (S)

A small, 20+ minute album from this Dark Ambient act.

See also: Subinterior


Coma Virus (Austria)

Hidden (1996)

Paul Haslinger’s alter ego. Dark Ambient. Probably excellent.

See also: Haslinger, Paul


Comadansu (Russia)

Tabula Rasa (2020)

Nocturnal ambient sounds.


Combative Alignment (Germany)

Requiem (2003)
The Ritez of Higher Communication (2003)
Untitled (2003) (S)
And Outside Glows the Red Dawn (2005)
Hidden Sleep (2005) (S)
Everlasting Sun (2006)
A Broken Union (2007)
Toward (2008)

Dark drones, ritualistic percussion... Combative Alignment are Arnolt Heise and Ulrike Baum.


Combray (Spain)

Ullapool (2015)
Ruïnes (2019)
Lugares Comunes (2021) (with David Cordero)

Inititally (circa 2014) a Barcelona-based duo of Paqui Timoneda and Raúl Burrueco, Combray has since evolved into a solo project of Burrueco who is based in Sevilla. Dreamy, somewhat lo-fi ambience, more guitar-based / post-rock-influenced on the debut and more electronic later on.


Comelade, Pascal (France)

Sequences paiennes (1979) (S)
Paralelo (1980)
Ready-Made (1980) (S)
Suprematism (1980) (S) (with Armand Mirales)
Slow Music (1981)
Sentimentos (1982)
Logique du sens (1983)
Oblique Sessions II (2000) (with Richard Pinhas)
Flip Side (of Sophism) (2012) (with Richard Pinhas)
Le plan de Paris (2020) (with Richard Pinhas)

French-catalan musician, a legend of avant-garde / minimalism and the father of contemporary primitivism, Pascal Comelade has been around since the 1970's. In 1976 he had an interesting electronic release called "Fluence". After that he embarked on a solo career under his own name, releasing both electronic works and traditional songs / unique minimal compositions with extensive use of toys as instruments. His earliest works are the most interesting ones, EM-wise, with a heavy focus on either drones or sequences, all done in a unique and minimal Comelade style. Sentimentos is a transitional album from his electronic roots towards strange processed songs (it even includes an Eno cover).

See also: Fluence


Comelles, Edu (Spain)

Línia Pedra Paisatge Solc (2020)

Field recordings / electroacoustic artist from Valencia. The above is a work of ambient electronics.


Comes, Martijn (Netherlands)

Radio Oblivion (2016)
Various Weights (2020) (with Frans de Waard)
Regering (2021) (with Lukas Simonis)
Equal Weights (2022) (with Frans de Waard)
Manifest Exodus (2024) (recorded in 2023) (with Hessel Veldman)

Pretty diverse experimental musician, mostly operating within the digital noise / electroacoustic realms. Radio Oblivion will interest fans of (slightly noisy) Ambient.


Comet III (Italy)

Astral Voyager (2007)

Obscure duo from Siracusa, Italy. These guys (Delfo Catania and Carlo Matanza) produce long tracks with droning synths, cosmic atmospheres and light acoustic touches.


Comets In Cardigans (India)

Threads (2020)

Ambient music recorded by this Mumbai-based duo. Long, droning tracks with both darker / mysterious and brighter shades.


Comfy Wizard (USA)

When Hobbits And Gnomes Unite (2020) (S)

Sort of nostalgic mixture of Prog and synthesizers that sounds like Bo Hansson playing dungeon synth music.


Commodity Place (Italy)

I Love Watching the Sound Lost Beyond the Horizon (2011) (S)
Multifrequency Behaviour of High Energy Cosmic Sources (2014) (EP)
Requiem For A Living Planet (2015)
Trapped In A Sea Cave (2017) (EP)

A duo of Massimiliano Loretucci and Riccardo Frosoni with a cosmic kraut / Berlin School sound, using electronics and guitar. Ashra fans take note.


Common Future (USA)

Vague Borders (2012) (S)
Rituals (2015)

Common Future is a project of Brooklyn-based Daniel Bellury. His sound takes in influences of classic EM, experimental and early 1990's ambient techno perhaps.


Common Ground (USA)

Common Ground (2015)

Electronic trio of Hollan Holmes with Gary Johnson and Bill Olien (both from Resonant Drift). Tribal, ambient, atmospheric. Mastered by Robert Rich.

See also: Holmes, Hollan, Resonant Drift.


Compest (Germany)

Wrack (2004)
Kryptozoologie (2005)
Benu (2005) (S)
Auferstehung (2006) (S)
Ruinen (2009)
Hybride (2012)
Zittern (2013)
Danach (2014)
Zeugen (der Leere) (2018)
Leitern und Pfade (2020)

Varied dark ambience from Martin Steinebach.

See also: Conscientia Peccati, StillStand.


Compos Mentis (USA)

Elektronische Musik (1981)

Experimental EM. A rare tape release.

See also: Di Stefano, John, Klang.


Compound (Australia)

Eternal Estate (2017) (S)

A project of Melbourne-based Per Bystrom. Minimal synthetic music, often based on pulses / sequencess.


Compound Eye (USA)

Origin of Silence (2012)
Journey From Anywhere (2013)
Compound Eye (2013) (S)

New York-based duo with a droning sound based on the sound of modular synthesizers and other gadgets / instruments.


Compound Minerals (Estonia)

Sacred Evil Spirit (2020)

A project of Mihkel Maripuu, obviously influenced by the dungeon synth genre and focusing on repetitive melancholic or gloomy melodies. However, there is also that extra ambient / EM dimension to its sounds.


Compuma (Japan)

Something In the Air - The Soul of Quiet Light And Shadow Layer (2015)
Reflection (2020)
A View (2022)

An alias of Koichi Matsunaga. Minimal, dubby, sometimes noisy, but essentially ambient compositions. Sometimes with sort of a Tetsu Inoue "environmental" feel.


Computerchemist (UK)

Atmospheric (2007)
Icon One (2007)
Landform (2008)
Aqual Measure (2009)
Music For Earthquakes (2011)
Signatures I + II (2013)
Volcan Dreams (2019)
Mysterious Cave of Eternal Theta (2023)
Green Twilight (2023)
New Formulas For Electric Guitar (2023)

Computerchemist is the solo project of Dave Pearson. His primary influence is classic Berlin School music of Klaus Schulze and especially Tangerine Dream. Atmospheric starts with a track titled "Marshfire". Heavy synth drones and spacey effects can be heard. Complex distorted guitar passages form the background. Soon, a steady rhythm starts, as various echoing sequences pulsate. However, the track ends just too soon. The title track starts with subtle noises and an excellent melodic theme ala early 1980's Tangerine Dream. Now, that's what I call quality EM. If you like melodic, Tangerine Dream-influenced sound, be sure to check this one out. After a brief atmospheric interlude, the melodic theme returns, this time sounding almost classical. Soon, quite heavy drums appear for what seems like a very energetic conclusion. "Domino's Lament" starts with upbeat sequences and a synth pad. Soon, a slow drum rhythm appears, making this a very melodic and positive track. Major harmonies prevail and I must admit that it was all too lightweight for my tastes. Fans of Jarre might enjoy it, though. Some nice synth and guitar solos on this one. I also liked the conclusion (when the choir came in). "Flight of 'f'" starts with flute refrains. After a few seconds, a nice deep sequence appears, accompanied by spacey synth pads. Heavy drums are an enjoyable extra. Overall, it's one of the better tracks on show here, pure New Berlin School. "Tribalibal" has quite dramatic sequences and a simple bass synth theme for an introduction. Soon, twittering effects, a piano melody and heavy rolling drums take over. It's all rather pompous and loud stuff but somehow lacks purpose. Thankfully, once the bombastic elements give way for more atmospheric sounds, it all becomes much more palatable. I loved the synth solo over a bed of atmospheric synths - very tasty! The rhythm then returns and once the guitar comes in, it all becomes rather chaotic. As a whole, I liked this piece, although I could probably do without the sax solo at the end. "French Game Idea" starts with a funky rhythm that is joined by a very Jarre-like melodic theme. It is then replaced by a quiet section with a sequence and a growling guitar sound. Good effects give way for melodic synth pads. The Jarre-like melodies return for a while before the track is over. "Sharazad" begins with a somewhat clumsy sequence and disjointed organ chords. After a while we hear a melodic theme with a vaguely Arabic flair. A flute plays on top of rhythms / sequences in an interesting manner. The track ends with a classical-sounding section, where synth strings and dramatic chords play an important role. Atmospheric is a nice EM album that's well worth checking out.  


Comte, Emmanuel (Canada)

Musique du ciel (1990)
Occidentale sagesse (1991)
AOM (1994)
Univers de lumiere (1994) (with Marc Raymond)


Concentrick (USA)

Music For Tunnels (2000)
Lucid Dreaming (2002)
Tender Machines (2002)
Aluminum Lake (2008)

Solo project of Tim Green of The Fucking Champs. An amalgam of some industrial sounds and German kraut-influenced EM.


Concept Devices (UK)

Conceptus Fabrica (2019)

Varied music from Martyn Greenwood. Focusing mostly on analog or analog-like sounds, but rather diverse overall, ranging from melodic to rhythmic and repetitive.


con_cetta (Italy)

Micro (2008)
Origine (2017)

A name used by Giuseppe Cordaro for some of his ambient works.

See also: Cordaro, Giuseppe


Concrescence (Germany)

Diaphragma (2017)

Aquatic Ambient from this Munich-based project.


Concrete Fantasies (Spain)

Concrete Fantasies (2017) (S)
Abundance At the Expense of Life (2020)
Which Angel Gave Us Their Wings (2021)

Madrid-based project in melodic / ambient synth mould, with some noisy bits, lots of processed bass guitar and a cinematic flair.


Concretism (UK)

Town Planning (2014)
Beneath the City Streets (2016) (S)
Electricity (2016)
For Concrete And Country (2018)
Dick And Stewart (2020) (soundtrack)
The Concretism Archive: Volume 1 (2021)
Teliffusion (2021)
The Thetford Beast (2022) (S)

Concretism is a project of Chris Sharp from Essex. The music falls into general melodic / rhythmic analogue synth niche. It's hard to pin down but has a certain minimal synth / library music flair, perhaps related to stuff released by the likes of The Advisory Circle and Pye Corner Audio.


Concussed (USA)

Precipice of the Void (2021)
Electromagnetic Dust (2022)

Texan dark soundscape artist who uses synthesis, electracoustic devices and tape machines.


Confessor (???)

Confessor (2018)

Varied ambient soundscapes.


Conflagration (international)

Death Ambient, Death Cult (Carrion of Human Suffering) (2019)

Intense, wall-of-sound dark ambience.


Conflation Port (???)

Ambivalent (2016)

It is not known at the moment who is behind this project, nor do I know the country of origin. The author states that he is based on the Arctic Circle. Curiously enough, though, he makes tracks that he names after Sub Antarctic islands. How weird is that? Anyway, the music... It's seemingly based on alanog synthesis and is rather dark overall, mixing purely atmospheric numbers with sparse slow beats and dubby elements.


Confluent Phase (UK / USA)

Ad Astra (2019)

Ambient duo of Dan Armstrong and Si Matthews.

See also: Armstrong, Dan, Matthews, Si.


Conflux Coldwell (UK)

AM (Ante Meridiem) (2017)
Zoetrope (2019)
The Phantomatic Coast (2022)

Spooky, eerie, collage-like Dark Ambient pieces from Michael C Coldwell.

See also: Urban Exploration


Confused Kundalini (USA)

This Will Heal Us (2016)

Hypnotic, lo-fi ambience.

See also: Dry Valleys


Coniglio, Enrico (Italy)

Grammatologia (2002)
Topofonie Vol. 1 (2007)
dyanMU (2008)
Sea Cathedrals (2010)
Salicornie: Topofonie Vol. 2 (2010)
I (2011)
Inner Forest (2013) (S) (with Øe)
Plundering the Ancient World (2015) (S)
Astrùra (2016) (S)
Solèra (2016) (S)
Open To the Sea (2017) (with Matteo Uggeri)
The Grand Parade of Hostile Winds (2019)
Stalking the Elusive (2020) (with Giulio Aldinucci)
Alpine Variations (2021)
A Corte (2022) (with Adriano Zanni)
The Sirens of Titan (2024)

Deep ambient soundscapes from this Italian artist born in 1975 in Venice.

See also: Aqua Dorsa, Herion


Conjecture (Greece)

Enter the Grove (2014)
Nunavut (2015)
Urbanitarianism (2017)
My Body, Your Temple (2017) (S)
V (2019)
Hydra (2021)
Nostalgia Futura (2023)

Crossover industrial / Dark Ambient project of Vasilis Angelopoulos. Dramatic, intense, sometimes noisy.


Conjuror (USA)

Left Hand Path of the Conjuror (2013)
Black Velvet, Dead Flowers (2015)

Droning synthesizer meditations a bit in the spirit of early Klaus Schulze circa Irrlicht. Conjuror is Ian Adcock.


Connect.Ohm (France / Japan)

9980 (2012)

Ambient soundscapes with sections of downtempo rhythms. Collaborative project between Alexandre Scheffer and Hidetoshi Koizumi.

See also: Hybrid Leisureland


Conscientia Peccati (Germany)

Theogonia (1994)
Morbus temporis (1997)
Pantheon desertum (1998)
Quinque viae (1999)
Chaos / Magick (2001)
Culpa somniorum (2003)
Draco Rex (2004)
Rites ov Lamashtu (2008) (S) (with StillStand)
Totem (2009)
Confusio solis (2015)
Cupido noctis (2020)

Dark / Ritual Ambient.

See also: StillStand, Compest.


Con_Sense (Germany)

Compass (2007)
Code Sent (2009)

Varied, comtemporary music with Ambient and Berlin School traits. It is not known for sure who is behind this project.

See also: Solveil


Consequential (Serbia)

MicroComposed 1980 - 86 (2018)

Largely instrumental synth-pop / italo disco duo composed of Joran Jetvić (Data, Digitron etc.) and Nikolaj Bežek, active between 1980 and 1986. They are only very marginally related to EM and most of the time do not have anything to do with any prog. However, some tracks sound very influenced by Kraftwerk, with sharp electro rhythms and vocoded vocals.


Conservatives, The (Netherlands)

Terrorama (2018) (soundtrack)

Varied electronic soundtrack from this duo of Ferenc E. van der Sluijs and John Scheffer. Dark, pulsing, experimental...


Conspiracy Foundation (Russia)

Grand Rewinding Time (2012)

Music heavily influenced by the Berlin School from this Perm-based project.


Constant Shapes (USA)

Rainbow Rituals (2019)
Surroundings (2021)

Nice warm, analog EM from this Los Angeles-based artist. Sparkling synths and arpeggios, warm pads, thick leads...


Constantine (Greece)

Hades (2017)
Eternal Recurrence (2020)

Hypnotic, deep Drone Ambient soundworlds from Constantine Skourlis.


Consterdine, Colin (UK)

Comfort & Curiosity (2016)
Electronic Organism (2016)
These Islands (2021)

Synthesist related to the space rock / psychedelic rock scenes. He plays keys in Sendelica, among other groups / projects. His own music is rhythmic, melodic and spacey.


Constructed Identity (USA)

Constructed Identity (2010)
Waveform Journey (2012)

Ranges from rhythmic, industrial-like on debut to something more experimental and ambient on Waveform Journey.


Constructions des Temps Modernes (France)

Abgal (2021)

Hypnotic ambient electronics with slow rhythms.


Contact (UK / USA)

First Contact (2014)
Zero Moment (2016)

Collaboration between Paul Lawler and A.E. Paterra.

See also: Lawler, Paul, Majeure, Paterra, A.E.


Contagious Yawns (USA)

Some Places Aren't Around Here (2016)
Dream of Consciousness (2020)

Music halfway between regular Ambient and IDM / post-rock.


Contamination Chain (Canada??)

Contamination Chain (2023)

Stark, collage-like electronics on ecological themes, for fans of industrial, noise, experimental EM, stuff like Albergo Intergalattico Spaziale, Franco Battiato (circa Pollution), Maurizio Bianchi, Atrax Morgue and so on. Pretty competent and thought-provoking stuff overall.


Contaminazione (Sweden)

Pericolo di morte (2021)

Swedish band from Uppsala with heavy Goblin vibes - doomy guitars, bass, drums and synths galore.


Contemplatron (Poland)

Antarabhãva - The Six Realms (2003)
Delog (2008)
Prabhashvara (2012)
His Master's Voice (2016) (with Shentz)
Ma Mo (2018)

Polish Dark Ambient from Jaroslaw Wierny with choirs, akin to Raison D'Etre. The second album is mastered by Peter Andersson.


Context (Germany)

Muzak For An Exhibition - Product 1 (1986)
The Return of Structures - Product 34 (??)
Neumen (??)
Product 24 - Structures (1987)
Product 60 - Muzak For Seafood (??)
Necrophonie - Product 3 (1987)
Schnitte - Product 22 (1987)
Neuralgia - Product 29 (1988)
Changed Music 2 (1989)
Changed Music - Product 38 (1989)
More Structures (1989)
Verbindungen (1989) (with Kapotte Muziek)
Verbindungen 2 (1994) (with others)
Again Structures - Product 48 (??)

Changed Music 2 is a Drone Ambient masterwork. The other albums are most likely in the same style. The man behind Context is Stefan Schwab.


Continental Fruit (Norway)

Taste Like Good (1996) (EP)
Riviera (1997) (S)
Gently Carved Into Sound (2002)
Mentor - Mentee (2004)
Spectral Sounds of Naked Ghost People (2004) (with Slowburn)
Existenz (2015) (with Draff Krimmy)

A project of Jon Øyvind Lærum, a synth musician from Norway. Ambient, wacky, experimental...


Continuity (Sweden)

Continuity (2023)

Very dense, droning ambience, sometimes with dub influences, sometimes with a very distant Berlin-esque pulse. A project of Martin Herterich.

See also: Sand Circles, Cosmic Letters.


Continuous Revelations (USA)

Their Joyful Descent (2022)
Chrysalis (2022)

Indescribable synth music from Vermont - ambient, but whimsical and often cartoonish.


Contours (UK)

Balafon Sketches (2020)

A mixture of gamelan percussion and ambient electronics from Tom Burford.


Contrastate (UK)

Seven Hands Seek Nine Fingers (1989)
A Thousand Badgers In Labour (1990)
i (1991)
A Live Coal Under the Ashes (1992)
Throwing Out the Baby With the Bathwater (1995)
Mort aux vaches (1996)
Todesmelodie (1999)
False Fangs For Old Werewolves (2005)
Handbags & DADA (2006) (recorded in 1989 - 2000)
A Breeding Ground For Flies (2012)
No Eden Without Annihilation (2016)
The Illusion of Power (2019) (S)
The Illusion of Power (2020)
35 Project (2022) (maxi)
Life Without Agriculture (2024)

Varied soundscapes, from bright and clear, to dark and disturbing, with lots of chants at times. Some stuff sounds very Gothic in a mysterious kind of way.

See also: Intravene


Contrepoints (France)

Baroque synthetiseur (1982)

Library music by Jacques Erdos.


Contrevents (France)

Contrevents (2024) (EP)

Nice analog EM from this duo based in Paris. Sparkling clouds of synths, arpeggios, sequencing, melancholic pads and cosmic atmosphere. Also some choirs, rhythms and guitars.

See also: Void, Paul


Control Company (international)

Four Years Before 1984 (1980)

A short-lived band put together by Hubert Bognermayr with drummer Curt Cress, jazz / electronics mastermind Bruno Spoerri and Klaus-Robert Kruse. The music is mostly commercial progrock dominated by Hubert's flowing keyboards. There are also nice instrumentals (such as "Locked In Loneliness"). File under EM-related.

See also: Eela Craig, Bognermayr & Zuschrader, Spoerri, Bruno.


Controlled Bleeding (USA)

Body Samples (1984)
Knees And Bones (1985)
Death In the Cameroon (1985)
Curd (1986)
Between Tides (1986),
Headcrack (1986)
Core (1986)
Songs From the Drain (1987)
Music From the Scourging Ground (1987)
Trudge (1989)
Songs From the Ashes (1989)
Gag (1990)
Hog Floor (1990)
Phlegm Bag Spattered (1990) (recorded in 1983)
Golgotha (1991)
Penetration (1992)
Bladder Bags And Interludes (1992)
The Drowning (1992)
Buried Blessings (1993) (recorded in 1988 - 1990)
Songs From the Vault (1994)
Dub Songs From A Shallow Grave (1995)
Inanition (1996)
Gilded Shadows (1997)
The Poisoner (1997)
Rest In Peace: The Best of Controlled Bleeding (1999)
Our Journey's End (2000)
Can You Smell the Rain Between (2002)

Paul Lemos’ and Joe Papa’s musical project that split in 2000. Sometimes they are aided by other musicians. I tend to see this formation in line with bands like Einsturzende Neubauten and Nurse With Wound, although I may be wrong here. Their early work is harsh noise experiments, very disturbing, even irritating, which is a good thing, of course. Still, this music is hardly listenable. Their mid period is characterised by the use of driving dance rhythms and generally heavy sound, now you would probably call it ‘industrial’. Also some of their stuff from that period sounds very neo-classical, with a definite Gothic atmosphere. The 90’s stuff is dominated by Joe Papa’s operatic sounding voice and ambient textures with dub rhythms. Warning: the discography is NOT complete. CB is definitely one of those "fringe" bands, and I am not sure how much of their output actually fits in stylistically.

See also: Lemos, Paul


Convalescent (UK)

Before Sunrise (2005)

Dark soundscapes from John Marshall. Will be enjoyed by fans of Caul.


Conveniens (USA)

First Flip (1984)
Victims of Convenience (1985)
Clear (1987)
AT (1992)

Instrumental synthesizer / progrock by Dave Smith and John Maz.


Convextion (USA)

Acido 22 (2016) (S)
2845 (2016)

Convextion is Dallas, Texas-born Gerard Hanson. He is known as a dub techno / minimal techno producer. Amazingly, Acido 22 is a small record filled with great Prog EM played on analog synthesizers (nothing techno here).


Conway, Chris (UK)

Scanning Planet 3 (2003)
Contact Light (2004)
Live And Scanning (2004)
Musici (2004)
Courteous (2005)
In Orbit (2006)
The Third Expedition (2007)
Electronic Flights (2009)
Adagios Electric (2011)
Through Mirrors We Met (2014)

Cosmic electronic albums from this prolific British composer and member of The Rain Garden (ethnic music duo). A lot of this music is released under "The Planet Scanners" moniker and here Chris teams up with Alan Freeman and some other luminaries of British underground electronic scene. Chris has also released a lot of music that falls into such categories as new age, meditation, healing, relaxing, world, songs etc. These albums are (naturally) not included in the above discography.

See also: Memory Wire, Avant Garden, Modulight.


Cook, A. G. (UK)

7G (2020)
Apple (2020)

Alexander Guy Cook is a London-based deejay, producer, musician and singer-songwriter. His works are diverse to say the least. Both Apple and 7G are dominated by songs. However, some of the material is electronic, partly using Roland's trademark "supersaw" sound popularized by the JP-8000 synth. Not all of his instrumental electronic material is progressive but the influence is there. At least you can say he is pretty original for sure. Best track: "Car Keys", with "Dust" being a close follower. These two are really nice. Overall I would rate this artist as EM-related.


Cook, Perry R. (USA??)


Cook, Stuart (UK)

Piano at 51°40'49.6"N 2°14'09.2"W (2021)
Parallel Vectors (2021) (with Matt Parker)
Mistook Play For Play (2022)

Ambient electronics with prominent field recordings and modular drones.


Cool Maritime (USA)

Some Sort of Wave Portal (2016)
Sharing Waves (2018)
Big Lunch (2020) (with Rob Moss Wilson)
Big Earth Energy (2022)

Floating synthesizers from Sean Hellfritsch.


Cool Person (USA)

Cool Person (2012)
Future Person (2013)
Real Person (2013) (S)
Cool Person (2013) (S)
Cool Person (2013)
New Person (2014) (S)
Quiet Person (2015)
Good Person (2018)
Ood World, Cool World (2018) (with Odd Person)
Weird Person (2019)
Smart Person (2020) (S)
Grown Person (2021)

Sort of lo-fi synth melodies and collages of noises from Josh Tippery.


CoolSuperBlitz (Norway)

Out of Reach (2021)
Anguish (2022)

Music in complete late 1980's EM style - you know, the kind of stuff dominated by digital presets, plodding drum machines and general MIDI sounds.


Cooper, Max (UK)

One Hundred Billion Sparks (2018)
Yearning For the Infinite (2019)
Glassforms (2020) (with Bruce Brubaker)
Unspoken Words (2022)

Techno musician based in London. On One Hundred Billion Sparks he focuses on analog synthesizers and the shorter tracks really do move in the ambient / EM direction, so it can be considered an EM-related disc. Yearning For the Infinite is another interesting, partly EM-related one.


Cooper, Sam (USA)

Botan (2022)
Cooper & Cantrell (2023) (with Oren Cantrell)

Ambient and slightly experimental synth compositions on botany themes. Pretty sparse and at times whimsical sound.

See also: Pharaohs


Cooper, William Ashley (USA)

Collected Works (2014) (recorded in 1972 - 2001)

American outsider artist who has been recording his stuff at his home studio equipped with a few synths (mostly minimoog during earlier stages and adding a few more toys later on) at least since the early 1970's. The above is a collection of pieces and spoken interludes where he explains some aspects of his work and how he started in music.


Copal River (USA)

Copal River (2006)

Ambient from Scott Turner and Darrell Burgan.

See also: Cluster Balm, Not Your Average Hippy, Palancar.


Cope, Julian (UK)

Rite (1992)
Queen Elizabeth (1994)
Rite 2 (1997)
Queen Elizabeth 2 (1997)
The Modern Antiquarian (1998) (S)
Odin (1999)
Discover Odin (2001)
Rite On (2002)
Rite Bastard (2006)
Woden (2012)
John Balance Enters Vanhalla (2019)

Famous musician / singer from the UK. His experimental / electronic works are more or less here. Rite 2 will appeal to fans of the early 70's German "krautrock" scene. The style ranges from Can / Faust type stuff to early Tangerine Dream. (tracks three and four will be especially interesting for EM fans). No thin digital synths here, just guitar, percussion, hammond organ, mellotron, ARP 2600 and other (more obscure) items.

See also: Queen Elizabeth


Copeland, Darren (Canada)

The Three Faces (1986)

Supposedly, experimental EM from this electroacoustic composer.


Copeland, Eric (USA)

Antibirth (2022) (recorded in 2016) (S) (soundtrack)

Experimental musician. His oeuvre is pretty vast, but I'm not an expert. Antibirth is pretty crazy synth music, though, ranging from melodic to abstract, from funny to scary. Further investigation is needed.


Coph Nia (Sweden)

That Which Remains (2000)
Shape Shifter (2003)
Noise Shaper (2004)
Erotomechaniks (2005) (with Mindspawn)
The Tree of Life And Death (2008)
Erotomechaniks II (2016) (with Mindspawn)

Dark Ambient with Goth elements from Mikael Alden.


Co-Pilot (Italy)

Botanical Illustration Takes Patience And Skill (2020) (S)
Green Machine (2021)

Propulsive music with sampling, synths and real drums from this ex-drummer of MajaKovich, Giovanni Natalini.


Coplord (Denmark)

Forced Entry (2016)
Copulator (2017)
Sicilian Dragon (2022)

Somewhat synthwave-related project but rather minimal and rudimentary synth sound here.


Coppice Halifax (USA)

1983 (2006)
Aeriformic Forests (2013)
Postscript (2013)
White Shape (2013)
Ice Forest (2014)
Chloroformic Forests (2014)
Lowlights (2014)
Quinth (2015)
Ocean Lion III, Part One (2016)
Vintro (2016)
Urceolatmospherion (2016)
Ocean Lion III, Part Two (2016)
Lioness II (2016) (S)
Ocean Lion III, Part Three (2016)
Polysom (2016)
Aerate (2016)
Aubreeze (2016)
Post Process (2020)
Lust's Nightly Glories (2021)
Familiar Shores (2021)
Inland By Night (2023)
Astral Salons (2023)
Ocean Lion IV (2023)

A project of Brian Grainger dedicated to hybrids of dub techno and Ambient. Some releases are completely devoid of beats or techno influences, though. I will try to list these, although it will not be easy, as the guy obviously aims at a Guinness book record as the most prolific artist ever.

See also: Milieu, AQV, Occur.


Coppola, Dominic (USA)

Vogue Meditations (2005) (S)
Beloved (2016)
Ladylike (2016) (S)
Swoon Season (2016) (S)
Cordial (2017) (with Angelo Harmsworth)
Golden Blonde Air (2017) (S)
Honeymoon Phase (2018)
Eros At Temple Stream (2018)
Serenity Channel (2018) (S)
The Lilac Chase (2018)
Patterns of Lust (2018) (S)
Dream Color Palette (2018)
Enough Time Has Passed (2019) (with Fred Thomas)
To Have Done Nothing (2019) (S)
Elegant Confusion (2019) (S)
The Creation of Timeless Gardens (2020)
Prisms In Dalliance (2022)
Pavonine (2022) (with Angelo Harmsworth)

Monolithic, lo-fi ambient drones.

See also: Ambre Antique, Vision Board.


Cops (Germany)

Cops (2017)
Energy Trap (2021)

A duo of Niklas Dommaschk and Oliver Koch. EM belonging to the experimental axis influenced by Schnitzler, Cluster and minimalism.

See also: Phantom Horse


Coral Cave (Germany)

Initial Steps (1991)
Mysterious Attractions of Contrasts (1993)
Impressions of Science (1994)
Blue Sunlight (1994)
The 4th (2013)
Panorama (2014)
Electronic Variety (2015)

Coral Cave was a duo of Tilo Voigthaus and Erik Matheisen that made melodic Electronic Music comparable to late 80’s Tangerine Dream. The project ceased its activities in 1996 but returned in the new century.

See also: Voigthaus, Tilo, Mikado 85, RikeErik, Spectral Tune.


Coral Caves (Japan)

Voice From A Distance (1999)

Synthesizer / progressive music by one Toshiyuki Fujita.


Coral Club (Russia)

Nowhere Island (2020)
Turn To (2022)
Lost Cities (2022)

A project of Andrey Topolev. He makes groovy, rhythmic EM with a hazy, moist, tropical atmosphere.


Coral Morphologic (USA)

Coral Morphologic 1 (2022) (recorded in 2018)
Projections of A Coral City (2024) (with Nick León)

Miami-based ambient duo inspired by corals and their ability to synchronize with the Earth's rotation.


Coral Reef Community (Denmark??)

Waterworld (2019)
Field Data/4 (2023)

Long-form Ambient with lots of field recordings. A project of Christian Rutz and Mark Brauner.


Coralic, Adil (Switzerland)

ANGST (2017) (S) (with Davide Grisoni)

Strange composition mixing spooky field recordings, some voice narration and soundtracky synths in vintage horror style. Has its cheesy moment as well.


Corazón de Robota (Chile)

Infinitud Oceánica (2018)

Constanza Piña Pardo is a musician, visual artist and dancer currently based in Berlin. Her music is rough and anarchic, noisy and progressive at the same time, utilizing primitive technology and DIY instruments.


Corbacho, Max (Spain)

Vestiges (1998)
Far Beyond the Immobile Point (2000)
The Resonant Memory of Earth (2002)
Nocturnal Emanations (2003)
Indalo (2003) (with Bruno Sanfilippo)
Moontribe (2004)
The Talisman (2006)
BreathStream (2008)
Ars Lucis (2009)
Lost Links (2011)
Bioma (2011) (with Bruno Sanfilippo)
The Ocean Inside (2012)
Cosmic Traveler (2013)
Splendid Labyrinths (2015)
Future Terrain (2017)
Nocturnes (2017)
Source of Present (2017)
Nocturnes II (2018)
Horizon Matrix (2018)
Echo of Longing (2019)
Dreaming Spaces (2020)
The Unfolding Dawn (2020)
Nocturnes III (2021)
Lost Links II (2021) (recorded in 2001 -2021)
A Connection To the Wonder (2021)
Equinox (2022)
Atmospheric Twilight (2023)

Spanish synthesist working in the realms of Ambient and Space, sometimes sounding similar to Steve Roach.


Corben (Canada)

Programmer (2020) (S)
Isolation Reverie (2021)
Whose Echoes Live In Memory (2021)
Sun Variants (2022)
Breathing Fallen Sparrows (2022) (recorded in 2020)

Nice EM with slow rhythms and reflective melodies from this Vancouver-based project. Programmer features music made with Solton Programmer 24 (hence the title), mellotron and Roland SVC-350 vocoder.


Corbett, Ian (USA)

Anthrohuminal (1993)
Within the Crowd (1994)

Jazz musician and saxophone player but these albums are supposedly electronic.


Corciolli (Brazil)

All That Binds Us (1993)
Exotique (1998)
A Magia da M
úsica Celta (2001)
Nosso Lar (2008)
Lightwalk (2010)
Infinito (2015)
Ilusia (2018)

Brazilian keyboard player, composer of new age, easy-listening and relaxation music. He has an extensive discography, so it's not an easy task to check all his releases on the question of "EM compatibility". However, you can do your best, if you really wish to. All That Binds Us is his debut, which is not as polished as his later works. It is also more electronic-oriented, the main influence being, as expected, Vangelis. Most of the sounds come from synths. The piano is also quite prominent, coming also from synths, I believe. If you like melodic EM that is easy on the ear, I think it's the one to go for. Exotique is a bit similar, but goes for a more ethnic-tinged sound. However, the Vangelis influence on that one is as strong (if not stronger) as on the debut. A Magia da Música Celta is good for those who like "Irlanda" from Opera Sauvage (Vangelis). Infinito is trickier. Much more in his usual style, it goes for a symphonic, new-agey sound. However, some tracks, mainly those focusing more on electronic sounds, still bear that unmistakable melodic EM stamp. Nice soloing on some compositions - this music is made by someone who really knows his craft, regardless of personal preferences. Overall, this disc is only slightly related to EM. The same applies to Lightwalk, which has some quirkier moments by means of his trusty analog synth (a minimoog?). Ilusia surprises with its very progressive rock-oriented sound. This album is not new age by any stretch. If you like symphonic rock and Electronic Music (Maxxess, F.D. Project style), give it a try. I love the sequencer on the closing track. This is arguably his best one, although further investigation would not harm.


Cord of Life (UK)

Imaginary Journeys To Sunset (1985)
Winterland (1986)

Obscure electronic duo of David Bennett and Andy H. I don't know if David Bennett is a pseudonym. Anyway, the first tape is composed and performed by Dave Greenway who is probably the same guy.


Cordaro, Giuseppe (Italy)

45°12′N 72°54′E (2018)
Annus horribilis (2019)
XII rumori santi (2024)

This artist effectively mixes electro-acoustics, field recordings and electronics. The closing long track is pretty fantastic stuff (and this applies to both albums, 45°12′N 72°54′E and Annus horribilis).

See also: con_cetta


Cordero, David (Spain)

Emma (2012) (with Carles Guajardo)
Brumaria (2013) (S) (with Dot Tape Dot)
Nanas (2016) (S) (with Niño de Elche)
El Rumor del Oleaje (2016)
Seep (2017) (with .tape.)
Hacia la Luz (2019)
As A Silent Tongue Shadow (2020) (with Pepe Galán)
La Isla Dormitorio (2020)
Honne (2020)
Salinas (2020) (with Miguel Otero)
Lambda: {λ} (2021)
Lugares Comunes (2021) (with Combray)
Quiet Music Por Insomniacs (2021)
Winter Landscape (2022)
Komorebi 木漏れ日 (2022) (with Kenji Kihara)
And Stillness Came (2022)
A Possible Distance (2022) (with Miguel Otero)
Disappeared (2022) (with Pepo Galán)
Endless Loneliness (2023)
Among Pale Trees (2023)
Night Scenes (2023) (with Warmth)
Recurrent Processes (2023)
Summer Chronicles (2023) (with Rhucle)
Lost Under the Sea (2023) (with Anthéne
Silent Articulations (2023) (with Carlos Ferreira)
Restless Nature (2024)
Wild Air (2024) (with Ian Hawgood)
Important Small Details (2024)

Ambient soundscapes with a strong neo-classical flair.


Córdoba, Ignacio (Spain)

Sequential Thoughts / Shattered Memories (2018) (S)

Abstract, shadowy electronics reminding a bit on Invisible Connections by Vangelis.


Córdoba, Santiago (Argentina)

Corso (2015)
En Otros Lugares (2019)
Doroja (2021)

Ex-drummer of experimental tango band Violentango. His solo music makes use of guitar, synths and drums and represents a mixture of post-rock, World Music and melodic electronics.


Core (Germany)

Chants of Race & Emptiness (1988)
My Core (1991) (S)
An Area's Era Area (1991) (recorded in 1987- 1989)

Dark Ambient offshoot from Cranioclast (a mostly Nurse With Wound style band).

See also: Cranioclast


Corin (Australia)

Accumulated Spaces (2015) (S) (with ju ca)
Wave Systems (2015)
Virtuality (2016) (S)
Manifest (2019)
Araw (2021) (EP)
Lux Aeterna (2023)

Aka Corin Ileto. Indescribable, melodic, rhythmic, seemingly influenced by techno-pop (Sakamoto) and melodic electronics. Wave Systems features complex themes inspired by water.


Cormack, Ishmael (UK)

For Muriel (2020)
Ammil (2020)
Maple Finch (2020)
The Sunday Project (2020)
Feral (2020) (S)
Ōe (2021) (S)

Delicate ambience from this Somerset-based artist. Using piano, subtle electronics, guitar and processed field recordings, he creates some feather-light and hazy sounds that just hang in the air.


Corntuth (USA)

Music To Work To (2020)
The Desert Is Paper Thin (2021)
Letters To My Robot Son (2022)

The 2020 album from this New York-based project is ambient electronics created on the fly on a DX7 synth and processing. The 2021 effort is pedal steel guitar combined with electronics.


Corona Barathri (Russia)

Benedictio tenebrarvm (2017)
Nox Mali (2018)
Diabolical Path (2018)
Diabolical Path [Part II] (2019)
Diabolical Path [Part III] (2020)

Black Ambient project from Russia. Intense sound here, with lots of incantations, pounding drums and some sparse synthetic pulses. I found the voices to be quite irritating, but the sound design itself is quite effective in places and overall it works fine as an imaginary horror soundtrack.


Coronel, Rody (Netherlands)

Mixed Feelings (2004)
Coffee Moment (2007)

Melodic and a bit ambient music from this synthesist born in 1971. He was influenced by many artists, from TD and Jarre to Queen. Rody started fiddling around with synthesizers and organs pretty early in his life but his recoding career only began at the turn of the century.


Corporation (UK)

Dark Destiny (1991)
Subculture (1992)
Breed (1994)

Melodic, rhythmic EM in the style of Mark Shreeve and Ian Boddy, with a touch of Jean-Michel Jarre. Corporation is a trio of Adam Britton, Iain Lowe and Peter Tunney (on Dark Destiny and Subculture only). Breed was produced by Kevin Bate also known as Synthetik.

See also: Britton, Adam


Corre (Argentina)

Form (2017)

Argentinean drummer who as a solo artist mixes post-rock sound with EM's sequences.


Corre, Gérard (France)

Eurydice (1987) (S)

The first side of this "7 record features electronic pop ala Space. Nothing is known about the other. Gérard Corre seems to have given some live performaces accompanied by laser shows, as the cover of this record asserts.


Corr​ê​a, Djalma (Brazil)

Espontaneamente se Tenta: Aventuras Sonoras de Djalma Corr​ê​a (2024) (recorded in ??)

Born in 1942 in Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, and died in 2022 in Rio de Janeiro, Djalma Corr​ê​a was a percussionist, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and one of the proponents of Afro-Brazilian culture. Espontaneamente se Tenta presents a more experimental side of his oeuvre, with pieces that were released for the first time ever. Amazingly, it features some material that can be interesting for EM or experimental music fans, such as the opening electroacoustic suite "Evolução" and especially the longer piece "Exemplo de Sintetizadores". The sounds heard here range from pure drones to melodic, bossa-like jazzy stuff and symphonic synth music. My main gripe is not with the music per se, but with the presentation - all pieces within the 15-minute suite are very short and sound as if cut from longer explorations. I don't know if full versions exists anywhere at all and if there is any chance of them being released one day, but I sure as hell would want to hear them. In any case, the composition reveals Corr​ê​a as one of the unsung Brazilian synthesists / electronic experimentalists during the 1970's / 1980's. This fact makes me think of how many other non-synth musicians may have experimented with EM at some point in their career, but nobody knows about that.


Correlations (UK)

Before the Heat (2016)
Night Acquisitions (2017)
Aftermath (2018)
Hidden Scenes (2018)
From Memory (2019)
Evocation (2020)
Mayan Gods (2020)
Rewind the Exit Tape (2021)
Fall Into Dust (2023) (S)
Colour And Shape (2024)

A duo of Neil Hale and Stuart Cullen. Their name seems to be inspired by Ashra and the title of their debut album - by Cluster & Eno, and indeed, their music seems to be inspired by both the krautrock side of Ashra / Goettsching and the ambient side of Cluster. There are also touches of psych / folk by means of acoustic guitars and nice use of vocoder. Aftermath sees them moving in the synthwave direction, while still retaining the Prog EM feel.


Corrigan, Ben (UK)

Carbs (2022) (with Robert Ames)

British podcast host and composer. Quirky, classically-inspired electronics. Well-structured, but lively and intricate.


Corrigan, James (USA)

Bits (2012)
Can You / Triads (2019)
Drum Circle (2021)

James S Corrigan is a Brooklyn-based artist and event curator. His music has a seemingly purposeful primitivist flair, mixing acoustic and electronic instrumentation. Highly uplifting, repetitive stuff that will make you smile.


Corrupting Sea, The (USA)

Symphony of A Radical (2017)
Resist (2017)
Samatta (2017)
Somnambulate (2018)
Reflections (2018)
Godless (2018)
System Shift (2019)
Lies Told To Me In My Youth (2019) (EP)
Ontology (2019)
Healing House of Light (2020)
Tears (2020)
Soul Mate (2020)
Sight (2021)
For Simplicity's Sake (2021)
Chamber Music For the Dead (2021)
Mosaic of Senses (2021) (with City of Dawn)
Lungs Like Lead (2022)
Float (2022)
Talking To Trees (2023)

Slightly experimental, but also highly atmospheric ambient compositions from this Texan artist (Jason T. Lamoreaux).

See also: Transverse


Corsica Annex (USA)

Fluid Electric (2017)
Doors Outside (2020)

Rich synthesizer pads and sequences.

See also: Eigenface


Cortége (USA)

Capricorn (2019)

A bass / moog / mellotron / tubular bells and drums duo (Mike Swarbrick and Adrian Voorhies). Darkish mixture of prog rock and electronics. Sometimes sounds like a doomier Goblin. Sometimes spacey, ambient and / or industrial. File under EM-related.


Cortez, Jorge (Mexico)

Tree of Life (2002)

The first thing you notice about Tree of Life is the bass! Powerful, fat analog bass sounds are abundant here. The first two tracks are somewhat similar to each other. Each features melodic sequencers and various other melodies, effects and bass sounds layered on top / beneath it. Although the second track, "Locust" features some pretty harsh textures that sort of reminded me on the noisy Hal McGee stuff or even some Merzbow. "On the White Horse" is more laid-back and has a somewhat simplistic beepy sequence running throughout its length. The track is rather repetitive. "Serpents On the Desert" is easily the best cut on the album. Great, screaming synth sounds! And when I say screaming I mean it! Although, at 1:30 it's criminally short, should've been longer. "Not Even the Angels" is a bit oriental sounding probably due to its strange rhythms. "Burning Bush" is the longest cut on the album. It's an upbeat sequencer track. "Seven Rounds" has a lot of those fat bass sounds and is one of those tracks that grow on you with each listen. "Swallowed By A Fish" is more experimental and is devoid of any direct rhythms or melodies. The last two tracks finish off the album on a more usual rhythmic / melodic note. Love the symphonic leads on "A Whisper In the Wind". Overall, Tree of Life is a very nice collection of sequencer / melodic EM pieces, more or less in the 70's style. Although it has a strong experimental edge to it as well. 


Corticem (international)

Planetarium (2020)

Improvising electronic trio of Antonello Perfetto, Bogdan Markiewicz and Greg Nieuwsma. Psychy, spacey sound, somewhat influenced by krautrock and space rock, with noisy, somewhat anarcho-punk-y bits

See also: Nieuwsma, Greg


Cortini, Alessandro (Italy)

Forse 1 (2013)
Forse 2 (2013)
ACMN 1 & 2 (2013) (S)
Sonno (2014)
Forse 3 (2015)
Risveglio (2015)
Live At Nuit Noire XI (2015)
Spie (2016)
Avanti (2017)
Sun Draw Water (2017) (S) (with Daniel Avery)
Alessandro Cortini And Merzbow (2017) (with Merzbow)
Immediate Horizon (2018) (with Lawrence English)
Volume Massimo (2019)
Illusion of Time (2020) (with Daniel Avery)
Scuro chiaro (2021)

Italian-born and currently residing in California, Alessandro Cortini just loves his analog synths. He creates various sequencer patterns and atmospheres with them, often processing the sound in strange ways, resulting in either hazy, overdriven or misty, distant feel. Falls into the Experimental genre for sure but has a very strong "classic EM" vibe to it.


Cortion (Japan)

DLF (2023)

Playful modular synth compositions.


Corum (USA)

Never Use the Same Door Twice (2012)
Beguiling Isles: Born of Earth's Torments (2012)
Experimental India Radio: Swara Exchanges (2013) (S)
Beguiling Isles: Westward Star (2013)
Black Or White Orpheus: Votive Transmutation Shrine (2014) (S) (with Jefferson Zurna)
Effigy Mounds: Ceremonial Music For Spore Alter (2014)
Experimental India Radio: Puja Samagri Pipers / Mummy Dust Trippers (2015) (S)
Magic Mirror (2016)
Coastal Vudutronic Voyage (2016)
Panics In Mayfair (2017)

Unclassifiable music from member of Million Brazilians Grant Corum. Is it Tribal Ambient? World Music? Psychedelia? A little bit of everything I guess. Mostly based on samples and loops but also synthesizers and lots of tribal percussion.

See also: Orchardist, The, Timelash, Blazing Worlds.


Corvus Neblus (Greece)

Chapter I: Strahd's Possession (1999) (S)
Chapter II: Strahd's Possession (2001) (S)

Cassette releases with soundtrack-like symphonic ambient in the vein of early Mortiis.


Corvuz (Russia)

Invisible Landscapes (2012)
Свобода (2015) (with Torssion)
Память (2023)

Dark Ambient from Orel, Russia. The music on Память is based on the sounds of analog synthesizers, including a lot of rare Soviet models.


Corwin, Travis (USA)

Beach Glass (2016)
Drops (2022)

Ambient artist with new age and experimental trends.


CoryaYo (USA)

Songs In the Key of Earth Vol. 1 (2020)

Ambient work from this instrumental hip-hop artist.


Cosentino, Saro (Italy)

Saro Cosentino (1988) (S)
TV Dinner (1995) (with Mino di Martino)
Ones And Zeros (1997)
Cities (2021) (with Nicola Alesini)
The Road To Now (2022)

Saro Cosentino is an Italian musician who started out in Blues and acoustic / traditional music but during the 1970's got interested in Electronic Music. He worked in experimental arts with Franco Battiato and several other Italian musicians, both famous and unknown.

See also: Albergo Intergattico Spaziale, Asciara.


Cosey Fanni Tutti (UK)

Time To Tell (1983)
Electronic Ambient Remixes 4: Selflessness (2004)
Mist While Sleeping / Invisible Whispers (2010) (with Philippe Petit)
Tutti (2019)
Delia Derbyshire: The Myths And The Legendary Tapes - Original Soundtrack Recordings (2022)
Re-Sisters (2022)

This privately released cassette (later re-released on CD) by Throbbing Gristle member and performance artist Cosey Fanni Tutti (real name: Christine Newby) has been somewhat under the radar of the general public and EM fans in particular. However, it is great pioneering Ambient / EM. The album consists of just two sidelong tracks and especially the first one, "The Secret Touch" is amazing. Deep synths, noises, effects, screaming solos, a tinkling sequence and a hypnotic and seducing voice of Christine. Yes, she has a really nice voice and the material here is spoken, not sung.

See also: Throbbing Gristle, CTI, Chris And Cosey.


Cosimi, Enrico (Italy)

Infinite Works (2005)

Ex-Theatrum Chemicum musician and one half of Tau Ceti. Experimental / floating / cosmic electronics.

See also: Theatrum Chemicum, Tau Ceti, Liquid Ghosts.


Cosmic Baby (Germany)

Futura (1994)
Stunde Null (1995)
Musik zu Andorra (1997)
Industrie und Melodie (2006) (recorded in 1997 - 1999)

Cosmic Baby is an alias of German techno / trance producer Harald Blüchel from Nuremberg. Born in 1963, Blüchel discovered the Electronic Music of artists like Tangerine Dream and Kraftwerk circa 1976 and has been experimenting with synthesizers since the early 1980's. In 1989, he got involved in the whole techno / club scene and his career as a recording artist under the Cosmic Baby moniker (as well as a few others) started. The bulk of his output will be of no interest to Prog EM fans. There are some exceptions, though. Futura (actually released under the "Cosmic Inc." name), although has enough techno influences, also seems to be very inspired by melodic Tangerine Dream of the 1980's, down to synthetic harpsichord sounds. There are also weird moments with lots of vocalizations. Stunde Null is mostly abstract and ambient / melodic synths, with moments of sparse rhythms. Pretty good stuff if you like the early output of FAX label. Industrie und Melodie is a nice "Kraftwerk masturbation"-type record. There is also a nice album available for download called Music For An Oceanic Radioplay, which I hope sees the light of day on a physical carrier one day.

See also: Blüchel, Harald


Cosmic Bird (Italy??)

Traces of Cosmic Existence (2017)
Landing On Moondust (2017) (S)
Dungeness the Soundtrack (2017)
Cosmic Bird I (2017)
Cosmic Bird II (2018)

Barbara Parise.


Cosmic Canyon (USA)

Astral Crazy Horse (2024) (recorded in 2017 - 2019) (S)

A project of Caleb R. K. Williams in cosmic, sequencer, Berlin School synth mould.

See also: Kaya North


Cosmic Cassiopeia (USA)

Music For Late Night Listeners (2022)

Electronic Music / Space Rock from the duo of Scott Heller and Daniel Lars.

See also: Dr. Space, Dr. Space's Alien Planet Trip, Øresund Space Collective.


Cosmic Debris (USA)

23-4-79 (1979)
3.7K (1980)
While You're Asleep (1981)
On the Shores of A Different Time (1986)

This group started in 1976 as a live act. The two guys, Richard Bugg and Cal Grant got together to rehearse for a jazz festival at the Oklakhoma University campus. They were the only band that performed Electronic Music and they played one 20-minute piece, simply called "Piece One". Richard used an ARP 2600 with an echo machine and a few extra modules with a complementary sequencer, while Cal played a self-built synthesizer based on Moog's design. Initially the group was called "The Contemporary Synthesizer Ensemble" but after the concert a friend of Richard proposed the name "Cosmic Debris" and it stuck. A few years later, the groups' line-up was expanded with Cal Grant replaced by no less than five musicians. They were Steve McLinn (he left in 1978), Dennis Borycki (synthesizers), Dave Copenhaver (bass), Jim Hochanadel (saxes) and Joel Young (percussion, drums). Just like that, the group's sound started to drift towards space rock. In 1980, Shawn Phillips (guitar, guitar synth) was added to what was now essentially a duo of Richard Bugg and Joel Young. Borycki returned for While You're Asleep, but this time John Powell (percussion) and Bil Richards (guitar) were recruited. On the Shores is a duo concert performance of Bugg and Barry Stramp.

See also: Bugg, Richard


Cosmic Dream Club (Netherlands)

New Babylon (2019)
Dream Dance (2023)
Celestial Vault (2023)

Varied electronics, ranging from dark and noisy soundscapes to nice, dramatic synth-sequencer. The second album is more trance-oriented and is less interesting.


Cosmic Econo (USA)

Cosmic Econo (2021)
Cosmic Econo 2 (2023)

Varied electronics from this loose collective of artists. From ambient melodies to purely kosmische / sequencer EM to some rarer techno beats.


Cosmic Garden, The (Germany)

Sun Secrets (2012)
Spirale (2012)

Melodic, cosmic and psychedelic Electronic Music from Tibor Fredmann and Siegbert "Ziggi" Hümmer.


Cosmic Ground (Germany)

Cosmic Ground (2014)
Cosmic Ground 2 (2015)
Cosmic Ground 3 (2016)
Live (2017)
Legacy (2018)
Cosmic Ground 4 (2018)
Cosmic Ground 5 (2019)
0110 (2020)
Isolate (2022)
Sanctum (2022)
Entropy (2023)
Soil 3 (2023) (recorded in 2020 - 2021)
Melt (2024)

Dirk Jan Müller's return to Electronic Music under a new project name.

See also: Müller, Dirk Jan, Electric Orange, Octopus's Garden, Hausfrauen of Death, The.


Cosmic Hoffmann (Germany)

Weltraumboogie (1982) (S)
Beyond the Galaxy (1999)
Shiva Connection (2000)
Heartbeat (2001) (with Hans-Werner Fassbender)
Psychedelic Breakfast (2003) (with friends)
Electric Trick (2005) (recorded in 1978 - 2003)
Conundrum (2007) (with Bernhard Wostheinrich)
Space Gems (2007) (recorded in 1975 - 1979)
Outerspace Gems (2008) (recorded in 1978 - 1985)
Hypernova (2009) (recorded in 1977 - 1983)
Trinity (2010) (with Ian Boddy and David Wright)
Astral Journey (2010) (recorded in ??)
Earshot (2013) (S) (with Fanger & Schönwälder)

Cosmic Hoffmann was the pseudonym of Klaus Hoffmann-Hook (1951 - 2017) from Mind Over Matter. Klaus started with music in the early 1970's, mostly in rock. He was deeply influenced by Genesis' live mellotron use and by the sounds this legendary instrument could produce. He later bought himself a mellotron and a minimoog, gradually expanding his setup and adding more 'trons and synths. He also played keyboards in a rock band called Alma Ata but parallel to that he recorded solo spacey Electronic Music with his synths and mellotron. His first vinyl single, released in 1982, is similar to the last two albums by Peter Baumann or Telex, while the flip is in the style of Space. The full-length albums are classic cosmic Teutonic electronics, very similar to Tangerine Dream from circa 1974-1977. If you can’t get enough of those driving sequences and mellotron voices with a great bit of space guitar, this is for you. The above discography contains both the Cosmic Hoffmann albums and those released as "Klaus Hoffmann-Hook".

See also: Mind Over Matter


Cosmic Intrusion (UK)

Celestine (1978) (S)

A small and weird 7-inch record by one Frank Knapp. One side is a weird electronic rendition of "God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen". Flip is supposedly original material.


Cosmic Jokers (Germany)

Cosmic Jokers (1974)
Galactic Supermarket (1974)
Planeten Sit In (1974)
Sci-Fi Party (1974)
Gilles Zeitschiff (1974)

Cosmic Jokers albums were the result of Rolf Ulrich Kaiser’s acid parties that he arranged in Dierk’s studio for the musicians signed to the Ohr label. It was one of the most scandalous moments in the history of EM, bacause Rolf Ulrich Kaiser pissed off many of the musicians involved after these albums started to show up in stores. The thing is that Rolf Ulrich never asked the musicians about the permission to release this material. This led to serious lawsiuts and Rolf Ulrich Kaiser lost the process. After that he left the music business for good (and Germany to sum it up). But enough history, what does the music sound like? In spite of being basically just a jam session by the musicians who maybe sometimes didn’t even realise what they were doing, the music is nothing short of brilliant. Especially the first two albums are great! Pure cosmic jams in the vein of early TD or Ash Ra Tempel. The rest of the albums contains just short ottakes of the above mentioned sessions. The musicians involved were Manuel Goettsching, Harald Grosskopf, Klaus Schulze, Gille Lettman (Rolf Ulrich Kaiser’s girlfriend at the time), Rosi Muller and Jurgen Dollase, among others. A supergroup then? Well, probably. But definitely a classic!

See also: Goettsching, Manuel, Ash Ra Tempel, Grosskopf, Harald, Agitation Free, Schulze, Klaus.


Cosmic Letters (Sweden)

Cosmic Letters (2012)

Swedish trio influenced by krautrock and classic EM (mostly of the Dusseldorf School with some Berlin thrown in).

See also: Sand Circles, Ekolali., Continuity, Murkla.


Cosmic Neighbourhood (UK)

All For All (2021)
Trees (2021) (S)
Gatherings (2023)

Cheesy, twittering, cheerful electronics mixed with acoustic instruments like banjo, flutes, bells, etc. For fans of Ron Geesin, BBC Radiophonic Workshop, Cluster, Daphne Oram and more.


Cosmic Ni (Spain)

Live In Barcelona 1999 (1999)

Cosmic Ni are Dom F. Scab and Albert Gimenez. Classic Electronic Music with a strong German influence.

See also: Scab, Dom F., Gimenez, Albert.


Cosmic Octave Orchestra (Germany)

Gaiatron (2011)

Collaborative project of Steve Schroyder, Akasha Project and B. Ashra.

See also: Schroyder, Steve, Akasha Project, Ashra, B.


Cosmic Overdose (Sweden)

Dada Koko (1980)
Final Koko (1980)
4668 (1981)

Sort of experimental synth / post-punk band, sometimes with Swedish vocals. The main members were Karl Gasleben and Dan Söderqvist, who would later become known as Twice A Man.

See also: Anna Själv Tredje, Twice A Man, Söderqvist, Dan.


Cosmic Realm (USA)

The Cosmic Industrial Complex (2003)

Soundscapes by Todd Merrill.


Cosmic Replicant (Russia)

Mission Infinity (2014)

Psychill project of Paul Shirshin from Kazan. Most of the tracks on Mission Infinity are definitely psychill, with some ambient moments and a completely ambient closer. File under EM-related.


Cosmic Serpent, The (Sweden??)

Aural Mandalas Volume One: Coiled On the Universal Ocean (2009) (S)
The Cosmic Renovation & The End of Time (2010)

The 2010 release features two massive, 20-minute tracks of cosmic synths and mellotrons. It is all rather classic sounding and rather nice too, although a bit lacking in variation.


Cosmic Smokers (UK)

On Another Planet Vol. 1 (2004)
On Another Planet Vol. 2 (2004)
Live At the NSC (2004)
On Another Planet Vol. 3 (2007)
Live At the Y (2007)

A "supergroup" featuring all three members of AirSculpture, Grant Middleton (Under the Dome) and Paul Nagle. Their music is energetic, cosmic and sequencer-based. Their releases basically represent recorded live jams.

See also: AirSculpture, Beasley, Adrian, Christian, John, Nagle, Paul, Smokeyfrog.


Cosmic Son (USA)

Moon Surf (2015) (S)

Lush, melodic, poppy electronics with something of a YMO flair (with vocoders and stuff). Some sequencer-based stuff as well. A project of Los Angeles-based Jeremiah Chiu.

See also: Chiu, Jeremiah


Cosmic Splinter (UK)

Synthesizer Catastrophe (2023)

Solo project of Simon Break (aka Matt Simpson from Icebreaker International). Synthesizer Catastrophe features collage-like Electronic Music with lots of samples and synths galore, although the overall feel is rather strange: loud and distorted for the most part, the music just fails to leave a lasting impression or achieve the high standards established by the first and even second and third generation EM artists, but then, maybe that's just me. The potential is there, so let's see how the project develops. Best tracks: the ones with more "synth" and less "distortion", i.e. the title track and "Bayarea").

See also: Icebreaker


Cosmic Surveillance (USA)

Volume 1 (2020)
Escaping Through A Hole In the Spirit (2021)

Ambient music, droning and somewhat minimal / lo-fi.

See also: Shanahan, Joel, Golden Donna.


Cosmic Testicles (USA)

Science Friction (1997)

A duo of George Martindell (acoustic drums and percussion) and Steve Siers aka Quad (synthesizers and bass) who create 'avant -garde space music.'

See also: Fluorescent Eclipse.


Cosmic Trigger (Sweden / Finland)

Polar Regions (1993)

This is a rare album from Silent label, recorded in Goteborg and Turku. Cosmic Trigger was a duo of Piitu Lintunen and Tor Af Storvatten. The music is of a deep ambient variety, comparable to Biosphere, but with a lighter, almost new age-like edge.


Cosmic Voyager (Australia)

This Western Australia-based artist has been recording Electronic Music since 1981.


Cosmicpocket (France)

Astral Tale (2004)
Froots (2010) (with Jean-Jacques Perrey)

A project of Romain Ricaud that sounds as if Kraftwerk (circa Computerworld or The Mix) suddenly decided to make music exclusively for children or exclusively for cartoons.


Cosmique (France)

La galaxie oubliée (2016)

1960's EM pastiche. Not bad, but I think I'd prefer longer suites instead of lots of short tracks / vignettes.


Cosmo (Italy)

Fermarsi (2021)

Ambient electronics recorded by this electropop artist (real name - Marco Jacopo Bianchi) using a modular synth and a few other toys during the covid pandemic lockdown. Nice stuff.


Cosmo Sheldrake (UK)

Wake Up Calls (2020)
Wild Wet World (2023)

The first album is experimental electronics where all sounds seem to be produced by different birds, with some synth injections apparently. Very unique. The second one focuses on the sounds of marine animals.


Cosmo Vitelli (France)